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You should know that the electrons are negatively ( – ve ) charged particles , They revolve around the nucleus with very high speed , The electron has a negligible mass relative to that of the proton or the neutron , so the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus .
You should know that the number of the negative electrons which revolve around the nucleus is equal to the number of positive protons in the nucleus , so the atom is electrically neutral in its ordinary state . You should know that the atomic number = the number of the protons = the number of the electrons .
It is very important to know that the mass number = the number of the protons ( the atomic number ) + the number of neutrons . You should know that the electrons revolve around the nucleus in a number of orbits called the energy levels , and during their movement , they seem to be as a cloud around the nucleus .
You should know that the energy levels are the imaginary regions around the nucleus in which the electrons move according to their energies .
Everyone must know that the nucleus contains the protons and the neutrons , the first energy level can hold a maximum 2 electrons in one orbital , the second level can hold a maximum of 8 electrons that total distributed over 4 different orbitals , and the third energy level can hold a maximum of 18 electrons distributed over 9 different orbitals . It is very important to know that the maximum number of energy levels is seven levels ( in the heaviest atoms ) which are arranged from the nucleus according to their energies .
You should know that each level has a certain amount of energy increases by the increase of the distance from the nucleus , The first energy level ( K ) has the least energy followed by the second level ( L ) and so on . It is very important to know that the seventh energy level ( Q ) has the highest energy , and the energy of level ( L ) is greater than that of level ( K ) .
You should know that the energy of the electron depends on the energy of the level which it revolves in , where the energy of the electron = the energy of the level . It is very important to know that the electron is not transferred from one level to a higher one unless it gains some energy called the quantum which equals the difference between the energies of two levels and the atom will be excited atom . You should know that if the electrons loses this energy , it returns to its original level and the state of the atom is the ground state . It is very important to know that the excited atom is the atom that gains a quantum of energy , and the quantum is the amount of energy lost or gained by an electron when it transfers from one energy level to another .
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In a diagram they are represented by horizontal lines, with the lowest level (the ground state) at the bottom and the highest level (ionisation) at the top.


The levels are a consequence of the wave nature of electrons, as described by quantum mechanics. The levels are dictated by concentric wave states of an exact number of electron half wavelengths. Remember a 'standing wave' (or stationary wave) is the interference between two waves of the same wavelength and speed, travelling in opposite directions.
Relative to this state, all the bound electron states have negative potential energy and are measured below it(because they have less energy).
An electronvolt(eV) is the kinetic energy acquired by an electron, when accelerated through a p.d of 1 volt. When radiant energy is absorbed by a bound electron it is excited into a higher energy level.
Looking more closely at the spectrum of hydrogen it is found to be composed of distinct spectral groups.
If an electron is excited up from the ground state (n=1) to level 4, there are four possible paths for it to come back down again to the original state.
The minimum amount of energy to release an electron from the ground state is called the first or principal ionisation energy . Excitation potential is defined as the minimum potential required to excite a free neutral atom from its ground state to a higher state. Think of a free electron accelerated through a potential and giving up all its energy to an electron in an atom, taking it to a higher energy state. Excitation energy is the energy required to excite an atom from its ground state to a higher state. Now that we have talked about the orbitals we can start to talk about how they are related to more complex subjects like energy levels. For the energy level diagram, the numbers in front of the different orbital types are the indications of the energy levels. Counting Electrons in Energy Levels Demonstrated Example 1: How many electrons are held in the first, second, and third energy levels total? Around an atom an electron exists as a particular standing wave, with the number of nodes and antinodes dictated by the quantum number 'n' .


So for electrons reaching higher energy levels it will take less energy to remove them as they are closer to the highest level(ionisation). Try this link to a periodic table with the energy levels on it as you go through this problem. For example the second ionisation energy (from level n=2), third ionisation state(from n=3) etc. These principal ionisation energies become smaller and smaller with increasing quantum number, as less energy is required to make up the difference in energy to produce ionisation.
The electron with release the energy in the form of light and the book will release the energy in the form of the loud crashing sound. The energy levels are depicted on the periodic table and relate to the different orbitals discussed above. They ROUGHLY follow the periods of the periodic table but it depends on what type of orbital you are viewing. However, I show it up to the 5th energy level because most students do not need to know beyond that. The best way to understand the energy levels is to compare the energy level diagram with the energy levels on the periodic table.  I demonstrate this in the video below. Also, at the 5th energy level it starts to get into theoretical orbitals like the G orbital that don’t appear on the periodic table. All you have to know about the theoretical orbitals is that they start in the fifth energy level at G and then go in alphabetical order (G, H, I…) as you continue down the energy level diagram. Questions about energy levels often revolve around how many electrons each of them can hold.



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