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Take our FREE assessment to evaluate the extent and impact of your energy efficiency efforts.
Identify your current areas of strengths and prioritize resources for achieving your organizational energy goals. Related PostsHow do I know if I’m Saving Energy?8 Energy Benchmarking Hurdles (and How to Get Over Them)Energy Use in the Staff Lounge – Do You Know How Much it Costs?3 Ways to Save Money in Your District TODAY! What a material of un-ambiguity and preserveness of precious knowledge on the topic of unexpected emotions. Hello, i think that i noticed you visited my web site so i got here to go back the desire.I am trying to find issues to enhance my site!I guess its ok to use a few of your concepts!!
Free Weekly UpdatesGet FREE articles sent to your inbox that will help you save energy in your school, work or office. FREE Guide outlines the 10 building blocks of a successful, sustainable energy-saving effort. Most of the greenhouse gas emitted through human activity comes from the production of energy. This group of gases is thought to contribute to global climate change, long-term shifts in weather partly due to the tendency of these gases to trap energy, in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the sun, that would otherwise have been reflected back out into space. Noteworthy greenhouse gases  are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Plants and some types of microscopic organisms take carbon dioxide gas out of the air and turn it back into solid, carbon-based materials like plant fibers, using the energy of sunlight. The United States produces more greenhouse gas each year per person than most other countries. Furthermore, instead of holding steady at a particular emission rate, every year we use more energy and therefore emit more greenhouse gas. For more information go to The connection between greenhouse gases, climate change, and global warming. Each year what proportion of emissions are man-made are carefully tracked by several agencies nationally and internationally, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Weather Service, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
We can summarize any electron configuration by writing the symbol for the occupied subshell and adding a superscript to indicate the number of electrons in that subshell.
In this kind of representation, which we will call an orbital diagram, each orbital is represented by a box and each electron by a half arrow.
It is informative to consider how the electron configurations of the elements change as we move from element to element across the periodic table. The choice of a spin-up electron here is arbitrary; we could equally well show the ground state with one spin-down electron in the 1s orbital.
The electron configurations of lithium and several elements that follow it in the periodic table are shown in Table 6.3 . The filling of the 2p subshell is complete at neon (Table 6.3), which has a stable configuration with eight electrons (an octet) in the outermost shell. The symbol [Ne] represents the electron configuration of the 10 electrons of neon, 1s22s22p6. By comparing this with the electron configuration for sodium, we can appreciate why lithium and sodium are so similar chemically: They have the same type of outer-shell electron configuration. Draw the orbital diagram representation for the electron configuration of oxygen, atomic number 8. Following complete filling of the 4s orbital (this occurs in the calcium atom), the next set of equivalent orbitals to be filled is the 3d. In accordance with Hund's rule, electrons are added to the 3d orbitals singly until all five orbitals have one electron each. Upon completion of the 3d transition series, the 4p orbitals begin to be occupied until the completed octet of outer electrons (4s24p6) is reached with krypton (Kr), atomic number 36, another of the noble gases. There are seven equivalent 4f orbitals, corresponding to the seven allowed values of ml, ranging from 3 to -3.
After the lanthanide series, the third transition element series is completed, followed by the filling of the 6p orbitals. While this is a good habit and something that most business managers are doing when we meet them, it’s not actually utility tracking.
The month the bill arrived, or was paid in, doesn’t necessarily reflect the month of service that bill represents. Our Certified Measurement and Verification Specialist is available to answer all of your questions, and help you decide if utility tracking is right for you.


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The basis for all of our fuels, even the fossil fuels, comes from exploiting the fact that organisms convert  light energy into chemical energy, a potential energy source inside the plant or organism’s cells, whether the energy was converted in the last few decades (wood, biodiesel, ethanol) or millions of years ago (fossil fuels). However, even if we stopped producing any carbon dioxide at all, which is unlikely, the world would still keep producing 80 percent of its former output.
Energy involves burning oil and natural gas for heating, burning gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels for transportation. Nitrous oxide is a much smaller percent of the gas mix than carbon dioxide, but for its weight it has a much stronger heat-trapping capability. The way in which the electrons are distributed among the various orbitals of an atom is called its electron configuration.
A half arrow pointing upward represents an electron with a positive spin quantum number (ms = ), and a downward half arrow represents an electron with a negative spin quantum number (ms = ).
This arrangement represents a very stable configuration, as is evidenced by the chemical inertness of helium.
For the third electron of lithium, the change in principal quantum number represents a large jump in energy and a corresponding jump in the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. By occupying different orbitals, the electrons remain as far as possible from one another, thus minimizing electron-electron repulsions. We next encounter sodium, atomic number 11, marking the beginning of a new row of the periodic table.
Writing the electron configuration in this manner helps focus attention on the outermost electrons of the atom. All the members of the alkali metal group (1A) have a single s electron beyond a noble-gas configuration. Additional electrons are then placed in the 3d orbitals with spin pairing until the shell is completely filled. For the elements of this fourth row of the table, the 4s, 3d, and 4p electrons are considered the valence, or outer-shell electrons.
When you track your bills on a spreadsheet, you are probably entering two or three pieces of information: the month the bill came or was paid, the amount of energy used that month and the total cost. But want to statement on some basic things, The web site style is wonderful, the articles is in reality excellent : D.
Today, however, organisms don’t have the capacity to capture anywhere near as much of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as we produce, partly because we are burning fuels produced over millions of years.
Transportation accounted for just over a third of all carbon dioxide emissions in 2009, electricity was almost 40 percent and residential, commercial, and industrial production, excluding electricity, made up roughly 26 percent. The most stable, or ground, electron configuration of an atom is that in which the electrons are in the lowest possible energy states.
In the lithium atom the two electrons in the 1s orbital are paired, and the electron in the 2s orbital is unpaired.
However, does this new electron go into the 2p orbital that already has one electron, or into one of the others?
The outer electrons are the ones largely responsible for the chemical behavior of an element. Electrons in subshells not occupied in the nearest noble-gas element of lower atomic number are referred to as outer-shell electrons, or valence electrons. Thus, the fourth row of the periodic table is 10 elements wider than the two previous rows. Notice that this row is in every respect like the preceding one, except that the value for n is 1 greater. The 14 elements corresponding to the filling of the 4f orbitals are elements 58 to 71, known as the lanthanide (or rare earth) elements. We also know that the climate in your particular region will determine which type of fuel(s) you use.
If there were no restrictions on the possible values for the quantum numbers of the electrons, all the electrons would crowd into the 1s orbital because it is the lowest in energy (Figure 6.24). In fact, chemists and physicists often refer to electrons as "spin-up" and "spin-down" rather than specifying the value for ms. As you can see by examining the periodic table, lithium starts a new row of the periodic table.
Because all the three 2p orbitals are of equal energy, it doesn't matter which 2p orbital is occupied.


This question is answered by Hund's rule, which states that for degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized. Following Hund's rule, we put one electron into each 2p orbital until all three have one each.
The sixth row of the table begins similarly to the preceding one: one electron in the 6s orbital of cesium (Cs) and two electrons in the 6s orbital of barium (Ba). To avoid making the periodic table unduly wide, the lanthanide elements are set below the other elements. The actinide elements, of which uranium (U, element 92) and plutonium (Pu, element 94) are the best known, are built up by completion of the 5f orbitals.
Actual utility tracking requires you to look at all of the lines on your bill and view things a bit differently.
Weather certainly plays a role in your energy story, but are you including it in an accurate way?
What about a history of energy use, including how your building(s) may have changed over the years?
The Pauli exclusion principle, however, tells us that there can be at most two electrons in any single orbital.
This means that electrons will occupy orbitals singly to the maximum extent possible, with their spins parallel.
The experimental facts about the properties of potassium leave no doubt that the outermost electron of this element occupies an s orbital. The next element, lanthanum (La), represents the start of the third series of transition elements. The properties of the lanthanide elements are all quite similar, and they occur together in nature.
If your method for utility tracking doesn’t include weather normalization, you are missing out on a huge piece of valuable information. Thus, the orbitals are filled in order of increasing energy, with no more than two electrons per orbital.
Thus, for a carbon atom to achieve its lowest energy, the two 2p electrons will have the same spin. But this means that the highest-energy electron has not gone into a 3d orbital, which we might have expected it to do.
Weather normalization is the process of statistically analyzing the weather and ‘leveling the playing field,’ so to speak, so that you can accurately compare how much energy you used during one time period compared to another regardless of weather.
In order for this to happen, the electrons must be in different 2p orbitals, as shown in Table 6.3.
Here the ordering of energy levels is such that the 4s orbital is lower in energy than the 3d (Figure 6.24). If you are using significantly more energy, it could be due to the warmer weather – but it also could be that equipment is being left on at night, your air handlers aren’t operating correctly or the thermostat is set way too low. When you set up a baseline, you establish a norm for your organization’s energy use and costs. Understanding all of the ways energy is charged to your organization can help you start to reduce energy use, and start saving money.
We ask our clients to choose a recent 12-month period during which no major construction or renovation occurred.
Similarly, for nitrogen in its ground state, Hund's rule requires that the three 2p electrons singly occupy each of the three 2p orbitals. However, for the elements immediately following lanthanum, the 4f orbital energies are a little lower, so that the 4f orbitals fill before the 5d orbitals. When you compare back to a static baseline, you are able to accurately measure how you’ve improved.
You can also understand how infrastructure projects, changes in operating hours, or adding or taking away equipment has impacted your energy use. For oxygen and fluorine, we place four and five electrons, respectively, in the 2p orbitals. To achieve this, we pair up electrons in the 2p orbitals, as we will see in Sample Exercise 6.7.



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