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A general term for the process by which incident flux is converted to another form of energy, usually and ultimately to heat.
The process by which the all or part of the retina becomes accustomed to more or less light than it was exposed to during an immediately preceding period. It is a relative measure of the light output from a particular lamp?ballast system and is a characteristic of such a system?not just of the ballast alone. Attribute of a visual sensation according to which an area appears to emit more or less light. Correlated color temperature indicates the relative color appearance of a white light source, from yellowish- white or “warm” (2700-3000 K) to bluish-white or “cool” (5000+ K). The ratio of the luminous flux that reaches the ceiling directly to the upward component from the luminaire. The process by which the chromatic properties of the visual system are modified by the observation of stimuli of various chromaticity’s and luminance’s. The ratio of luminous flux (lumens) calculated as received on the work plane to the total luminous flux (lumens) emitted by the lamps alone.
Color appearance is dependent upon the state of chromatic adaptation, the geometric context for the object being viewed, including the background and surrounding surfaces, the absolute luminance levels within the field of view, and other aspects of the optical radiation stimulus and the cognitive attributes of the observer. Measure of the degree of color shift a defined set of objects undergo when comparing their color illuminated by the light source to the color of those same objects when illuminated by a reference source of comparable color temperature.
The absolute temperature of a blackbody radiator having a chromaticity equal to that of the light source. The compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) family compromises a wide variety of multi-tube, single-based lamps.
Codes and related documents might seek to control total installed lighting power density, lighting energy use, lighting system component efficiencies, or some combination of these.
Retinal receptors that dominate the retinal response when the luminance level is high and provide the basis for the perception of color. The absolute temperature of a blackbody radiator whose chromaticity most nearly resembles that of the light source. A law stating that the illuminance on any surface varies as the cosine of the angle of incidence. Daylight harvesting is a broadly used term that describes the application of energy saving daylighting strategies to maintain target interior task level illuminances. Daylighting refers to the art and practice of admitting beam sunlight, diffuse sky light, and reflected light from exterior surfaces into a building to contribute to lighting requirements and energy savings through electric lighting controls. A view of the outdoors is believed to be important for human psychological and physiological reasons.
For a daylighting system to save energy, daylight must replace electric lighting during daylight hours.
Personal control is likely to save energy when the occupant is forced to select an appropriate output setting upon entering a space, rather than have all lights turn on through a single switch. For proper operation, a photosensor control system must be properly designed and calibrated. The commissioning process for a photosensor-based dimming control system typically involves calibrating the control algorithm under a representative daylight condition. The daylight condition should provide a dimmed zone setting slightly above the minimum dimming level.
The introduction of high brightness, low gloss LCD screens that are less susceptible to reflected glare has led to resurgence in the popularity of lensed luminaires. A luminaire with a diffuser spreads the light from its lamps evenly over the diffuser surface. Provided there are enough steps, stepped dimming can approach continuous dimming in final effect. That portion of the light from a luminaire that arrives at the work-plane without being reflected by room surfaces. Is glare resulting from high luminances or insufficiently shielded light sources in the field of view.
The ratio of the luminous flux that reaches the floor of a room cavity directly to the downward component from the luminaire. Is caused by a veiling luminance superimposed on the retinal image within the eye, which reduces visual performance or visibility, and is often accompanied by discomfort. Produces visual discomfort without necessarily interfering with visual performance or visibility.
A numerical assessment of the capacity of a number of sources of luminance, such as luminaires, in a given visual environment for producing discomfort. That portion of the luminous flux from a luminaire that is emitted at angles below the horizontal.
First-level methods (such as simple payback) are attractive due to their simplicity and can be used for quick estimates involving short payback periods.
Induction fluorescent lamps are basically low pressure gas discharge fluorescent lamps that operate without the need of electrodes. Emergency lighting helps ensure the safety of a building’s occupants when the normal lighting system fails.
Common luminaires supplied by the regular utility and by a secondary source that is activated automatically when the primary source fails. Unit equipment supplied by the same regular utility branch circuits that serve other lighting in the spaces being protected. The ratio of radiance in a given direction (for directional emittance) or radiant exitance (for hemispherical emittance) of a sample of a thermal radiator to that of a blackbody radiator at the same temperature. The checklist is designed to be initialed and dated by the designer and client to signify subject review and agreement regarding an energy-conscious lighting program.
The luminance of the reflected image of a bright surface that is superimposed on a test object to measure the veiling effect equivalent to that produced by stray light in the eye from a disability glare source. Exit pathways and exit access doors must be clearly identified with approved exit signs easily visible from any direction of egress travel. Exitance is the luminous flux density leaving a surface at a point, expressed in lumens per unit area (lumens per square foot or meter). While the sun and sky are the primary sources of daylight, externally reflected light from the ground and adjacent structures or objects also contributes luminous flux to daylight apertures.
Light reflected from the ground provides an important daylight contribution, since it is directed through vertical apertures to the ceiling and walls.
Objects such as trees, neighboring buildings, and other portions of the same building can limit the view of the ground or sky seen from a daylight aperture. The process by which all or part of the retina becomes accustomed to more or less light than it was exposed to during an immediately preceding period. The ballast controls the starting of the lamp, the electrical conditions during operation (e.g. High frequency electronic ballasts should be employed for new specifications because they have several important advantages over the magnetic types: improved lamp and system efficacy of approximately 10%, no flicker or stroboscopic effects, integrated starting circuitry, increased lamp life, excellent ability to regulate lamp lumen output, integrated power factor (PF) correction, quiet operation, comparatively light weight, many options for input voltage, and some can be used with direct current (DC). Low power factor ballasts are more common with compact fluorescent systems than for 4-ft and 8-ft fluorescent systems. A small region at the center of the retina, subtending about two degrees which contains cones but no rods, and forms the site of most distinct vision. The sensation produced by luminance within the visual field that is sufficiently greater than that to which the eyes are adapted.
A gas-filled tungsten filament incandescent lamp containing halogens or halogen compounds and utilizing the halogen regenerative cycle to prevent blackening of the lamp envelope during life.
High output fluorescent lamps are a high-current rapid start lamp operating at approximately 800 milli-amperes (mA). A high intensity discharge (HID) lamp in which light is produced by radiation from sodium vapor operating at a partial pressure about 1.33 x 104 Pa (100 Torr). Standardized testing procedures through IES LM-79, LM-80 and TM-21 make product quality more identifiable. A luminaire that is mounted above the ceiling (or behind a wall or other surface) with the opening of the luminaire level with the surface. A lamp in which light is produced by a filament heated to incandescence by an electric current.
That portion of the luminous flux from a luminaire that arrives at the work-plane after being reflected by room surfaces.
The multiple reflection of light by the various room surfaces before it reaches the work-plane or other specified surface of a room.
A law stating that the illuminance E at a point on a surface varies directly with the intensity I of a point source, and inversely as the square of the distance d between the source and the point.
Note: For sources of finite size having uniform luminance this gives results that are accurate within one percent when d is at least five times the maximum dimension of the source as viewed from the point on the surface. LED light engines have a typical rated life of 35,000 to 50,000 hours of operation at which point the light output of the LED will have decreased to 70% of its initial value. A luminaire with a lens may incorporate a series of small prisms that control the photometric distribution of the light to reduce the luminance of the luminaire in the near-horizontal viewing angles between 45° and 90° from vertical.
Note: The light loss factor is used in lighting calculations as an allowance for lamp(s) or luminaire(s) operating at other than rated conditions (initial) and for the depreciation of lamps, light control elements, and room surfaces to values below the initial or design conditions, so that a minimum desired level of illuminance may be maintained in service. In designing an electric lighting system for a daylit space, the designer must consider how to best integrate electric light with daylighting.
Select an electric light distribution that best integrates with the daylight delivery system and the room geometry.
Select a lamp color temperature that integrates well with daylight, while serving the space needs.
A facility operator- or automatic control strategy in which illuminances are lowered based on time of day when demand charges are highest or in response to energy price spikes or utility emergency event.
Some electrical devices are designed to work with voltage lower than that supplied by the electrical system.
Every visual task has some combination of light and dark areas that the human visual system must discern in order to “see” it. It could be a black character printed on a white page, or the shadow line of a nose against a cheek in facial features, or a shadowy area of dirt on a floor.
Lighting systems (lamps and ballasts) and luminaire distributions continue to improve, providing additional strategies for reduced energy consumption. One of the best ways to reduce lighting power is to install lighting only where it is needed. A high intensity discharge (HID) lamp in which the major portion of the light is xiii Obsolete USA term produced by radiation from mercury operating at a partial pressure in excess of 105 Pa (approximately one atmosphere). Vision with fully adapted eyes at luminance conditions between those of photopic and scotopic vision, i.e.
A high intensity discharge lamp (HID) in which the major portion of the light is produced by radiation of metal halides and their products of dissociation – possibly in combination with metallic vapors such as mercury. Multilevel switching is required by some energy codes, and involves switching of different lamps within luminaires or different luminaires within a layout to provide two or more illuminance levels within a space. Electric lighting that remains on in spaces which are unoccupied is usually a waste of energy. Occupancy sensors that automatically turn lights on the half load (requiring manual operation to go to full load) actually saves energy over those that are manual on only.
As of this writing, an emerging lamp technology that is comprised of molecules of carbon and hydrogen, providing a large area source that is thin, driven with low-voltage DC current power supplies. Luminaires shielded with a grid of parabolic louvers having a specular (mirror-like) finish can control luminance precisely. The measurement of quantities associated with light, often used to refer to the intensity (candlepower) distribution curve of a lamp or luminaire. Maintenance is the link between predictive design and actual performance over the long term. In some cases, it may be necessary to educate the owner or facility operator on the importance of good maintenance practices, and the impact these practices have on the installed lighting power and the associated initial and operating costs.
Modern lighting systems may contain small amounts of mercury, lead, cadmium, other heavy metals, PCBs, corrosives, and other toxic substances. The 1992 EPACT still permits the use of antiquated reduced wattage T12 lamps such as the 34-watt, 48 inch lamps, or the so-called energy-saving lamps. A class of luminaires, similar in performance to lensed or diffused luminaires, makes use of light reflecting off the inner surface of a recessed housing from concealed or obscured sources. A general tem for the process by which the incident flux leaves a (stationary) surface or medium from the incident side, without change in frequency.
The process by which the direction of a ray of light changes as it passes obliquely from one medium to another in which its speed is different. Retinal receptors that continue to respond at low levels of luminance, even below the threshold for cones.
The ratio of the flux actually reflected by a sample surface to that which would be reflected into the same reflected-beam geometry by an ideal perfectly diffused, completely reflecting standard surface in exactly the same way as the sample. Control zones (sometimes referred to as control channels) are groups of luminaires that are switched or dimmed together, and should be arranged to provide flexibility, appropriate light distributions for functional and aesthetic effects, and energy savings.
Shadows can interfere with task visibility by placing detail in darkness or they can enhance definition of three-dimensional details.
Shadows cast by the structure of the task may reveal detail, or may mask what needs to be seen.
The presence of shadows may be desirable, and the interplay of highlight and shadow helps to define the form of many visual tasks, as well as the architectural environment. Slimline lamps are similar to the T12 lamps in their energy loading, but they use a single pin base (instead of the double or bi-pin base) and are instant start lamps, not requiring a lamp starter. The subjective attribute of any light sensation giving rise to the perception of luminous magnitude, including the whole scale of qualities of being bright, light, brilliant, dim, or dark. Further developments in lamp technology have resulted in the development of high efficacy T5 straight tube lamps employing tri-phosphor technology. The availability of higher-efficacy phosphors and different gas fill pressures allowed the development of T8 lamps.
A luminaire is a complete lighting system consisting of a lamp(s) and ballast(s) (when applicable) together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps, and to connect the lamps to the power supply.
A general term for the process by which incident flux leaves a surface or medium on a side other than the incident side, without a change in frequency.
Note: Transmission through a medium is often a combination of regular and diffuse transmission. Even if a regular grid pattern of identical luminaires is used, the light distribution of luminaires is such that perfect uniformity across work surfaces can never be produced. That portion of the luminous flux from a luminaire that is emitted at angles above the horizontal. A sensor that requires the occupant to switch lighting on, which has the potential to save additional energy, particularly in daylit spaces.
Regular reflections that are superimposed upon diffuse reflections from an object that partially or totally obscure the details to be seen by reducing the contrast. The 1500 mA fluorescent lamp is also of rapid start design and has the highest current density commonly available. The plane on which a visual task is usually done, and on which the illuminance is specified and measured.
Coefficients used in interior lighting design to determine illuminance and exitance (or luminance) values from room and luminaire parameters.
Petroleum & Other LiquidsCrude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids.
Natural GasExploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales.
ElectricitySales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & EfficiencyEnergy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. CoalReserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports.
Renewable &Alternative FuelsIncludes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Total EnergyComprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources. Analysis & ProjectionsMonthly and yearly energy forecasts, analysis of energy topics, financial analysis, Congressional reports.
Markets & FinanceFinancial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies. InternationalInternational energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. Note: Similar confidence intervals cannot be established around the Brent futures price, as trading volumes on Brent futures contracts are relatively sparse compared to WTI trading volumes. As the price of crude oil changes, prices of wholesale, and ultimately retail, gasoline adjust to reflect crude oil costs.


However, ongoing refinery outages in California and strong gasoline demand in the United States and abroad have kept gasoline prices elevated the past two months despite falling crude oil prices.
The CW240 power meter is a complete tool for enhancing energy efficiency, finding areas for improvement and assessing equipment lifecycles. By using the supplied clamp-on components and probes, users can better determine maintenance, repair and replacement schedules for equipment such as transformers and motors. The CW240 offers many unique features to improve energy efficiency through highly detailed data collection and easy-to-understand displays. Demand Management: Enables users to set the desired demand limit in preferred time units in order to determine the maximum power demand.
Harmonics Measurement: Reveals distortions in voltages and currents that can cause malfunctions and power loss. Voltage Fluctuation Measurement: Detects time and date of each fluctuation occurrence, the fluctuation type, the rms values, and the start and end period.
Better determine the maintenance, repair and replacement schedules for each piece of electrical equipment, such as transformers and motors, by analyzing detailed information with respect to load and demand factors. Improve power measurment and data collection for compliance with ISO14001 and other standards by showing exactly how and when power is being used. The CW240 also provides real-time and data log capabilities that are seamlessly downloadable into an available software package that can display graphs, trends and reports. Investigate electric power consumption rate for an item of equipment, an area of a plant or a complete facility. The CW240 also provides a demand feature that can be used to measure peak power usage over a specified time period. Obtain detailed date to ensure a smooth power supply for operations, and prolong the life of equipment by reducing the effects of harmonics. Inverter power supplies can cause distortions in voltages and currents, resulting in malfunctions, equipment damage and power loss. Waveform measurement provides multiple ways to measure and analyze waveforms to see large waveform distortions that can indicate a potential problem in the system.
Protect equipment from harmful power fluctuations by understanding exactly when and where these flucutuations occur. Measure Loads in Four Systems Simultaneously: The CW240 enables measurement in four systems at the same time in a single-phase 2-wire system.
Reduce Set-up Time and Errors: Its wiring check function prevents wiring errors and provides an easy to understand diagram for matching wiring.
Save Large Amounts of Data: Using an external memory card (compact flash) enables large amounts of data to be saved. Power Supply Backup: In addition to the AC adaptor, NiMH battery pack (94004) or alkaline batteries (6 AA batteries) can be used to ensure continuous operation in the event of a power interruption.
Multi Language Support: English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Korean and Chinese screen displays. Zoom Function: Zoom features for measured data of 5 items selected from instantaneous value and measured power quantity data. Wiring Check FunctionPrior to start of measurement, the CW240 checks whether wiring is correct. Yokogawa's proprietary technology has achieved a magnetic field impact amount of 30 ppm even in adjacent power lines (at 100A). Use of an external memory card (computer flash) makes it possible to save a large amount of data. Analog data, such as temperature and illuminance data, can be saved simultaneously with power can send data by using the analog input function (2 channels).
EasyChart can easily plot Charts and Lists from data files recorded on CW SeriesElectric Energy Measure mode using the functions of Microsoft Excel.
This software allows you to set CW240 Series measurement conditions through a PC and save measurement data on a PC when the unit is connected to the PC through RS-232 or RS-485 port.
The move has amplified political debate about the issue of energy bills.Labour leader Ed Miliband, who pledged a price freeze for 20 months if his party wins the next election, described SSE's price rise as a "scandal". Energy prices are centre stage in the push to deal with what Labour leader Ed Miliband calls the "cost of living crisis".
It's only a small percentage of what you pay but the government, or at least the Tory side of it, is looking at exempting some smaller firms to encourage them to compete. While the parties disagree on how to tackle rising bills, the decision by SSE to put their prices up by 8% means the political stakes have just been raised. The BBC understands that the government is prepared to look at easing green taxes on smaller energy companies.
More than 100 leading scientists say the Rio Olympics should be moved or postponed due to the Zika outbreak, in a letter to the World Health Organization. Accommodation is always a response to an image of the target located on or near the fovea rather than in the periphery. In general, BEF values are not particularly useful to the specifier even though some ballast manufacturers provide BEF data in their catalogs.
Ballasts that can operate more than one type of lamp will generally have a different ballast factor for each combination. Initially designed to physically replace conventional 25 to 100-watt standard incandescent lamps, CFLs conserve up to 75% energy, provide 8-12 times longer lamp life, and approach the color of standard incandescent lamps. Some documents might also mandate certain control types for certain space types, such as occupancy sensors, multilevel switching, or daylight harvesting. The angle of incidence is the angle between the normal to the surface and the direction of the incident light.
While daylight can be used to help light a space, extra care should be taken in industrial environments to control the quantity and distribution of the light and its associated heat gain.
The sun’s continuous apparent movement, coupled with changes in atmospheric conditions, causes the solar beam and sky dome luminance distribution to vary in intensity and spectral content. Interior illuminance levels are typically only a few to several percent of outdoor illuminance levels in daytime.
An automatic lighting control system guarantees that lighting energy savings will occur when daylight is present.
This includes establishing a controlled lighting zone that correlates with the daylit area, then selecting, locating, and calibrating the photosensor to accurately sense daylight levels and dim or switch the electric lighting system accordingly. It may be necessary to adjust blinds or shades on the windows to achieve an appropriate daylight level. If horizontal blinds are applied, they should be angled to provide a high photosensor signal (which may be based on the ceiling illuminance at the photosensor) in relation to the critical point illuminances.
Their higher efficiencies and higher angle distributions can produce brighter, more open visual impressions.
Since the diffuser area is much larger than the area of the lamps, the average luminance (compared to using bare lamps) is reduced. Most commercially available dimming ballasts are electronic, though magnetic dimming ballasts may still be encountered in existing construction.
It usually is associated with bright areas, such as luminaires, ceilings, and windows that are outside the visual task or region being viewed.
It occurs when luminous objects (or reflections of luminous objects) have significantly higher luminance than the balance of the person’s field of view.
It is the net effect of the individual values of index of sensation M, for all luminous areas in the field of view. There are direct costs related to the actual cost of the installation and operation of the lighting system which must be carefully weighed and balanced against factors related to quality of the lighting for a given application. Second-level analysis allows the comparison of all economic events in the life of a lighting system (including initial cost, maintenance, energy cost, and salvage value). Because there are no electrodes to fail, the lamps have lifetimes of up to 100,000 hours but this depends on thermal management and removal of heat from the generator or driver. The emergency lighting system should permit orderly, accident free building egress during an emergency situation.
This system provides backup power to the normal lighting system and may provide the necessary illumination if the normal lighting fails. The secondary source may be centrally located batteries or inverter equipment that are automatically recharged after use, or it may be an on-premises auxiliary generator that provides the necessary power within ten seconds after the primary source fails. Each unit is activated automatically and independently when the utility or building electrical systems fails because each has its own battery. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) develops model codes that jurisdictions typically adopt, with or without amendments.
Light sources may be inside or outside of signs, but they must operate for no less than 90 minutes during power interruptions. For a vertical window on a flat site, the ground encompasses the lower half of the field of view.
The fraction of the total incident daylight on a vertical facade that arrives from the ground can range from below 10% to as high as 70-80% at a ground reflectance of 20%.
Light-colored ground surfaces such as sand and snow will result in higher ground contributions. In these situations, daylight from portions of the sky or ground is replaced by light reflected from the obstructing object, which may either increase or decrease the daylight delivered to a building interior. Some utilities require high power factor equipment or have established penalty clauses in their rate schedule for installations with low power factor. This family of lamps is commonly applied where the standard lamp does not provide sufficient light output per lamp length. The HID family includes high-pressure sodium, mercury, metal halide, and ceramic metal halide lamps. Additionally, as with HPT8, voluntary testing and standards programs such as CALiPER, ENERGY STAR and DesignLights™ Consortium and the Municipal Solid State Lighting Consortium offer designers and consumers clearing houses for finding good quality products on everything from holiday light strings to downlights to pole mounted area lighting. For non-self-luminous surfaces it is the reflected luminous exitance of the flux received directly from sources within the enclosure or from daylight. Even though practical interior luminaires do not have uniform luminance, this distance d is frequently used as the minimum for photometry of such luminaires, when the magnitude of the measurement error is not critical. By extension, the term is also used to denote sources that radiate in regions of the spectrum adjacent to the visible. In recent years, the architectural lighting applications for these devices have seen rapid growth as improvements in luminous efficacy and chromaticity have made them into viable alternatives for some applications.
At the end of rated life, the LEDs will likely continue to operate for an extended period time with a continuing decline in light output.
The design layout must over light the space based on the expected lumen depreciation or the luminaires must either be dimmed or maintain a constant light output with increasing power consumption over the life of the system. Depending on the exact characteristics of a specific lens, glare from the luminaire may be reduced in large open spaces. Light loss factors address losses that result in direct changes to lamp lumens, emitted luminaire lumens, or the interreflected light delivered to the space.
Integration includes selection and layout of a complete system, including lamps, ballasts, luminaires and controls. In an office environment, an indirect system will be less noticeable when dimmed, and helps brighten room surfaces within the non-daylit zone. In large daylit spaces, lighting the interior wall that faces a window helps to balance room surface brightness.
Such devices use a transformer or power supply to convert 120v AC power to the voltage and current needed by the device. The transformers can use either magnetic coils or solid state electronics to adjust the voltage.
Some objects are self-luminous, that is, they generate light; lamps and computer screens, for example. The predominance of illuminance in recommendations is partly due to the fact that illuminance is easier to measure and calculate.
Standard T8 lamps with commonly used “standard” electronic ballasts are being replaced by third generation “high performance” T8 systems (Consortium for Energy Efficiency specifications) and highly efficient T5 systems, providing system efficacies above 90 lumens per watt. Ceramic metal halide sources can last over twice as long and produce twice the center beam candle power while using half the power of incandescent accent lighting. There are many aspects to quality lighting, but the designer should always be aware that lighting systems do not necessarily need to rely on permanently installed ceiling systems to generate all lighting. In day lit spaces, this provides energy savings when a user determines that full light output is not necessary and activates only a portion of the available hardware. Occupancy sensors incorporate motion sensors that detect occupancy and can switch lighting on when someone enters a space and off when the space is vacated.
Switching is generally used in spaces where lighting system operation is intended to be either on or off, or where switching individual groups of lights can provide sufficient adjustment of work plane illuminance and general or localized luminance distributions.
The grid comprises an array of cells, each with their walls in the form of parabolic reflectors. In the design of new systems, the owner’s maintenance practices, which include relamping and luminaire cleaning, determine the light loss factors that are applied in lighting system design calculations. These substances may be damaging to human health and the environment if they are released from the products in which they are contained. These lamps save up to 15 percent energy on (older) existing 40-watt electromagnetic T12 ballasts, at the expense of a corresponding reduction in lumen output. Typically, these luminaires exhibit perforated metal baskets backed with diffuse acrylic to hide the lamps from direct view and direct light onto the upper reflector surface.
High reflectance surroundings help fill in and modify shadows, as do luminaires with 10 percent or more up light when the ceiling cavity reflectance is over 50 percent. Lighting vertical surfaces to at least half the horizontal illuminance level often brings the ratio of highlight to shadow into a tolerable range for three-dimensional tasks. These lamps are available in several lengths up to 2440 mm (96 in.) in T6, T8, and T12 diameters, the latter of which is by far the most prevalent. While the context usually makes it clear as to which meaning is intended, the preferable term for the photometric quantity is luminance, thus reserving brightness for the subjective sensation. Although they identically resemble T5 lamps in appearance and dimension, they are not electrically interchangeable with T5 lamps.
They have become the preferred choice in the specification of new installations of linear fluorescent lamps and offer over 20 percent increase in efficacy over 40-watt T12 lamps.
If the building is in cooling mode, air conditioning energy (usually provided by electricity) will be required to remove this heat. It should be noted that transmittance refers to the ratio of flux emerging to flux incident; therefore, reflections at the surface as well as absorption within the material operate to reduce the transmittance. The sensors are configured to only turn lighting off when a sensor detects no activity within a space. It is this ceiling effect produced by bright sources or areas in the visual field that results in decreased visual performance and visibility. It is physically, but not electrically interchangeable with the 800 mA lamp and is used when a lower current lamp will not meet light output requirements.
Unless otherwise indicated, this is assumed to be a horizontal plane 0.76 meter (30 inches) above the floor.
Concerns over the pace of economic growth in emerging markets, continuing (albeit slowing) supply growth, increases in global liquids inventories, and the possibility of increasing volumes of Iranian crude oil entering the market contributed to the changed forecast. As detailed in the August Market Prices and Uncertainty Report, current values of futures and options contracts continue to suggest high uncertainty in the crude oil price outlook. The meter provides in-depth information on how an item of equipment, an area of a plant or a complete facility is operating that goes beyond simply measuring power usage.
Power measurement is broken down into individual phases to provide a more comprehensive view of overall power usage. Get data beyond the 30-minute demand time frame that most utilities use to obtain average power usage by setting the demand time to units of seconds or minutes. If the power factor is not taken into account, an energy efficiency program could accidentally implement steps that increase the utility bill instead of lowering it. This data can be used to minimize peak power usage, or to shift peak usage to a more favorable time in accordance with electric utility time-of-day pricing.
Therefore, it is critical to understand and monitor harmonics to ensure a reliable power supply. In the case of a single three-phase 3-wire system, it can measure two systems simultaneously. The setting check function prevents data acquisiting errors from mistakes in voltage range settings, current clamp selection or data save item. Wiring errors, reversal of current clamps and phases to checked can displayed in a vector diagram to show errors and facilitate correct wiring.
This prevents data acquisition errors that may occur due to mistakes in voltage range setting, current clamp selection or data save item selection. In addition, the analog output function (4 channels) can send data to an external recorder, allowing data duplexing . He's blamed the big six energy firms for failing to pass on any fall in the wholesale price of gas.
He thinks the best way to help prevent more price rises is to increase competition, by encouraging people to switch supplier more.


David Cameron wants to shift the focus of restricting price rises on to green taxes, which make up part of your bill. Adding to an already sky-high energy bill will leave consumers buckling under the pressure. These costs include paying for measures to save energy, reduce emissions and tackle climate change, and also include the cost of social programmes to help vulnerable customers.At present, companies with 250,000 customers are liable to pay the green levy.
It is used to bring a defocused image into focus or to change focus from one target to another at a different distance. Ballast factor is the ratio of a lamp’s light output on a given commercial ballast, compared to the lamp’s rated light output as measured on a reference ballast under ANSI test conditions. Radiant power from a practical source, particularly from an incandescent lamp, is often described by comparison with that from a blackbody radiator.
Today’s CFL designs include wattages and colors which can replace conventional fluorescent lamps in size-reduced luminaires. It should be noted that more illuminance is sometimes needed on interior surfaces near windows to reduce the contrasts between those surfaces and the windows. Successful daylighting requires balancing the daylight distribution in the space throughout the entire year, providing sufficient, but not excessive, daylight illumination levels for space activities, while minimizing glare. The much higher intensities of direct sunlight, when introduced into interior spaces, can produce painful glare and other unwanted effects. Occupant control can provide some savings when flexible personal control is provided through multi-level switching, zoned switching or dimming; however occupants are not focused on minimizing electric lighting energy as daylight conditions change. A photosensor signal can be used to adjust the electric lighting by monitoring either exterior daylight levels, the amount of daylight passing through an aperture, or the combined daylight and electric light within a space. The daylit zone should receive levels of daylight that generate significant savings in electric lighting energy.
For dimming control, daytime calibration involves placing an illuminance meter at the critical task location, and then the dimmed zone output is adjusted to produce the desired illuminance at this point. However, when diffusers are used, the luminance at all viewing angles near horizontal may be as high as looking straight up at the luminaire. The dimming ballast must be able to communicate with the connected control devices, which forms the basis for a controls protocol.
While many federal regulations pre-empt state laws, in the case of the Universal Waste Rule, the federal guidelines are a baseline for states to adopt or exceed.
Economic analysis gives insight into the question of when a lighting system under consideration will “pay off.” It can help the lighting designer make decisions regarding energy conservation. These factors are converted into their value today, or present value using the principle of time equivalence.
For those people remaining inside, the emergency lighting should provide a feeling of safety and comfort until the general lighting is restored. NFPA 70, the National Electrical Code (NEC), establishes minimum standards for the installation of lighting-related equipment and electrical safety as well as power for emergency egress lighting. Even at locations where the exit is not clearly visible, the route to the exit must be identified in the same manner as the exit itself. Like skylight, ground light is usually diffuse, with its luminance a function of the ground reflectance, the sky conditions, and shadowing and reflections provided by surrounding objects. The lowest fractions occur when direct sunlight strikes the facade, while the highest occur on a facade facing away from the sun on a clear day, when the sky is deep blue and the ground is sunlit. T12 (and newer T8) lamps are available in up to 2440 mm (96 in.) lengths and are also particularly suitable for outdoor applications. In lighting calculations it is the total exitance at time zero before depreciation (light loss) occurs. Limitations in color rendering and light color appearance for “white” LEDs still restrict their full acceptance into point source applications where incandescent or low-voltage incandescent have previously been used. The rated life of LEDs can be affected by the quality of the electric power and the ambient temperature of their environment. Successful dimming of LEDs requires careful coordination between the LED vendors and the controls vendors to match up the required operational conditions. However, with most lenses, the reduction is not sufficient to prevent luminaire reflections in specular VDT screens or to provide an acceptable VCP. In cases where a task-ambient approach is selected, daylight may supply the room ambient lighting.
A downlight system provides more localized lighting that may better differentiate lighting control zones, but will result in a much darker ceiling outside the daylight zone.
A row of luminaires along the windows can be manually switched off during daylight hours when provided with separate zone control.
5000 K lamps, however, may be unacceptably cool for non-daylight hours in a building interior. Depending on the application, the style of luminaire and the type of transformer used, transformers are sized for either a single lamp or for a group of multiple lamps. Photometrically, it is the luminous flux emitted within a unit solid angle (one steradian) by a point source having a uniform luminous intensity of one candela. The “NEMA Premium” program tests ballasts for meeting the same qualifying specifications CEE HPT8 and allows such products that pass to be labeled “NEMA Premium”.
Compact fluorescent lamps have all but replaced incandescent lighting for general down lighting solutions. In the past, ballasts containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lamps containing mercury were disposed of in the normal building solid waste stream.
The upper reflector is commonly a smooth surface with a matte, high-reflectance finish, however, textured aluminum reflector variations are also available.
If the building is in heating mode, the heat from lighting offsets the heating provided by the building’s main heating system (usually not electric). Illuminance variations across an entire space may be larger, and should produce luminances that respect the luminance ratio limits. For example, replacing 100-watt incandescent bulbs with low-watt fluorescent bulbs saves energy but can worsen the power factor, possibly resulting in low power factor fines from the electric utility. The CW240 provides displays of harmonics from the 1st to 50th for analysis to prevent problems.
It's the final nail in the coffin for affordable energy."Of course the danger now is that the other big six suppliers will follow suit.
This threshold could be changed in order to encourage smaller energy companies to enter the market and challenge the big six.
Any condition, either physical or physiological, that handicaps the fovea, such as a low light level, will adversely affect accommodative ability.
Ballasts are available with either normal (conforming to ANSI specifications), low or high ballast factors. Examples include the 32-watt and 42-watt triple-tube lamps, which are available in correlated color temperatures ranging from 2700 K to 6500 K. It also optimizes the building envelope for the geographic location and climate to maximize energy savings from both lighting and HVAC systems. Under clear skies, direct sunlight requires very careful management, usually being blocked, diffused, or very carefully transmitted into interior spaces through thoughtful architectural designs.
Higher daylight levels are required with photosensor-based switching as compared to dimming. Other task locations should then be checked to determine if they require a higher setting from the controlled lighting zone. In a large office, this will result in low Visual Comfort Probability (VCP) as well as possible reflections in specular VDT screens, reducing visibility. Some states have enacted standards that are more stringent than these federal rules and regulations.
Most importantly, it provides methods for gauging the profitability of a capital investment in a lighting system. The benefits and savings are totaled and compared with the sum of the costs and disadvantages. NFPA 101, the Life Safety Code, defines allowable paths of egress and minimum lighting during egress conditions. They are characterized by compact size, long life, and full temperature range starting and operation.
The increased power consumption of constant output LEDs can be significantly higher than the initial power consumption and significantly impact the lighting power density of the project. The secondary voltage provided by the transformer must be verified for proper operation, some transformers are intentionally designed to provide more or less than the expected design voltage to account for line voltage variations or voltage drop through long lengths of wiring. In the latter case, the surface luminance is a function of the surface illuminance and the reflective properties of the surface. It is generally accepted that room surfaces using light finishes can also produce more pleasant environments. These toxic substances were buried in landfills – free to react with many substances – or incinerated to create energy. This optical system results in photometric distributions generally similar to those of perfectly diffuse emitters.
Since each visual task has an optimum range of modeling, a careful evaluation of critical visual tasks should be made to determine the effects of various ratios of horizontal vs. T5 lamp design has promoted development of luminaires that are more efficient than those using T8 and T12 lamps. T8 lamps are available in lengths similar to T12 with compatible bases and sockets, but require a different, unique ballast. Most office buildings in North America experience both heating and cooling regimes over the course of a year, so the overall effect of lighting on thermal loads is building and climate dependent. A reflected image of a bright element or surface may be seen superimposed on what is viewed through the glass plate. Customers in the North of England and central Scotland would see the smallest increase, of 7%, in their dual fuel price.
This far outweighs the proportion of a bill that goes to help vulnerable households with their bills and to cut energy waste."ProfitsSSE's announcement comes about a year after the last set of gas and electricity price rises. Department of Energy (DOE) issued a final rule amending the existing test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts and establishing a new test procedure.
Some CFLs are manufactured with the lamp and ballast as an integral unit with a (medium) screw base.
Sunlight generates very high exterior illuminance levels, ranging by solar incident angle from 20,000 lux (about 2,000 fc) for high incident angles, to 100,000 lux (about 10,000 fc) at normal incident. Occupant overrides are important for achieving user satisfaction, with some advanced systems having the capability of adjusting control based on users’ preferences.
In small offices, diffusers may be appropriate if high luminance areas are outside a worker’s peripheral vision, their broad distribution does not create excessive wall luminance, and the partitions are full height and opaque. And for some products, many states have passed their own laws that are broad enough to encompass future technologies like LED.
Many metrics and techniques for answering these questions have been proposed over the years.
Exit sign placement shall be such that no point in the egress pathway is more than 100 feet from the nearest visible exit sign. HID sources are normally designed with inner arc tubes, hard glass outer bulbs, and single ended screw bases or bi-pin bases with the more compact versions. High ambient temperatures can make it difficult for the LEDs to shed heat to maintain appropriate operating criteria.
3000 K will be noticeably warmer than daylight, but may be selected when a warm color temperature is desired at night.
Power consumption of the transformer is also something to be noted and accounted for both with the lights operating and with the lamps off but with primary magnetizing current still flowing to the transformer. For example, a dark gray and a light gray surface can be lit with the same illuminance yet will have very different luminances. Carefully integrating daylight into the space not only improves indoor environmental quality, but may provide the opportunity to eliminate permanently installed lighting or at least reduce the amount of permanently installed lighting or the amount of time electric lighting is needed by the use of automatic controls.
A lighting system that is regularly cleaned will result in less luminaire dirt depreciation and require fewer luminaires, which reduces the system’s initial cost, installed lighting power, and lighting energy consumption.
They could leach slowly into the groundwater or be emitted into the air through the landfill’s ventilation system, or be released directly into the atmosphere with a combustion facility’s emissions.
Other variations manipulate the lamp shields with louvers or lenses for higher luminaire efficiency, but with more glare potential. Reduced wattage versions of the standard 54W lamp have recently been developed which do not require a ballast change. T5 lamps, whether linear or twin tube, require properly designed fixtures to minimize source glare and visual discomfort. Implied volatility now averages 37%, more than double the implied volatility average this time last year (16%).
It turns out I can switch and save an estimated ?174 per year (based on pre-increase cost), plus I'll get ?100 cash back after three months for switching, and I've been paying too much on direct debit so they owe me ?490.
Although a lower ballast factor reduces lamp lumen output, the lamp may also consume proportionally less input power.
Others are manufactured without a ballast and are available in 2-pin or 4-pin configurations. These methods can be classified into two categories: first-level analysis methods, and second-level analysis methods. The inner arc tube contains an arc discharge operating at a significantly higher pressure than fluorescent lamps. Daylight at the beginning and end of the day is somewhat warm and many believe that the interior should respond in a similar manner. This also exemplifies why room surface finishes should also be considered as an integral part of the lighting design. The smaller cell types are usually injection-molded plastic vacuum-metallized with aluminum. Several wattages of 4-ft bi-pin T8 lamps are available including the North American standard 32-watts. The new test procedure changes the efficiency metric to ballast luminous efficiency (BLE), which is measured directly using electrical measurements instead of the photometric measurements employed in the previous test procedure. As such, the careful selection of a lamp?ballast system with 705 a specific ballast factor allows designers to better minimize energy use by “tuning” the lighting levels in the space. There are also reduced wattage 4-ft T8 lamps available in 30, 28, 25 and 23 watts, which in many cases can directly replace the 32-watt T8 with no ballast change required.
I have been a very happy SSE customer for more than 10 years and will always remember it was SSE that made it possible to get cheap electricity for a while. The calculation of BLE includes a correction factor to account for the reduced lighting efficacy of low frequency lamp operation.
Ballast factor should not be confused with a similar?sounding metric called the ballast efficacy factor (BEF).
A specular finish permits cells to control luminaire light output precisely so that almost no light is emitted above the cutoff angle. In addition, gasoline prices in Chicago and elsewhere in the Midwest have risen following an unplanned outage at BP's refinery in Whiting, Indiana. The test procedure specifies use of a fluorescent lamp load during testing, allowing ballasts to operate closer to their optimal design points and providing a better descriptor of real ballast performance compared to resistor loads. The BEF, defined as the relative light output of a particular lamp?ballast combination under ANSI test conditions (this site is the ballast factor times 100 percent) divided by the measured input power in watts, serves as a relative measure of system efficacy and is used to compliance with federal regulations. Gas and electricity should be run by a very light touch government for the benefit of all users and investors. Both CFL types plug into appropriate lamp holders that are used in luminaires, and can also be inserted into adapter ballasts, which generally come with a medium screw base for insertion into a standard incandescent socket.
A semi–specular or mostly diffuse louver finish may be used to brighten the appearance of the luminaire. Many integrally ballasted and amalgam type plug-in CFLs require a warm-up time when initially energized. However, the higher luminance of more diffuse finishes may show up as reflections in VDT screens. Our income is falling year on year, yet they raise prices approximately three times the rate of inflation.
Energy is a national interest at every level and should not have been put into the hands of people whose motivation is profit.
Chris Jenkins from Wallasey, Merseyside: Part of my job is to help people with utilities issues in commercial and residential premises and I can tell you from first hand experience that utilities companies act disgracefully.



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