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GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 3DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR BASICS 3-1(a) "GREEN" PLUGSDON'T use them on refrigerators. GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 4COMPRESSOR IS RUNNINGBUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDCOMPRESSOR IS RUNNING BUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDBefore you perform any of the other tests in this chapter, make sure that the compressor is running. If it is not running, see Chapter 5.Some refrigerators are very quiet and smooth when they operate.
You can find them in the Yellow Pages under the following headings: APPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, MAJORAPPLIANCES, PARTS AND SUPPLIESREFRIGERATORS, DOMESTICAPPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, REPAIR AND SERVICECall a few of them and ask if they are a repair service, or if they sell parts, or both. If you are still unsure and you own an ammeter, test the current draw of the compressor at the compressor leads. They'll tell you it's too complicated, then in the same breath, "guide" you to their service department. If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself and you find that you can't fix the problem, they may be a really good place to look for service. Think about it if they sold you this book, then they're genuinely interested in helping do-it-yourselfers!When you go into the store, have ready your make, model and serial number from the nameplate of the fridge (not from some sticker inside the fridge). If the knob has an "off" setting which stops the compressor from running, it is thecold control.In the absence of an "off" setting, the easiest way to tell them apart is to pull the plastic knob off the control.
This will be an incomplete model number, but it is better than nothing and it should be good enough to get most parts with. If all else fails, check the original papers that came with your fridge when it was new.
They should contain the model number SOMEWHERE. If you have absolutely NO information about the fridge anywhere, make sure you bring your old part to the parts store with you.
The idea is to keep the compartment at a different temperature from the rest of the food compartment; a more optimum temperature for the particular food that you're keeping in these compartments.
This is known as "sweating." So-called "Energy Saver" switches control small, low-wattage "mullion" heaters in the side and door panels that prevent the outside of the refrigerator from getting cool enough for sweating to occur. Air flows over it by convection; the warm air rises and is replaced by cooler air from below. It is a long, stiff-bristled brush especially made for knocking out massive wads of dust from your condenser grille. I have seen jury-rigged bottle brushes and vacuums used, neither of which clean sufficiently. Feel for a steady flow of warm air from the drain pan side; it should be obvious (see Figure 11). It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked. It has the veryimportantjob of directing airflow beneath the fridge, assuring that the condenser fan is drawing air over the condenser and not just sucking air in through the back of the fridge. Remember the rule in section 3-4 (1); while you are working on a circuit, energize the circuit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then take the power back off it to perform the repair. They are sealed units and cannot be rebuilt.Replacing the condenser fan motor can be dirty and difficult.
You will only need to be able to set the VOM onto the right scale, touch the test leads to the right place and read the meter. In using the VOM (Volt-Ohm Meter) for our purposes, the two test leads are always plugged into the "+" and "-" holes on the VOM. When installing a new motor with bracket mounts, it may be easier to install the brackets loosely on the motor until you can locate the mounting screws in their holes. For example, if there's a 50 setting and a 250 setting on the VAC dial, use the 250 scale, because 250 is the lowest setting over 120 volts. Touch the two test leads to the two metal contacts of a live power source, like a wall outlet or the terminals of the motor that you're testing for voltage.
Thus, when trouble-shooting the evaporator fan, you must depress the door switch(es).Open your freezer door, depress all door switches and listen for the evaporator fan. It's derived from the word "continuous." In an electrical circuit, electricity has to flow from a power source back to that power source.
Look first for a separate access panel or a tower within the freezer that houses the fan (Figure 14).
Check for anything that may be blocking the fan, including ice from a backed-up defrost drain or a frost problem.
If nothing is blocking the fan and it still does not run, check for voltage across the fan motor leads (with the door switch depressed, of course.)If you have voltage across the fan motor leads, the fan motor is bad.
It should peg the meter all the way on the right side of the scale, towards "0" on the meter's "resistance" scale.
If the meter does not read zero resistance, adjust the thumbwheel on the front of the VOM until it does read zero.
If the heater's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something. If there is still live power on the item you're testing for continuity, you will burn out your VOM in microseconds and possibly shock yourself. Touch the two test leads to the two bare wire ends or terminals of the heater. You can touch the ends of the wires and test leads with your hands if necessary to get better contact.
If there is GOOD continuity, the meter will move toward the right side of the scaleand steady on a reading. Itcancause ice to build up in the internal ductwork.If you hear a "whistling" or "warbling" noise emanating from the fan motor itself or from the inside of the food or freezer compartment, it is probably coming from the evaporator fan motor.
If the meter moves only very little and stays towards the left side of the scale, that's BAD continuity; the heater is no good.
In a glass-tube or bare-element heater, you may be able to see the physical break in the heater element, just like you can in some light bulbs. If you are testing a switch or a thermostat, you will show little or no resistance (good continuity) when the switch or thermostat is closed, and NO continuity when the switch is open. If you do not, the switch is bad.3-3(c) AMMETERSAmmeters are a little bit more complex to explain without going into a lot of electrical theory. If you own an ammeter, you probably already know how to use it. If you don't, don't get one. They don't cost much.REPLACING THE EVAPORATOR FAN MOTORIn replacing the fan motor, you must make sure that the rotation of the new fan motor is the same as the old one.
The easiest way to do this is to look for the shading poles on the old fan motor (Figure 16).If they are on opposite corners from the ones on the new fan motor core, it is a simple enough task to reverse the new rotor in its core. Do not remove the icemaker (if installed.)Look at and feel the panel covering the bottom or back of the freezer compartment. The greater the current that's flowing through a wire, the greater the magnetic field it produces around the wire.
The ammeter simply measures this magnetic field, and thus the amount of current, flowing through the wire. You will see a removable panel covering the entire back or bottom of your freezer compartment. To determine continuity, for our purposes, we can simply isolate the component that we're testing (so we do not accidentally measure the current going through any other components) and see if there's any current flow. To use your ammeter, first make sure that it's on an appropriate scale (0 to 10 or 20 amps will do).
Make sure the power is off the refrigerator before disassembling any lighting circuit.On some bottom-evap models, you may have to remove some of the plastic moulding around the door frame to access some of the evaporator panel screws. Turn the "energy saver" switch to the "economy" position to shut off the anti-sweat mullion heaters (See section 4-1.) Close the refrigerator door to make sure the lights are off. This can usually be accomplished by placing a pan of very hot water in various places on the panel, or by blowing warm air on it with a blow-dryer. There may still be a tiny mullion heater energized in the butter conditioner or on the defrost drain pan, but the current that these heaters draw is negligible for our purposes (less than an amp). If you don't, the defrost heater or terminating thermostat is probably defective.3-4 BASIC REPAIR AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS1) Always de-energize (pull the plug or trip the breaker on) any refrigerator that you're disassembling. If you need to re-energize the refrigerator to perform a test, make sure any bare wires or terminals are taped or insulated. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 2) NEVER EVER chip or dig out ice from around the evaporator with a sharp instrument or knife. You WILL PROBABLY puncture the evaporator and you WILL PROBABLY end up buying a new refrigerator.


Therefore, when you are diagnosing a defrost problem, it's a good idea to try to avoid melting the ice encasing the terminating thermostat until you've made your diagnosis. If the thermostat opens before you've had a chance to see if the heater works, you'll have to by-pass it. If you use a blow dryer, take care not to get water in it and shock yourself.Better yet, if you have the time and patience, leave the fridge open for a few hours and let the ice melt naturally. You can remove large, loose chunks of ice in the evaporator compartment by hand, but make sure there aren't any electrical wires frozen into the chunks of ice before you start pulling them. 3) Always re-install any removed duck seal, heat shields, styrofoam insulation, or panels that you remove to access anything.
They're there for a reason. 4) You may need to empty your fridge or freezer for an operation. If you do not have another fridge (or a friend with one) to keep your food in, you can generally get by with an ice chest or a cardboard box insulated with towels for a short time. Never re-freeze meats; if they've already thawed, cook them and use them later. 5) If this manual advocates replacing a part, REPLACE IT!!
There are many styles, but most are variations of the three types pictured in Figure 20.Aback-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted vertically against theinside back wallof the freezer compartment. These may be bottom freezer models, side-by-sides (Figure 17) or top freezer models (Figure 18.)Abottom-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted horizontally (flat) beneath a panel on thebottomof the freezer compartment (Figure 19). There is a reason that it stopped you can bet on it and if you get it going and re-install it, you are running a very high risk that it will stop again. Does it have a fluffy (snowy) white consistency, or is it solid and clear-ish or slightly milky white-ish?Check the frostpattern. Or is it not frosted at all?On back-evap models, examine the drain pan directly beneath the evaporator.
Replace the part. 6) Refrigerator defrost problems may take a week or more to reappear if you don't fix the problem the first time.
Is it clear, or is it filled with solid ice?Each of these symptoms indicates a different problem.
That's how long it will take the evaporator to build up enough frost to block the airflow again.
After fixing a defrost problem, keep an eye out for signs of a recurrence for at least a week.
The sooner you catch it, the less ice you'll have to melt. 7) You may stop the compressor from running using the defrost timer or cold control, by cutting off the power to the fridge, or simply by pulling the plug out of the wall. However, if you try to restart it within a few minutes, it may not start; you may hear buzzing and clicking noises. If you have lots of white, snowy ice, keep reading.4-5 DEFROST SYSTEMIf the frost is snowy and white in appearance, you have a defrost problem.
The three main components of the defrost system are the defrost timer, the defrost heater and the terminating thermostat.4-5(a) DEFROST TIMERS AND ADAPTIVE DEFROST CONTROLIn most older refrigerators and some newer ones, a motor-driven timer (Figure 21) is used to stop the compressor and initiate a defrost cycle. If the system has not had enough time for the pressure within to equalize, there will be too much back pressure in the system for the compressor motor to overcome when trying to start.
Simply remove the power from the compressor for a few more minutes until the compressor will restart. 8) Do not lubricate any of the timers or motors mentioned in this manual. If you have a Whirlpool or Kenmore refrigerator with a flex-tray icemaker, the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker. In a cold environment, oil will become more viscous and increasefriction, rather than decrease it. This is true whether you are using the icemaker to make ice or not; it is running constantly to time your defrost cycles.
If you have a defrost problem and you have one of these machines, follow the instructions in section 4-6.Nowadays, refrigerators are being made as efficient as possible, due in no small part to government energy efficiency requirements. Defrost heaters use a lot of energy, so designers are mimimizing the total amount of time that the heater is energized. Such factors include ambient humidity and temperature, the water content and temperature of the food you put into the fridge, icemaking within the freezer, and how often the door is opened and closed.For example, if you go away on vacation for a week, the refrigerator door will obviously not be opened for a long time. Less humid air will enter the fridge than if someone was at home, and opening and closing the door. Frost buildup will be much slower than usual, so the refrigerator will not need to be defrosted as often as normal.
It also will not need to be chilled as often, so compressor run times will be shorter and less frequent.Designers are using microprocessors (on solid state circuit boards) to adapt defrost intervals and durations to compensate for differences and changes in operating conditions.
Such techniques are calledAdaptive Defrost Control, commonly abbreviated as ADC.To make decisions about the correct defrost duration and interval, the control board must have input about the conditions that the fridge is operating under. Each manufacturer uses a different logic scheme and different inputs, such as door open time, compressor run time, duration of the previous defrost cycle, and duration and intervals of door openings.Door open info is provided to the logic board by the door switch - the same one that controls the refrigerator's internal lights. For example, the ADC is programmed with a maximum amount of time that the heater can stay on; say, for 16 minutes. Often they are mounted under a cover plate or in a bracket that hides all but the advancement pinion. If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself and you find that you can't fix the problem, they may be a really good place to look for service. Think about it if they sold you this book, then they're genuinely interested in helping do-it-yourselfers!When you go into the store, have ready your make, model and serial number from the nameplate of the fridge (not from some sticker inside the fridge).
The easiest way to recognize them is that the harness connection is always labelled with the compressor, defrost heater, L1 and L2. The easiest way to see the heater is to look for the heavy, rubber-coated wires leading to it; one on each end.
The element has no protective tubing and generally wraps around beneath the evaporator in a large "U" shape.You must exercise caution when handling these heaters to prevent burning yourself.
If that happens, you want to turn the heater off soon after the ice melts, to prevent the evaporator compartment from heating up too much. If theterminating thermostatsenses too high a temperature in the compartment, it opens, and cuts power to the heater. The thermostat will then stay open until the compartment again reaches a very low temperature. In other words, it waits to reset itself until the cooling cycle starts again.If the evaporator is more heavily frosted, the ice may not all melt within the time allotted by the timer.
The heater will stay on until thetimerstops the defrost cycle, and restarts the cooling cycle.If you initiate defrost (turn the timer on) and the heaterdoes notheat up, then usually the heater or terminating thermostat is bad.
If you initiate defrost and the heaterdoesturn on, then usually the timer or ADC board is bad, and you must replace it.To diagnose which component is bad, you must initiate the defrost mode, or test continuity through the defrost heater and terminating thermostat. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked. Within ten minutes (usually much less) you should be able to see a red glow from the defrost heater(s), which is (are) mounted beneath the evaporator.If you have an aluminum-tube heater as described in section 4-5(b), it will not glow red, but youwillsee ice melting away from its coils.
Timers can get old, worn and coked up with dust, and may develop hard spots in the bearings. If youdo nothear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, then it is necessary to investigate a little further. If you cannot tell for sure, get the information for your model fridge from your parts man. DIAGNOSIS: DEFROST HEATER AND TERMINATING THERMOSTATIf you do not hear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, you could be looking at one of several different problems.
The heatermaybe so icebound that it would takehoursfor the heater to melt enough ice for you to see the heater begin to work. If they are not connected to a terminal block, you will need to cut the leads to test for continuity. Make sure you're not testing continuity across the terminating thermostat too; it may be wide open above 40 or 50 degrees.


If the heater's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something. With glass-tube heaters, be careful that the glass is not cracked or broken and that you do not cut yourself.
It's cheap.If you have an ammeter, try to determine if the heater is drawing any power before you melt any ice. In trying to find the heater leads, be careful that you do not melt so much ice that the terminating thermostat opens.
If you suspect that the terminating thermostat might be open, temporarily bypass the terminating thermostat with an alligator jumper as described below.If you cannot find the heater leads, an alternativeis to check the current in one lead of the main power cord. Double-check this diagnosis by jumping across (shorting) the terminating thermostat with your alligator jumpers.
If the two thermostat leads are not on a terminal block, you will have to cut the leads to jump the thermostat.
The greater the current that's flowing through a wire, the greater the magnetic field it produces around the wire.
Remember that it's a wet environment.LIFTING THE EVAPORATORIf you have a bottom-evap model fridge, replacing the heater will involve the delicate task of lifting the evaporator up to get to the heater. If you break or puncture one of those tubes, you're looking at a potentially expensive sealed system repair.Thaw out the evaporator as thoroughly as is humanly possible. Remove the evaporator mounting screws (if there are any) and gently lift up the end of the evaporator opposite the tubes. Prop up the evaporator with a blunt instrument (I use my electrical pliers or a flashlight) and change the heater. Do what you went in there to do, but as much as possible, avoid moving the evaporator around too much.When you finish, gently lower the evaporator back into place. The hard tray is finished in a dark gray or black color and has rotating fingers that eject the cubes from the unit; the flex-tray has a white plastic, flexible tray that inverts and twists to eject, much the same as a manual ice cube tray would work. The hard-tray and separate defrost timer is by far the more common arrangement.This defrost system has the same components described in the defrost system in section 4-5, except that the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker.
However, the actual switch that controls the heater is accessible.Remove the icemaker and the evaporator panel as described in section 4-4.
Take the plastic cover off the face of the icemaker and remove the three screws holding the metal faceplate to the icemaker head.
Plug the icemaker back into its electrical socket and observe the drive motor in the upper lefthand corner of the icemaker head. That's how long it will take the evaporator to build up enough frost to block the airflow again. The defrost switch is the small, rectangular switch in the upper righthand corner of the icemaker head. Using electrical tape, tape it out of the way so it does not touch any other metal object in the icemaker head.
Using your resistance meter, you should see continuity (and no resistance) between the empty terminal (where the BLACK lead was) and the PINK terminal.You should see NO continuity between the empty (BLACK) and ORANGE terminal. When the switch toggle is depressed, continuity will be just the opposite: BLACK-ORANGE-CONTINUITY, BLACK-PINK-NO CONTINUITY. If the switch is okay, the problem is probably your defrost heater or terminating thermostat. Alignment of the gears is critical; follow the instructions that come with the gear sets carefully. If you replace the motor, you will have to re-align the defrost timing gear mechanism.RE-ASSEMBLYIf you have not removed the defrost timing gear housing from the back of the icemaker head or the motor from the front of the head, you will not need to re-align thedefrost timinggear mechanism. However, youwillneed to realign thedrivegear mechanism.Align the hole in the small drive gear with the alignment hole in the icemaker head and install the gear. If they do not line up perfectly, momentarily plug the icemaker in or apply 110 volt power to the two center leads of the plug This will turn the drive motor slightly.
Lift the spring-loaded shut-off arm (ice level sensor) as you install the cam and let it rest in the cam hollow. Carefully install the metal cover plate, making sure the end of the wire shut-off arm (ice level sensor) is in its pivot hole in the metal cover plate. Make sure the icemaker is turned on (ice level sensor arm is down) or it won't make ice.4-7 HOT GAS DEFROST PROBLEMSIf you have a refrigerator with a hot gas defrost system, the defrost mechanism is somewhat different from those described in previous sections of this book. If you suspect that you might have a hot-gas defroster but you are not sure, ask your appliance parts dealer. Most of these refrigerators were built before 1970, but not all.The main difference in a hot gas system is that there is no electrical heater or separate terminating thermostat. The defrost cycle is controlled by a defrost timer similar to the one you'll find in electric defrost systems, but the timer controls asolenoid valveinstead of aheater.
These units have a temperature sensing bulb, similar to that found on the cold control (see section 4-9 and Figures 21 and 33) as a part of the timer. Its function is to sense the temperature of the evaporator so the defrost mechanism knows when to shut off.Troubleshooting a defrost problem in this system involves two steps.
Wait and watch your evaporator for 10-15 minutes.If the frost starts to melt, then your defrost timer has gone bad.
Thoroughly melt the rest of the frost from your evaporator and replace the defrost timer.If the frost doesnotstart to melt, then your defrost solenoid is probably bad. Fortunately, the defrost solenoid is usually designed so the electrical coil can be replaced without cutting into the sealed system. Trace the Freon tubing until you find electrical wires joining the tubing at a certain point. UNEVEN FROST PATTERNS, OR NO FROST AT ALLThe evaporator should be bitterly cold to the touch. If the evaporator is either slightly cool or not cold at all, and your compressor is runningconstantly(not short-cycling; see section 4-9) you have a more serious problem. The same diagnosis applies if just the first coil or two in the evaporator is (are) frosted and the rest are relatively free of ice or perhaps even lukewarm.What's happening is that the Freon is not getting compressed enough in the compressor.
This could be due to two causes: either the amount of Freon in the system is low, or the compressor is worn out.
Itmayonly require recharging the Freon system, which, depending on the refrigerant used, may cost you a little, or a LOT. I have only seen one exception to this diagnosis, and this is described in section 7-2.Don't let the age of the refrigerator affect your diagnosis.
Not too long ago, one of the largest appliance companies put out a series of refrigerators with compressors that were either poorly designed or poorly constructed; I never did find out which. These were their giant, 20 to 25 cubic-foot flagship models, with techno-marvelous gadgets like digital self-diagnosis and ice and water in the door, and they were built with compressors that wore out within 2 years.Fortunately, the biggest and best companies warrant their refrigerators for five years or more, so these refrigerators were still covered under warranty. COLD CONTROLIf your refrigerator is cold but not as cold as usual, and you cannot trace it to any of the other problems in this chapter, your cold control may be defective.
To test its cut-in and cut-out temperatures, you can try putting the capillary bulb in ice water and measuring the temperature with a thermometer, but it's a wet, messy, job and it's difficult to control the temperatures. The capillary tube is the liquid-filled temperature-sensing element of the cold control, and operates in the same manner as a thermometerbulb; in fact, the end of the capillary tube may have a bulb. The tube and bulbmaybe coiled right next to the cold control, or they may be led away to another part of the compartment.If you are justtesting(electrically) the cold control, you can jumper directly from one wire lead to the other.
By doing this, you are closing the switch manually, and assuming the machine is not in the defrost mode, the compressor should start.If you arereplacingthe cold control, it will be necessary to trace where the capillary tube goes, and remove the whole tubewiththe cold control.



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