Herbal treatment acid reflux,vitamins that give you an energy boost 90,what is herpes simplex virus 1 2 igg positive symptoms - Tips For You

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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Treatment for heartburn and various signs & symptoms of acid reflux GERD generally initiates with over-the-counter prescription drugs, prescribed to control the acid reflux. Staying away from meals and such drinks that will weaken the LES is highly been encouraged.
Mayo Clinic in Florida is certainly a one of the primary health care associations within the United states to present a newly accepted invent to treat with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Usually the acid controlling medicines are extensively advertise through radio, tv commercials and magazines as the useful easy acid reflux remedy.
While below are the suggestion being provided and these are very simple, affordable, considerably more successful, purely natural remedies for acid reflux complications.
Ginger - Ginger root powder might be more helpful for acid reflux treatment rather than any over-the-counter or prescribed medicine easily available. Yogurt - Yogurt (the plain yogurt rather than the flavored one) is a superb technique to fight the discomfort.
Couple of wonderful herbal acid reflux treatment are available in our surroundings that might be adoptable if your stomach acid is acting up. Your diet meal program would be the best home remedy for acid reflux you can manage to avoid it from finding out so unpleasant.
The use of medicines or medication treatment is not the appreciable way of treatment everytime however it is useful for some people usually. Some people used to take a spoonful of peanut butter and a couple ounces of apple cider and it worked beautifully for them. Please note that due to the nature of our business many expert and professional opinions are expressed on this website. L-arginine is a nonessential amino acid, meaning that it can be produced by our body (in sufficient amounts under normal conditions), one of 20 amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. Health Leads UK have been leading the way, manufacturing supplements here in the UK without questionable excipients like magnesium stearate that act as an anti-frictional agent, binder & filler. Hyperglycemia refers to the high glucose or sugar level and is often associated with serious consequences in the form of damage to eyes, blood vessels, kidneys, heart besides impairment in the salivary gland functions resulting in salivary flow reduction. Diabetes mellitus is allied to a number of oral disorders that ultimately leads to the halitosis directly or indirectly.
The close and bidirectional association between oral pathologies and systemic diseases like diabetes is gaining tremendous importance involving both medical and dental community. Diabetic patients are often associated not only with a typical ketonic smell (smell of rotten apple) that represents one of the causes of halitosis, but also reduced salivary flow and high salivary viscosity.
Studies also indicate the existence of dental caries responsible for causing halitosis in patients suffering from diabetes. Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth condition is generally characterized by decreased production of saliva and is often associated with 10 – 30% cases of diabetes. Approximately 4% of adult population undergoing treatment for buccal infection suffers from diabetes. Bacterial plaque formation goes high due to decreased saliva also resulting from diabetic conditions. Taste alterations can occur due to a variety of factors ranging from reduced salivary flow in diabetic patients as a result of poor metabolism, oral breathing as well as coating on the tongue due to sulphurous compounds, all poses a threat for buccal infection and bad breath.
Halitosis accompanied with a unique fruit smell represents one of the first sign of the possibility of diabetes. Oral bacteria metabolize the food debris and produce volatile sulphur compounds (such as hydrogen sulphide and methyl mercaptan), responsible for long lasting foul smelling breath. During this process, the bacterial community use amino acids as nutrients and transform them into volatile sulphur compounds. Till date, the major cure for preventing the bad malodour mainly comprises treatments with oral antibacterial agents and antibiotics and painful and time consuming periodontal therapy. The recent advances in the field of vaccine therapy suggested an alternative promising solution for oral microbial-related diseases, which is comparable to treatments with antimicrobial agents and traditional periodontal surgery. Research studies performed by Huang and co-workers at department of medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA, resulted in the development of a novel vaccine using UV-inactivated bacterium, Fusobacterium nucleatum. However, in the subsequent study, Huang and co-workers have solved this problem, through identification of an essential structural protein of F. Apart from this, vaccination against Streptococcus mutans (causing dental caries) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (causing periodontitis) are also being developed. The 21st century is faced with a growing belief about close connection between nutritional diet and bad breath (halitosis). In the context of halitosis, these approaches not only lessen the oral malodor but also the causal agents.
Vitamins namely, A, B, C, D and E are crucial for the maintenance of good oral health and involved in fighting bad breath. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant that protects against the damaging effects by scavenging the free radicals. Vitamin C also helps fight infections and mend sores in the oral cavity that can bring about halitosis. Vitamin B is accountable for the bad breath that arises from non-oral sources mainly stomach. Deficiency of vitamin B complexes mainly B2, B6 and B9 lead to conditions favouring halitosis.
Vitamin D represents one the essential vitamins that works against bad breath and fight halitosis. Vitamin A aids in controlling infections of the mouth like abscessed teeth, periodontal gingivitis, and also gum diseases besides making a contribution in the healing process of the mouth tissues. Whenever, we hear about bacteria and other microorganisms, an imaginary horrified picture comes in to our mind from which everybody wants to escape at any cost. Studies during the past few decades have suggested that these natural partners are not only extraordinary beneficial but also indispensable for our health. However, in the present decade, a large number of studies proposed health effects of probiotic bacteria in treatment of respiratory and urogenital tract infections, allergies, intestinal inflammation, diarrhea and atopic diseases in infants.
The potential application of probiotics against a large number of microbial infections attracts the attention of clinicians and researchers for its possible implication in oral health purposes. Studies performed around the world figured out the significant role of gas-emitting bacteria, for rotten or bad odorous breath. The most common types of bacterial strains introduced as probiotics in oral health purposes belong to genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Besides Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, Streptococcus species are also used in periodontal therapy. The administration of probiotics to prevention and treatment of halitosis not only limit the re-occurrence of oral malodor and physiologic halitosis but also demonstrate beneficial effects on other oral problems. Green tea represents the most prominent beverage worldwide since time immemorial and has been regarded as a health product for a long time. Tea polyphenols also exhibit antiviral properties which are ascribed to the antioxidant nature and prevent against the viral activity in the mouth. Oral pathologies including periodontal disease, dental caries and halitosis are a leading cause of concern for human health.
Reports by Magalhaes et al indicate green tea mediated significant decrease in the erosion and teeth abrasion besides reduction of the virulent cariogenic pathogens namely, lactobacilli and Streptococcus mutans in the saliva. Tea extract is also responsible for reducing the ?-amylase activity accountable for the cariogenic potential of starch rich foods, thus exhibiting anti-cariogenic ability. Studies indicate that EGCG, the major constituent of green tea causes a decline in acid production when administered before sucrose intake by inhibiting the action of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase that results in lactic acid formation from pyruvate source. Cigarette smoke represents one of the crucial factors besides others that disturb the equilibrium in the oral cavity by reducing the antioxidant activity of saliva and promoting oral malignancies.
Besides, there are reports that indicate the importance of green tea in basic conditions that favor the removal of odorant sulphurs by removing the methane thiol groups.
Mouth rinsing is a common oral hygiene practice  that dates back to ancient times, where people were usually recommended to use plant parts i.e. Furthermore, some investigators have addressed the ability of mouth rinses to reduce oral malodor for periods longer than 3 hours. Mouthwashes, which are commonly used for dealing with halitosis, are generally categorized into two types depending upon whether they neutralize or mask the oral malodor.
The good oral health of an individual is a reflector of the overall health and welfare in the society. Although a vast array of practices is available for the maintenance of good oral regime, the gateway to it is concealed in the nature itself. Good oral hygiene is the most important issue to be considered in order to combat the problem of halitosis which can be attained by regular brushing, flossing etc to remove the bacterial plaques on teeth and food that is trapped between the teeth which can result in growth of halitosis causing bacteria. The daily yoga practices help to fight bad breath as it help in the uptake of oxygen by the body which acts as a natural purifier. Dehydration leads to the condition of dry mouth or xerostomia which represents the most common cause of oral malodour. Chewing of neem, miswak or licorice twigs freshen the breath and also display antimicrobial, antibacterial and antibiotic properties. The fibrous fruits and vegetables such as celery, carrots and apples are also useful for curing halitosis. Green tea, a leading beverage is a source of polyphenols, the most important being epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) which is responsible for conversion of odorant sulphur compounds to non odorant products and thus abate halitosis. These natural ways to fight the bad smell are cost effective and within the range of the poor people. Dry mouth or xerostomia represents one of the most common symptom that may pose impairment in the quality of life and various oral complications.
The major causes contributing to the condition encompasses salivary and non-salivary factors, the most crucial being side effects related to medication and various systemic disorders. Individuals affected by xerostomia display a large volume of plaque deposition on teeth as well as tongue besides hyposalivation. Xerostomia is commonly encountered in elderly people comprising around 25% of elderly population. Drugs displaying anticholinergic effects or those involved in inhibition of neurotransmitters to salivary gland membrane receptors or perturbation of ion transport in acinar cells greatly affect the salivary output and play a role in halitosis. Radiation therapy for cancers like head and neck may result in the salivary hypofunction ultimately leading to xerostomia. Systemic condition commonly responsible for xerostomia and saliva dysfunction is Sjogren’s syndrome. Oral healthcare should lay the foundation for the preventive measures and endorse comforting care for patients with salivary gland dysfunction. Halitosis represents a crippling social issue which is not yet accompanied with any permanent measures. Ears, nose and throat (ENT) region itself accounts for approximately 10% of the oral causes with 3% contribution coming from the tonsil region.
The keymost factors in relation to oronasal halitosis comprises infection in the pharyngeal region by either virus or a bacteria, swelling in the pharynges, sinusitis, postnasal drip, ozena, tonsil crypts or presence of any foreign particle in the nasal or sinusal cavity.
In cases where tonsils are the main culprit, clinical assessment requires insights into the details of the tonsil regarding its size, structure including coatings, invaginations etc and also existence of tonsilloliths (stones in the tonsil).
Alternative ENT cause responsible for halitosis is acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, also known as Plaut-Vincent angina, the causative organisms being Fusobacterium Plaut-Vincenti and Borrelia Vincenti. In cases where oral hygiene is incapable of improving the bad breath, tonsillectomy (removal of tonsils) is usually recommended. Referral should be made to the ENT specialist or pulmonologist in the cases where halitosis arises as a result of ENT causes.
Acute infective sinusitis can be taken care of by the appropriate antimicrobials including broad spectrum penicillin and cephalosporin and medical broadening of the ostiain case of recurrences. Metronidazole is usually recommended for inflammation of the tonsils for temporary control. Halitosis or bad breath refers to the pathology wherein unpleasant odor emanates from the breath and is multifactorial in origin.
Food stuffs and drinks are responsible for bringing about halitosis mainly during morning hours, also known as ‘morning breath’. The Durian fruit give rise to the most pungent odor associated with dietary-related halitosis.
Cruciferous foods such as cabbage or broccoli, garlic, leeks and onion are included in the category of foods associated with the sulphur-related halitosis. The oral malodour that arises due to dietary causes is often taken care of by evading diet that leads to bad breath and incorporation of balanced diet consisting of fennel seeds, nuts, grains, vegetables and fruits. Some modifications in the diet can be of tremendous help for curing the transient halitosis.
Besides, some sugar sweetened cinnamon chewing gums are also available that lessen sulphide producing oral microbes.


Recent approaches are based on the use of probiotics like Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 and the use of tea polyphenols (tea catechins, such as catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg)) that reduces oral smell due to VSCs. Chocolate, peppermint, fatty food items, coffee, and alcoholic cocktails are the causes of acid reflux. But these medicines only deliver short-term comfort and eventually results in further digestive woes. For optimal acid reflux treatment, we recommend the use of freshly grated root (a tea spoon) in your routine on a daily basis.
In this surgery the upper curve of the stomach (the fundus) is bind throughout the esophagus and sewn into area to ensure that the inferior portion in the esophagus passes by way of a compact tunnel of abdomen muscle, building up the valve power amongst the esophagus and stomach and preventing the acid from backing up to the esophagus. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status -- Booth et al. Please ask your friend to give your name and postcode, we can then credit your account ready for your next order. Where these are not directly related to a particular product such views may not necessarily be in accord with the views of Health Leads UK Ltd. This vital amino acid helps the efforts from exercise & is intrinsically  involved in immune function. They include oral candiasis, altered taste, and increased propagation of pathogenic microbiota, tongue coating, tongue alterations, periodontal diseases, and mucosal ulcerations, all these factors contributing to the development of halitosis (oral malodor) or halitosis itself.
Incidence and progression of buccal alterations is enhanced dramatically in case of diabetes.
These conditions result in a decline in the antimicrobial factors and also deposition of bacterial mass on the tongue’s surface (tongue’s coat) mainly anaerobic gram negative microorganisms that generate odoriferous substances like volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) and ultimately oral malodor. People suffering from diabetes (type II) are at greater risks to cariogenic food and those with coexisting neuropathic conditions poses a greater risk for the development of caries. It results in ulcers, decreased antimicrobial activity, increased bacterial decay and foul smell. Studies indicate the incidence of periodontal disease in type I diabetic patients to be 9.8% whereas it is 3 times higher for type II cases.
Besides, asymptomatic bilateral growth of the parotid, also known as sialosis is a common manifestation of the diabetic patients.
Besides, the smell of volatile sulphur compounds is indicative of tongue coat and periodontal disease. The colonization of these microorganisms in our oral cavity causes the foundation of wide variety of oral diseases, predominantly dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis.
It has been observed that bacterial cells sticks together and proliferate to form plaques or biofilms in oral cavity, teeth and dental caries. Studies, conducted during last several decades suggest that plaque biofilms are principle sources of developing the risk of various dental diseases, including halitosis. However, treatments with antibiotics and antibacterial agents develop the risk of toxicity and generation of resistant strains as well as misbalancing the equilibrium of resident bacterial flora by destroying the beneficial microfloras.
Recent laboratory studies suggest that the administration of antigenic material (major structural protein or whole bacterium) to stimulate host immune system against pathogens has turned out to be an easy and inexpensive way to prevent the emergence of halitosis.
Fusobacterium nucleatum is the main causative pathogenic bacterium strain for the development of halitosis. Nucleatum (FomA, the major outer membrane protein), which is engaged in the recruitment of other pathogenic bacteria (i.e. Since dental caries and periodontitis are also one of the causes of halitosis, thus these vaccines also indirectly act against oral malodor. Although a large variety of vitamins exist but only a specific set of vitamins play a crucial role in recuperating the oral malodor. Deficiency of vitamin C results in scurvy, a common gum disease characterized by swelling, pain and bleeding. It helps in the prevention of gum disease and gingivitis, both of which are the leading causes of halitosis via creating unhealthy environment for the bacterial growth and removing toxins and mucus responsible for the oral malodour. Thus, incorporation of vitamin C rich components in the diet like raspberries, oranges, lemons, spinach, strawberries etc play very important role to protect against halitosis. Its deficiency causes a decline in the enzymes which aid in digestion and bacterial exclusion in the blood stream and also bacteria. Vitamin B9 or folic acid is also involved in treating gingivitis, a periodontal disease thus eliminating oral malodour. Its consumption in the form of yogurt and fortified foods can bring about inhibition of the microbial overgrowth in the oral cavity which is one of the key factors to oral malodour. Its involvement in combating halitosis resides in its role in maintaining the cells in a healthy state and improving the body’s immune system to ward off the bad breath causing microbes via its antioxidant nature. These studies suggested the use of living healthy bacteria or microbes (that help to fight infection) as medicines in restoring health. Probiotics are commonly added to various products as active live cultures or as a part of fermented foods and as dietary supplements. It has been observed that our oral cavity colonized by a diverse array of bacterial species (> 6oo species), consists of both pathogenic and beneficial bacteria.
Evidence from recent research studies suggests the use of probiotics as the most effective natural strategy for eliminating the offending germs by nurturing helpful bacteria in the mouth. These bacterial genera belong to the normal human microbiota and regarded as safe and effective against periodontal diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis), one of the causative reasons of bad breath. These living organisms are consumed as food products (in the form of milk, cheese, yogurt) or supplements as lozenges, tablets, chewing gum, and capsules etc. Furthermore, isolates of Weisellacibaria effectively prevent the production of volatile sulphur compounds under both in vitro and in vivo conditions.
Although, it was originated initially in China, it has mainly become the choice of Asian countries including Korea, China, India and Japan. Green tea also plays a crucial role in preventing transformation of healthy cells to malignant state and causes programmed cell death of cancerous cells in oral cavity. Dental caries, also a causative agent for halitosis, arise as a consequence of infectious diseases that can be attributed to either nutritional cause or bacterial infection. This is brought about by the indirect antibacterial activity of green tea in combination with the defensive saliva components like histatins, lysozyme, secretory immunoglobulins, mucins, oral peroxidases or others.
It reduces the maltose release that forms the ground for mineral depletion from tooth enamel.
Nicotine (the key component of cigarette) is the causative agent of periodontal disease that includes gingivitis and periodontitis responsible for causing halitosis and also brings about apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts (HuGF). Another component acrolein of cigarette smoke also favors the development of periodontal diseases by inhibition of attachment of human gingival fibroblasts. Contemporary studies also suggest that the mechanism responsible for the decline in VSC by EGCS lies in the suppression of a gene, mgl that causes production of methyl mercaptan by oral microbiota. A large number of well designed randomized controlled clinical and laboratory trials with large sample sizes have clearly established the effective role of various mouth rinses in neutralization of bad malodour. Mouth rinses generally comprising of antibacterial agents for instance cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine play a crucial role in diminishing the extent of halitosis-producing bacteria present on the tongue, and chlorine dioxide and zinc containing mouthrinses are generally active in neutralization of odouriferous sulphur compounds. This is basically dependent on the lifestyle, diet, good oral hygiene practices, regular visits to dentist etc.
The use of natural herbs either alone or in combination, certain fruits and vegetables find important applications to fight against various health problems related to oral cavity including oral malodour (halitosis), bleeding gums, tooth decay, mouth ulcers etc.
Sufficient intake of water would result in evasion of the microbiota most likely to cause bad breath. Miswak fibers also remove bacterial plaques and kill bacteria responsible for causing bad breath. Their consumption result in increased salivary production that help to sweep away harmful bacteria and entrapped food particles out of the oral cavity thereby improving the oral health. They are the dietary supplements comprising of live beneficial bacteria or yeasts which substitute the harmful oral bacteria and check the bad breath. They are a milestone in curbing the social and psychological problems related to halitosis and bring a smile on the face of everyone. Due to reduced saliva in the mouth, the level of antimicrobial activity gets highly diminished.
There is a positive correlation between dry mouth and halitosis as reported by Kleinberg and Koshimune et al.
The underlying reason is the use of therapeutic dose exceeding 60 Gy that result in the atropy of the salivary glands and eventually to oral and pharyngeal side effects. The well kown systemic agents to improve oral dryness and increase saliva production include pilocarpine and cevimeline. However, many dental treatments and mouth rinses are available which provide only temporary relief. All these conditions enhance bad breath by the bacterial degradation of the tissues that ultimately leads to the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC).
The most important ENT cause for halitosis is acute tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils) brought about predominantly by Group A ?-hemolytic streptococcus (bacterial cause) or by influenza, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (viral cause). Presence of stones in the tonsils results in 10-fold rise in the level of VSC mainly by the action of Selenomonas, Prevotella, Eubacterium and Fusobacterium etc. Postnasal drip arising due to mucus accumulation at the back of the nose and throat, presence of foreign bodies in the nasal cavity, cleft palate, and atrophic rhinitis (chronic inflammation of nose) all contribute to the production of oral malodor. However, in cases of acute sinusitis arising due to dental causes including periapical tooth infections (mainly in second molar), infection has to be treated first and extraction of the tooth or endodontic treatment is usually recommended. Presently, CO2 laser has been used in the cryptolysis method in case of chronic caseous tonsillitis which maintains the parenchyma structure of the tonsils and also reduces caseous retention.
It causes social disability and is mainly attributed to the local cause with its origin in the oral cavity.
It is of transient nature caused mainly due to the conditions of hypo-salivation and increased microbial activity. The linkage between diet and halitosis is often associated with two categories of food: one that is highly rich in protein content and another is high methyl foods. The second category of foods that is rich in methyl is broken down to trimethylamine (TMA) in the digestive tract.
Generally fibrous fruits and vegetables such as apples, celery and carrots are of considerable importance in fighting oral malodour by the removal of bacterial plaques.
Refined carbohydrates like white bread that are devoid of necessary nutrients should be avoided. Herbs like mint, parsley, basil, coriander spearmint, tarragon, rosemary and cardamom should find a place in healthy diet for fighting halitosis. Besides, EGCg also display bacteriocidal action and hence an effective means for controlling halitosis. Hyperglycemic condition is a characteristic feature of Diabetes mellitus (systemic disease) that refers to the group of metabolic disorders arising as a result of deficiency in insulin secretion, its action or both. Type I diabetes arises due to the body’s incapability to produce insulin due to destruction of pancreatic ?-cells. Diabetes’ sixth chronic complication is the development of periodontal disease, one of the most important contributing factors to halitosis. Periodontal diseases are very common in diabetic patients due to development of conditions that adversely affect collagen synthesis, stability and vascular integrity. All these conditions related to buccal cavity alterations affect the quality of life of the patients and generally not taken into consideration by the doctors dealing with diabetics. Halitosis is caused by multiple factors but majority of cases (~90%) originate from oral bacterial infections. The biofilm formation is usually an event of co-aggregation and interaction of interspecies or intra-species oral bacteria and functions as a mixed culture bacterial plaque. In this regards, the process of bacterial biofilm formation represents as one of the key target for blocking the oral bacterial infections and preventing halitosis and other biofilm-associated oral diseases. It belongs to category of gram-negative anaerobe oral bacterium and colonizes with other bacteria in oral cavity to form plaque biofilms and generates large amount of volatile sulphur compounds, causing bad breath.
Furthermore, Huang and co-workers found that immunized mice shows significant reduction in progression of abscesses and are capable of producing neutralizing antibodies against the generation of volatile sulphur compounds of F. Porphyromonas gingivalis, causative agent of periodontal disease) and oral biofilms formation in the periodontal pockets.
In this respect, the old dogma of developing protective immunity against the pathogens by vaccination seems to be an alternative therapeutics option against halitosis.
A healthy lifestyle pattern and nutritious diet can go a long way in the alleviation of a vast array of health complications including oral diseases.
It is known that good oral hygiene alone is not sufficient for evading halitosis; several vitamins might help fight bad breath. The most crucial cause of bad breath is the gram negative microbes present in the oral cavity.
This results in augmentation in the level of waste products in the blood that result in bad breath. It produces unfavourable conditions that prevent growth of bacteria and also bacterial plaques and thus halitosis.


Some of the friendly bacteria act as silent health partners for maintenance of our good health as well as boost our immune system. The term “probiotics” refers to these human friendly microorganisms, offering health benefits, when consumed. The principal health potential of probiotics lies mainly in their unique ability to compete with the pathogenic microbes for nutrition and adhesion sites, their antagonistic nature and direct interaction with pathogenic microbes and modulation of the host’s immune response. A predominance of any of the pathogenic organisms in this microbiota causes the disbalance in equilibrium between all these microorganisms, thus causing various oral health problems such as periodontal disease, dental caries and most importantly halitosis. Several laboratory and clinical studies suggested the use of Lactobacillus salivarius, Weissellacibaria, Streptococcus salivarius (K12) as probiotics to substitute the oral bacterial species causing halitosis.
Apart from them, the live suspension of non pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria also shows fruitful results in prevention of Gut-caused halitosis.The promising clinical and laboratory research studies suggest the potential of probiotics therapy in the treatment and prevention of oral health problems. Green tea is also associated with anti-inflammatory action via the modulation of the various pathways implicated in inflammation as well as cell proliferation.
Green tea extract and EGCG prevents quench acrolein thereby preventing the damage caused by it. Consequently, several products related to the treatment of oral malodor such as chewing gum and mouth rinse contain tea polyphenols. In modern era, the role of mouth rinses in reducing the plaque and gingivitis has been established and therefore emphasis is being given to frequent usage of mouth rinses in halitosis. They generally convert the volatile sulphur compounds to the non-volatile zinc sulphides which do not produce malodor.
The poor oral status can drastically influence the social and economical well being of an individual.
Many naturally occurring herbs find a crucial place in the preparation of herbal medicines and mouthrinses for the treatment of halitosis including clove oil, jyestiamadh, triphala, pudina, ajwain, tulsi, neem etc. Incorporation of vitamin C rich diet including melons, berries, broccoli and oranges build up unfavourable conditions for oral bacteria and its fibrous content act as an abrasive and aid in loosening of entrapped food particles in the teeth. Some probiotic strains goal directly at the harmful species and either diminish or abolish the volatile sulphur components that cause oral malodour. Also the oral environment rich in gram positive bacteria gets shifted to the gram negative ones resulting in the production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), a hallmark of halitosis. Other salivary factors responsible for the oral malodor comprise a surge of salivary pH and a shift in oxygen atmosphere. Besides these drugs, some chemotherapeutic agents have also been associated with salivary dysfunctions as seen in case of radioactive iodine in treatment of thyroid cancer. The management of xerostomia requires multidisciplinary approach and can be treated with hydration, sialagogues (drug that increases the flow rate of saliva) or artificial salivary substitutes. Pilocarpine is highly effective in patients with post radiation xerostomia and Sjogren’s syndrome. Halitosis is very common in the patients suffering from the diseases related to ENT origin. The malodor arising as result of bacterial sinusitis is contributed by Fusobacterium spp., Porphyromonas spp.
Bacterial pharyngitis caused mainly by group A streptococci is usually counteracted by the chlorhexidine sprays. Chronic sinusitis is caused by a variety of factors and its management takes into consideration the underlying phenomenon.
Ozena (an atrophic rhinitis marked by a thick mucos discharge, mucosal crusting, and a strong odor) is treated by fluoroquiolone against gram negative bacteria.
Approximately 80-90% cases of halitosis are allied to oral cavity with its cause embedded in periodontal diseases (gingivitis and periodontitis), dental plaques, poor oral hygiene, deep caries etc. This transitory alteration in the mouth odor is ascribed to volatile foodstuffs including onions, spices, garlic, radish, cauliflower and cabbage etc. The protein rich food mainly consists of many sulphur containing amino acids such as cysteine, taurine or methionine. The excessive compound TMA is responsible for causing a rare “fish odour syndrome’ and give rise to enduring oral and body malodour due to its excretion in the breath, urine and sweat. Moreover, berries, citrus fruits, and vitamin C rich foods create unfavourable niche for bacteria.
Thus, the need of the hour is to depend on the healthy food and modify the food habits to avoid the occurrence of oral malodour and stay happy with fresh breath. It results in the impairment in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein thus contributing to metabolic abnormalities.
In type II diabetes, there occurs insulin resistance as a result of elevated circulating free fatty acids that inhibit glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. There occurs an exaggerated inflammatory response to the periodontal micro-flora in diabetic cases.
These professionals should work hand in hand with the dentists and other health professionals to bring about inter- disciplinary actions. Poor oral hygiene and an abscess in a gum pocket are some of common causes of bacterial infection, resulting chronic halitosis.
Biofilms provides a common platform for growth and proliferation of a spatially ordered and metabolically integrated diverse microbial community. Immunization of mice with recombinant FomA protein significantly inhibits the development of bacterial co-aggregation, biofilms formation and production of volatile sulphur compounds. Nutritional factors and lifestyle have a major say in the growing list of the oral and systemic disease states such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, deep caries, oral malodour and even oral cancer. They do so by bringing about the inhibition of the micro-biota responsible for causing bad breath. These bacteria generally build up on the tongue and teeth as a coating and exaggerate the conditions of cavities, plaques and periodontal diseases including periodontitis and gingivitis.
The sources of vitamin B include eggs, beef, bananas, cheese, nutritional yeast, brewer’s yeast, whole grains, chilli peppers, beans, potatoes, lentils, and molasses.
This can be taken care of by increased consumption of vitamin A present in cod liver oil, liver, carrot, spinach, sweet potato, papaya, egg, apricot, pea, milk, seaweed, broccoli etc.
Thus, vitamin E imparts a positive effect on individuals who are suffering from oral malodor. The probiotics advocate the use of living organisms and are quite different from antibiotics, which destroy the harmful bacteria (cause infection) along with the good bacteria. These bacterial strains are originally sourced from the microbiotas of healthy people and effectively prevent re-establishment of harmful bacteria for a long-lasting period. In this respect, probiotics represent a new area of research in oral health, particularly in treatment of halitosis. Thus, the diverse biochemical and pharmacological effects associated with green tea entitle it to exhibit protection against malignancy or diseases including metabolic, cardiovascular disease or oral pathologies. The acidic environment results in the solubilization of the hydroxyapatite thereby weakening the tooth enamel. Halitosis is mainly attributed to the presence of volatile sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide produced as a result of bacterial putrefaction in the oral cavity.
Although the present studies that support the utility of green tea and its polyphenols in treating a diverse range of diseased state is very limiting, more research at the clinical and the biological level is needed for advocating its role in prevention and treatment of specific diseases. Triclosan is an important ingredient that not only effects volatile sulphur compounds but also exhibit antibacterial activity and hence highly effective for reducing bad breath. Their traditional usage was based on the chewing of the relevant herbs and brushing of the teeth with the twigs of the trees like neem which are still in use today.
Herbs like bayberry, goldenseal and myrrh not only remove plaques but also eradicate bad breath causing microbes, and treat gum bleeding diseases. Cherries and lettuce help fight the odor of methyl mercaptan, a volatile sulphurous and odorous gas produced by the oral microbes. Existence of persistent dry mouth and salivary dysfunctions result in various pharyngeal and oral disease including halitosis. Decreased saliva secretion, also known as hyposialy is triggered by a number of diseases or conditions comprising alcohol abuse, stress, diabetes, depression, medication and Sjo?gren syndrome etc.
Studies in elderly population hints at the buildup of plaque on throat and tongue, mouth xerostomia and burning sensation in the mouth, all leading to the augmentation of halitosis condition. People should be made aware of the immediate clinical effects of xerostomia and appropriate treatment for the control of the condition. Besides, cevimeline also exhibit augmentation in salivary output in case of Sjogren’s syndrome.
Penicillin plays a pivotal role in the prevention of rheumatic fever and aids in the control of oral malodor. It can be controlled by vasoconstrictors, surgical amputation of the inflamed mucosa and polyps.
The remaining 10-20% of cases is of extra-oral origin and is attributed to lifestyle including alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, poor diet, and consumption of odoriferous food; medication and diseases of remaining parts of digestive tract excluding oral cavity and systemic diseases.
However, this condition is not always considered as the case of halitosis by all the individuals or the societies. They act as the source of putrefaction by the microbial population in the digestive tract or the oral cavity resulting in the generation of volatile sulphur compounds that is given out in the form of exhaled bad breath. Betaine, lecithin and choline are the common methyl containing nutrients and are found in surplus amount in foods such as soy foods, spinach and beets.
Eucalyptus and eucalyptus extract based chewing gums result in antibacterial action against bacteria involved in periodontal diseases or reduce tongue coating and VSCs respectively all known to contribute to halitosis.
Tissue destruction becomes prominent due to inflammation and circulation in the periodontal area decreases thereby leading to more infections. Although, there is some negative drawbacks of this vaccine, since it is not able to cure the pathogenesis of F. Vitamins play a pivotal role in preventing plaque formation and periodontal diseases and also maintain gums in a healthy state. Turnip green, almond green, sunflower seeds, almonds, raspberries, bell peppers etc represent good sources of vitamin E.
Conventionally, probiotics have been coupled with gut health and involved in improving gastrointestinal infections and diseases.
However, longitudinal studies are required to scientifically prove the safety and efficacy of probiotics with respect to regular consumption and effects on human health.
Recent investigations (Lodhia et al.) into the role of green tea polyphenols have demonstrated the role of green tea powder in the reduction of volatile sulphur compounds and ultimately halitosis. Hence, mouth rinses are emerging as effective tools for the control of halitosis in day to day life. Although these practices do not keep in pace with today’s standard of living but they do hit the right target such as masking the oral malodor and removing the microbes responsible for the generation of bad breath. Besides these, other herbs that are of particular importance during halitosis include spearmint, cardamom, rosemary, and coriander. The active live culture content of yogurt causes a reduction in odor causing sulphites and devastation of the harmful microbial population in the oral cavity thus affecting chances of oral malodor. Dry mouth is often a characteristic feature of the elderly; however, reports indicate that there is no decrement in the salivary glands in the healthy elderly population but change in the salivary constituents.
There is an urgent need for the improved secretagogues ( a substance that causes another substance to be secreted) that exhibit limited side effects, enhanced activity and greater effectiveness in their action. The problems of bad breath in context of food issues exist in the category of digestive tract group. This is because the acceptable level of bad breath varies considerably with the individual and community.
They are increasingly becoming more and more prevalent tool mainly in the oral health regime. The major advantage of these natural cures is that they are not associated with side effects and are within reach even to the low income groups. Parsley and basil are particularly important for reducing the bad breath of sulphurous components arising due to consumption of onion and garlic via their chlorophyll content. The saliva becomes rich in mucin with reduction in the ptyalin resulting in more viscosity.
Further research in this direction is needed mainly emphasizing on gene therapy, creation of artificial salivary gland and salivary transplantation.
They occupy an important place in the grey area between cosmetics and medicines and exhibit antibacterial activity besides their role in anti-carcinogenesis, hypersensitivity management, halitosis management, anti-erosion and antimucositis. There is no need to put heavy investments for good oral health and go through the hassle of expensive treatments when diet itself can accomplish the task. Spices that are components of the diet for evading bad breath are anise seeds, cloves, and fennel.
Elderly population is more likely to be affected by diseases and hence more prone to the side effects of medication including xerostomia.



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