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Information on recommended therapies for specific disorders and diseases and medicinal uses for plants and herbs are balanced by conclusions of studies on efficacy and analysis of current levels of acceptance by traditional scientists and doctors. ShiatsuDefinitionShiatsu is a manipulative therapy developed in Japan and incorporating techniques of anma (Japanese traditional massage), acupressure, stretching, and Western massage. Food poisoningDefinitionFood poisoning is a general term for health problems arising from eating food contaminated by viruses, chemicals, or bacterial toxins. Biographies of pioneers in the field -- including Deepak Chopra, Edward Bach and David Palmer --appear as sidebars through the text. Shiatsu involves applying pressure to special points or areas on the body in order to maintain physical and mental well being, treat disease, or alleviate discomfort. Types of food poisoning include bacterial food poisoning, shellfish poisoning, and mushroom poisoning. This therapy is considered holistic because it attempts to treat the whole person instead of a specific medical complaint.
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of altMD's terms of service and privacy policy and cookie policy and Health Disclaimer. Melanoma is a dark-pigmented, usually malignant, tumor arising from a skin cell capable of making the pigment melanin (a melanocyte). The medical term for food poisoning is gastroenteritis.DescriptionThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there are up to 33 million cases of food poisoning in the United States each year. The four volumes contain more than 800 entries, approximately 400 color images, and many informative illustrations and charts pertaining to herbs and flowers, therapies and procedures, nutrition, and diseases and conditions. All types of acupressure generally focus on the same pressure points and so-called energy pathways, but may differ in terms of massage technique. The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.
Authoritative, objective and in tune with the subjects that matter to students and researchers, Gale presents four volumes of current, unbiased information on alternative and complementary medical practices.
Shiatsu, which can be translated as finger pressure, has been described as needle-free acupuncture.OriginsShiatsu is an offshoot of anma that developed during the period after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Non-melanoma skin cancer most often originates from the external skin surface as a squamous cell carcinoma or a basal cell carcinoma.The cells of a cancerous growth originate from a single cell that reproduces uncontrollably, resulting in the formation of a tumor. Occasionally, a severe outbreak creates a newsworthy public health hazard, but these instances are rare.
Covering all aspects of the subject through more than 800 entries, The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine identifies types of alternative medicine being practiced today, including reflexology, acupressure, acupuncture, chelation therapy, kinesiology, yoga, chiropractic, Feldenkrais, polarity therapy, detoxification, naturopathy, Chinese medicine, biofeedback, Ayurveda and osteopathy. Traditional massage (anma) used during the age of the shoguns was being criticized, and practitioners of koho anma (ancient way) displeased with it introduced new practices and new names for their therapies.During the twentieth century, shiatsu distinguished itself from anma through the merging of Western knowledge of anatomy, koho anma, ampuku (abdominal massage), acupressure, Do-In (breathing practices), and Buddhism.
Exposure to sunlight is documented as the main cause of almost 800,000 cases of skin cancer diagnosed each year in the United States. For the practitioner or interested patient, there are current training requirements, listings of organizations, as well as descriptions of treatments. Dehydration is a common complication, since fluids and electrolytes are lost through vomiting and diarrhea.
Basal cell carcinoma accounts for 80% of skin cancers (excluding melanoma), whereas squamous cell cancer makes up about 20%. Students of Tempaku began teaching their own brand of shiatsu, creating branch disciplines. Symptoms of bacterial food poisoning occur because foodborne bacteria release enterotoxins, or poisons, as a byproduct of their growth in the body.
By 1955, the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare acknowledged shiatsu as a beneficial treatment and licensing was established for its practitioners.BenefitsShiatsu has a strong reputation for reducing stress and relieving nausea and vomiting.
These toxins often diminish the absorptive ability of the intestines and cause the secretion of water and electrolytes that leads to dehydration. Symptoms of poisoning begin 12–72 hours after eating food contaminated with Salmonella. Melanomas typically have a combination of colors, including tan, brown, black, or gray; there may also be a dull pink or rose pigmentation within a small area of the lesion.
In a broader sense, shiatsu is believed to enhance physical vitality and emotional well-being.DescriptionShiatsu and other forms of Japanese acupressure are based on the concept of ki, the Japanese term for the allpervading energy that flows through everything in the universe.
The diameter of a malignant melanoma is typically greater than that of a pencil eraser.There is evidence suggesting that early intense sun exposure causing blistering sunburn in childhood may also play an important role in the cause of non-melanoma skin cancer.
Salmonella is usually transmitted through the consumption of food contaminated by human or other animal feces.
Basal cell carcinoma most frequently affects the skin of the face, with the next mostcommon sites being the ears, the backs of the hands, the shoulders, and the arms. This contamination is mostly due to lack of hand washing by food handlers.ESCHERICHIA COLI (E. In Asian systems of traditional medicine, diseases are often believed to occur due to disruptions in the flow of this energy through the body.
It is prevalent in both sexes, and most commonly occurs in people over the age of 40.Basal cell carcinoma usually appears as a small skin lesion that persists for at least three weeks. These disruptions may stem from emotional factors, the climate, or a host of other causes including stress, the presence of impurities in the body, and physical trauma.The aim of shiatsu is to restore the proper flow of bodily energy by massaging the surface of the skin along the meridian lines. This form of non-melanoma cancer looks flat and waxy, with the edges of the lesion translucent and rounded.
Acupoints, which are supposedly located just under the skin along the meridians, are tiny energy structures that affect the flow of ki through the body. One to three days after eating contaminated food, the victim begins to have severe abdominal cramps and watery diarrhea that usually becomes bloody.
However, in one study, two French medical doctors conducted an experiment at the Necher Hospital in Paris to test the validity of theory that energy is being transported along acupuncture meridians. The diarrhea may consist mostly of blood and very little stool, so the condition is sometimes called hemorrhagic colitis. Squamous cell carcinoma presents itself as a small, scaling, raised bump on the skin with a crusting ulcer in the center, but without itching.Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas can grow more easily when people have a suppressed immune system because they are taking immunosuppressive drugs or are exposed to radiation. There is little or no fever, the bloody diarrhea lasts from one to eight days, and the condition usually resolves by itself.
In this view, shiatsu and other forms of healing massage may trigger the emission of naturally occurring chemicals called neurotransmitters. Because of the increased risk of skin cancer, all people taking these immunosuppressive drugs or receiving radiation treatments should undergo complete skin examination at regular intervals. Release of these chemical messengers may be responsible for some of the therapeutic effects associated with shiatsu, such as pain relief.PreparationsPeople usually receive shiatsu therapy while lying on a floor mat or massage table or sitting up.
If skin cancer cannot be ruled out, a biopsy is performed, in which a sample of the tissue is removed and examined under a microscope.
Pressure is often applied using the thumbs, though various other parts of the body may be employed, including fingertips, palms, knuckles, elbows, and knees—some therapists even use their feet.


A definitive diagnosis of melanoma, squamous, or basal cell cancer can only be made with microscopic examination of the tumor cells. Shiatsu typically consists of sustained pressure (lasting up to 10 seconds at a time), squeezing, and stretching exercises. Once skin cancer has been diagnosed, the stage of the disease's development is determined.
The information from the biopsy and staging allows the physician and patient to plan for treatment and possible surgical intervention.TreatmentAlternative medicine aims to prevent rather than treat skin cancer. Classic symptoms of food poisoning, including fever and diarrhea, begin two to five days after consuming food or water contaminated with C.
A treatment session lasts anywhere from 30 to 90 minutes.Before shiatsu treatment begins, the therapist usually performs a general health assessment.
This involves taking a family medical history and discussing the physical and emotional health of the person seeking therapy.
Some dermatologists have suggested that taking antioxidant vitamins E and C by mouth may help prevent sunburn.
Typically, the practitioner also conducts a diagnostic examination by palpating the abdomen or back for any energy imbalances present in other parts of the body.PrecautionsWhile shiatsu is generally considered safe, there are a few precautions to consider. In one particular study, men and women took these vitamins for eight days prior to being exposed to ultraviolet light. Symptoms last from seven to 10 days, and relapses occur in about one quarter of the people who are infected.STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (STAPH).
Because it may increase blood flow, this type of therapy is not recommended in people with bleeding problems, heart disease, or cancer. The researchers found that those who consumed vitamins required about 20% more ultraviolet light to induce sunburn than did people who did not take vitamins. This is the first study that indicates the oral use of vitamins E and C increases resistance to sunburn. These antioxidants are thought to reduce the risk of skin cancer and are thought to provide protection from the sun even if taken in lower doses. Almost any food can be contaminated, but salad dressings, milk products, cream pastries, and food kept at room temperature, rather than hot or cold, are likely candidates.
There is also a significant amount of research suggesting that acupressure techniques can relieve nausea and vomiting associated with a variety of causes, including pregnancy and anesthetics and other drugs. Other antioxidant nutrients, including beta carotene, selenium, zinc, and the bioflavonoid quercetin, may also help prevent skin cancer, as may such antioxidant herbs as bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), turmeric (Curcuma longa), and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba).A team of researchers at Duke University reported in 2003 that topical application of a combination of 15% vitamin C and 1% vitamin E over a four-day period offered significant protection against sunburn. Classic symptoms of food poisoning appear rapidly, usually two to eight hours after the contaminated food is eaten. In one study, published in the Journal of Nurse-Midwifery in 1989, acupressure was shown to significantly reduce the effects of nausea in 12 of 16 women suffering from morning sickness. The researchers suggest that this combination may protect skin against aging caused by sunlight as well.Another antioxidant that appears to counter the effects of severe sun exposure is superoxide dismutase, or SOD.
SOD must be given in injectable form, however, because it is destroyed in the digestive tract.As of 2003, researchers are also looking at botanical compounds that could be added to skin care products applied externally to lower the risk of skin cancer. Another investigation, published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia in 1999, studied the effects of acupressure on nausea resulting from the use of anesthetics. Several botanical compounds have been tested on animals and found to be effective in preventing skin cancer, but further research needs to be done in human subjects.Allopathic treatmentA wide surgical removal of the melanoma and surrounding tissue is usually necessary.
Symptoms of food poisoning by Shigella appear 36–72 hours after eating contaminated food.
Pressure applied to an acupoint on the inside of the wrist appeared to alleviate nausea in patients who received anesthetics during the course of laparoscopic surgery.Shiatsu may also produce sedative and analgesic effects. The sedative powers of acupressure were investigated in a study published in the Journals of Gerontology in 1999, which involved over 80 elderly people who suffered from sleeping difficulties. Some carcinomas can be removed by cryosurgery, the process of freezing with liquid nitrogen.
In addition to the familiar symptoms of food poisoning, up to 40% of children with severe infections show neurological symptoms.
Compared to the people in the control groups, the 28 participants who received acupressure were able to sleep better. Uncomplicated and previously untreated basal cell carcinoma of the torso and arms is often treated with curettage and electrodesiccation, which is the scraping of the lesion and the destruction of any remaining malignant cells with an electrical current. Moh's surgery, or removal of a lesion layer by layer down to normal margins, is an effective treatment for both basal and squamous cell carcinoma. The researchers concluded that acupressure may improve the quality of sleep in older adults. Radiation therapy is best reserved for older, debilitated patients, or those whose tumors are considered inoperable.
The use of acupressure in postoperative pain was investigated in a study published in the Clinical Journal of Pain in 1996.
In this study, which involved 40 knee surgery patients, one group received acupressure (15 acupoints were stimulated) while the control group received sham acupressure.
Early detection remains critical for a positive prognosis.PreventionAvoiding exposure to the sun reduces the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. Within an hour of treatment, members of the acupressure group reported less pain than those in the control group. Sunscreen with a sun-protective factor (SPF) of 15 or higher is helpful in prevention, along with a hat and clothing to shield the skin from sun damage.
Symptoms of adult botulism appear about 18 to 36 hours after the contaminated food is eaten, although there are documented times of onset ranging from four hours to eight days. The pain-relieving effects associated with acupressure lasted for 24 hours.Shiatsu may benefit stroke victims. Individuals who are physically active while exposed to sunlight should consider using waterproof sunscreen, or reapply it. Unlike other foodborne illnesses, there is no vomiting and diarrhea associated with botulism. People should examine their skin monthly for unusual lesions, especially if previous skin cancers have been experienced.Advances in photographic technique have now made it easier to track the development of moles with the help of whole-body photographs. A growing number of hospitals are offering these photographs as part of outpatient mole-monitoring services.ResourcesBOOKSChandrasoma, Parakrama, and Clive R. There are several massage-related organizations that offer information on locating a qualified therapist.
These include the National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork, the American Massage Therapy Association, the International School of Shiatsu, and the American Oriental Bodywork Therapy Association.ResourcesBOOKSCook, Allan R. Eventually, without medical intervention, the respiratory muscles will become paralyzed and the victim will suffocate.With infant botulism, the spores of C. Honey, especially when consumed by infants younger than 12 months, is sometimes the source of these spores.


The infant initially has constipation, followed by poor feeding, lethargy, weakness, drooling, and a distinctive wailing cry. Paralysis then progresses to the rest of the body.Fish-associated food poisoningCiguatera fish poisoning is caused by toxins accumulated in the tissues of certain tropical fish, including groupers, barracudas, snappers, and mackerel. Around the mouth, there may be numbness and tingling, which may spread to other places including the hands and feet.
There is often muscle pain and weakness, headache, dizziness, joint pain, sensitivity to temperature, heart arrhythmias, dramatic changes in heart rate, and reduced blood pressure.
Reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxin are being exported all over the world, occurrence of ciguatera is becoming more likely in colder climates.Pufferfish, or fugu, is a traditional gourmet dish served mostly in Japan. The first stage of tetradotoxin poisoning is indicated by numbness of the lips and tongue, which may occur 20–180 minutes after eating the fish.
Classic symptoms of food poisoning are accompanied by other neurological symptoms such as light-headedness, headache, and unsteady gait. 10 South Clinton Street, Doylestown, PA 18901.National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork.
Cyanosis (bluish or purplish skin discoloration), low blood pressure, and arrhythmias may occur. Convulsions and mental impairment may happen right before death, or the person may be completely lucid, though unmoving. Sometimes the toxin-producing algae multiply to such an extent that they cause the waters they live in to take on the reddish color of their bodies. There may be burning and tingling in the face and mouth, numbness, drowsiness, muscular pain, dizziness, diarrhea, stomachache, confusion, nausea, vomiting, odd temperature sensations, difficulty breathing, and possibly coma. The symptoms may last from a few hours to a few days.Histamine poisoning can occur from eating fish whose body tissues have begun to produce high levels of histamine. After consumption of the fish, immediate facial flushing and hives may occur, as well as classic symptoms of food poisoning becoming evident a few minutes later.
Symptoms usually last less than 24 hours.Mushroom poisoningMushroom poisoning is classified by the effects of the poisons.
Protoplasmic poisons result in cell destruction, often in the liver, which progresses to complete organ failure.
Neurotoxins cause neurological symptoms such as sweating, convulsions, hallucinations, excitement, depression, coma, and colon spasms. NCI Public Inquiries Office, Suite 3036A, 6116 Executive Boulevard, MSC8332, Bethesda, MD 20892-8322. Disulfiram-like poisons are generally nontoxic, except when alcohol is consumed within 72 hours of eating them.
In these cases, the poisons cause headache, nausea, vomiting, flushing, and cardiac disturbances for two to three hours.Other possible sourcesOther possible sources of food poisoning include ingestion of green or sprouting raw potatoes, ingestion of fava beans by susceptible persons, and ergot poisoning from ingestion of contaminated grain.
Chemical contaminant food poisoning may result from the ingestion of unwashed produce sprayed with arsenic, lead, or insecticides. Food served or stored in lead-glazed pottery cadmium-lined containers may also lead to food poisoning.DiagnosisAn important aspect of diagnosing food poisoning is the clinical interview. A history of the illness should be thoroughly traced to include ingestion of food, recent travel, and contact with those showing similar symptoms of illness. Because it may take 30 minutes to three days for symptoms to develop, it is not necessarily the most recent food eaten that is the cause of the symptoms. A blood chemistry panel may be performed to determine the extent of any tissue damage or electrolyte imbalances. Electromyography, a test analyzing the electrical activity of muscles, may later be done to further confirm diagnosis. The test shows abnormal muscle activity in most cases of botulism.TreatmentThose suffering from food poisoning should reduce all sugar and normal food for eight to 24 hours, and increase fluids to avoid dehydration.
Charcoal tablets, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and citrus seed extract are all recommended. For mild cases of food poisoning, the homeopathic remedies Arsenicum album, Veratrum album, Podophyllum, or Nux vomica are recommended. The remedy should be given in 12c potency every three to four hours until symptoms subside.
If a ready-made electrolyte replacement is not available, a homemade one can be made by dissolving exactly 1 tsp (5 ml) of salt and 4 tsp (20 ml) of sugar in 1 qt (1 l) of water.Cinnamon (Cinnamonum zeylanicum), cloves (Syzigium aromaticum), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and sage (Salvia officinalis) are food herbs that are also strong inhibitors of bacteria. Large amounts of garlic, in food and in supplement form, are also recommended for the same reason.Allopathic treatmentIn serious cases of food poisoning, medications may be given to stop abdominal cramping and vomiting.
Medications are not usually given for the diarrhea, since stopping it might keep toxins in the body longer and prolong the illness. Severe bacterial food poisonings are sometimes treated with antibiotics, but their use is controversial. If the ability to breathe is affected, patients may have to be put on a mechanical ventilator to assist their breathing and are fed intravenously until the paralysis passes.People who show any signs of botulism poisoning must receive immediate emergency medical care.
A botulism antitoxin is given to adults, if it can be administered within 72 hours after symptoms are first observed. As well as supplying nutrition, it will stimulate peristalsis, helping in the elimination of C.
Intravenous fluids containing salts and dextrose may be given to correct dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. If illness comes on after eating unidentified mushrooms, vomiting should be induced immediately, and the vomitus saved for laboratory testing. In 2001, Japanese scientists made a synthetic version of ciguatoxin, an important step in developing an antibody to help diagnose ciguatera.In mild cases of food poisoning, dietary modifications are often the only treatment necessary. During periods of active vomiting and diarrhea, people with food poisoning should avoid solid food for eight to 24 hours, and should increase fluids.
Milk products, spicy food, alcohol, sweets, raw vegetables, and fresh fruit should be avoided.Expected resultsMany cases of food poisoning clear up on their own within a week without medical assistance.
In the more severe types of poisoning, especially those involving neurotoxins, the respiratory muscles may become paralyzed. Deaths due to food poisoning are rare and tend to occur in the very young, the very old, and in people whose immune systems are already weakened.C. About 5% of victims, regardless of age, develop hemolytic uremia syndrome, which results in kidney failure.PreventionEighty-four percent of adults surveyed in 2001 were unaware that feces on beef and poultry was the main carrier of salmonella, campylobacter, and E.



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