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This issue of The Quarterly contains several articles on diseases of horses that run the gamut of conditions. A pathologic examination of a dead animal can be performed on the farm by a veterinarian, with tissue samples being sent to diagnostic laboratories for further examination and tests.
Many of the conditions discussed in this issue occur as outbreaks, and diagnostic laboratories are on the forefront of emerging disease recognition, outbreak detection, and surveillance. Unfortunately, in a time of budget cuts and revenue shortfalls, diagnostic laboratories are facing challenges in their efforts to provide rapid and complete service.
Furthermore, the scope, role, and importance of diagnostic laboratories are all increasing. The International Collating Centre, Newmarket, England, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks. Cases of African Horse Sickness (AHS) occurred in South Africa during the fourth quarter of 2007 and continued in 2008.
Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) was confirmed in a single non-Thoroughbred horse in France. Cases of abortion attributable to equine herpes virus-type 1 (EHV-1) infection were confirmed in Ireland (nine cases on five premises), Japan, (18 cases on 14 premises), the United Kingdom (three cases), and Central Kentucky, USA (10 cases among Thoroughbred mares on 10 farms). A single clinical case of equine infectious anemia (EIA) was identified in Bavaria, Germany, in a horse that was subsequently euthanized. The last cases of equine influenza in Australia were reported on December 9, 2007, in New South Wales and on December 25 in Queensland.
Four cases of Leptospira abortion were diagnosed among Thoroughbred mares in Central Kentucky during January, and cases of salmonellosis were diagnosed on two premises involving Thoroughbred horses during January in Japan. The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for equestrian sport and is a member of the U.S. Over the past 38 years, the Equine Drugs and Medications Program has worked to protect the welfare of equine athletes and ensure the balance of competition. The USEF also contracts with the American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA) to enforce the AQHAa€™S drug rules by collecting samples at Quarter Horse competitions for analysis. In 2007, almost 17,000 blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed by the program, representing nearly 13,000 horses randomly selected for testing. Permitted substances include dewormers, antibiotics (except procaine penicillin), anti-fungals, antiprotozoals, vitamins, electrolytes, and anti-ulcer medications. Restricted medications include specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), methocarbamol (muscle relaxant), and dexamethasone (corticosteroid). Currently, no more than two approved NSAIDs are permitted in a horsea€™s system at the same time, as long as neither is found in excess of respective restrictive levels.
Very specific dose and time recommendations are published for all restricted medications to aid competitors, trainers, and veterinarians in maintaining compliance with the USEFa€™s drug rules. Forbidden medications and substances include those that may affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, or central nervous system or have a behavior-altering affect.
In 2007, the USEF Drugs and Medications Program tested 802 days of competitions held under USEF rules, with slightly more than 150 positive findings.
The USEF strongly encourages its members to review the current USEF Drugs and Medications Rule and to be aware of the published recommendations for treating a horse in competition. West Nile Virus (WNV), an arbovirus endemic in North America, is the causative agent of West Nile equine encephalomyelitis (WNEE) and an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of horses with signs of neurologic disease. Since the initial detection of WNEE in 1999 in New York, the virus has spread throughout the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia.
The monitoring of abortions attributable to equine herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1) initiated in 1957 among the Thoroughbred mare population of Central Kentucky has continued annually for the past 51 years. The figure for the number of pregnant mares is derived annually from the number of foals registered by the Jockey Club, taken as 70% of mares considered in foal. At the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center from 1994 to March 2008, 11 cases of mammary neoplasia were diagnosed.
Definitive diagnosis of mammary neoplasia is made with microscopic examination of excised mammary tissue.


The treatment of choice for mammary neoplasia in the mare is total removal of mammary tissue and any accessible lymph nodes. To the supporting treatment of all skin diseases which walk along with dehydration, in particular if these are accompanied by itch as for example:- Chronic skin disease with inflammation, itch and desquamation (neurodermitis)- Chronic dermatitises To the supporting treatment of the scale lichen. 1 For risks and side effects read the package insert and consult your doctor or pharmacist. Suitable for students and practitioners alike, the Handbook of Paediatric Dentistry is a concise, practical and highly illustrated guide to the day-to-day management of child dental patients. Those users who have rare eBooks which can not be found in Persianss, can  be one of our contributors and help us to improve our website. Permission is therefore granted to reproduce articles, although acknowledgment of the source and author is requested. These diseases include an infectious neurologic disease in adult horses that only a few years ago appeared for the first time in this country, a viral infection of mares that causes abortions, and a type of cancer in mares.
Alternatively, the practitioner may have the horse transported to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for a complete examination by a trained pathologist. Never has technology been advancing more rapidly than now, and it offers more rapid, sensitive, and accurate testing and disease diagnosis. As new tests become available and more stringent regulations are placed on animal movement, more demands are being placed on diagnostic laboratories. The outbreak affected mainly young, unvaccinated, non-Thoroughbred breeding animals on a variety of premises, although vaccinated animals were also affected. A single abortion attributable to EHV-4 was diagnosed both in Ireland and in the United Kingdom. Additionally, the USEF is responsible for testing competitions throughout the United States that are operated under the rules of the Federation Equestre Internationale (FEI), the international governing body of equestrian sport headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland. One exception to this regulation is flunixin and phenylbutazone, which are not permitted in a horse at the same time.
Violations included 26 for sedation and long-acting tranquilizers, 34 for excessive amounts of restricted medications, six for antihistamines, and violations for a lengthy list of miscellaneous substances.
WNV vaccination is important in the prevention of WNEE and is considered one of the core equine vaccinations by the American Association of Equine Practitioners. These facts illustrate the rapid and widespread response of both pharmaceutical companies and the equine industry to the disease risk posed by WNV in the USA.
The number of abortions per 1,000 pregnant mares (as illustrated in Figure 2), based on accessions to the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center (LDDC) and confirmed by laboratory diagnosis, is considered an accurate reflection of the field incidence. Due to a printing error, the vertical axes were displayed incorrectly in the printed version.
The most recent Jockey Club 2007 Fact Book reported 9,903 foals registered in Kentucky for 2005a€”29% of the U.S. Disease may initially appear unilaterally but subsequently become bilateral or show evidence of bilateral disease grossly or microscopically. This exam entails a detailed visual examination of the animal with complete dissection and sampling of tissues and possibly body fluids.
Their importance must be realized and commitments made to adequately support and staff them. Northern and eastern parts of South Africa are endemic for AHS, and cases are recorded annually.
A seven-day withdrawal from one of these two NSAIDs is recommended before initiating treatment with the other.
Some forbidden medications may be used for legitimate emergency treatment if proper steps are taken.
Core equine vaccinations are those indicated for use in all horses irrespective of use or geographic location in the USA.
While still an endemic disease in the USA, a decline in WNEE is probably due to a combination of naturally acquired immunity, management, and frequent use of WNV vaccination.
This accurate number is due to the diligence of farm managers and attending veterinarians ensuring that all fetuses and neonatal foal losses are submitted for examination.


Unfortunately, by the time a definitive diagnosis is made and surgery is performed, metastasis to regional and distant lymph nodes and tissues has most likely occurred.
All of these conditions require a thorough and accurate pathologic examination and specifica€”sometimes elaboratea€”laboratory testing to achieve an accurate diagnosis.
The pathologist can recognize abnormal changes that may indicate a specific disease process or at least suggest what type of disease may be present.
It is unrealistic for the major operational costs of a diagnostic laboratory to be borne solely by its users.
Equine encephalosis virus (EEV) serotypes 4 and 7 are also endemic in South Africa, occurring during the summer months.
Management and control measures in the USA include pesticide use against larvae and adult mosquitoes, repellents (topical pyrethroids), and vector-resistant housing such as screened stalls or stalls with fans to reduce mosquito activity.
With an estimated equine population in the USA of approximately six million, the vaccine manufacturers marketed approximately 4.1 million doses in 2006. This number represents a recovery from the decline in numbers recorded during 2001 and 2002 due to the effects of Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS). For that reason, observation of large numbers of inflammatory cells and bacteria does not help to differentiate between neoplasia with an inflammatory response and true inflammation of the mammary gland. Most mares do well immediately after surgery then have recurrence of neoplasia at the excision site or evidence of metastasis such as lymph node enlargement, weight loss, and malaise.
The pathologist is then able to conduct additional tests, including microscopic examination of tissues, to help arrive at a definitive diagnosis.
Approximately 1,000 Thoroughbred and non-Thoroughbred performance and breeding horses were reported as infected with EEV. The name may have changed, but the mission of its Equine Drugs and Medications Program has stayed the same since the programa€™s inception in 1970.
The number of EHV-1 abortions per 1,000 pregnant mares has remained below five since 1977 despite a doubling in size of the mare population. Initial diagnosis of mastitis and treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents initially resulted in some improvement of discharge and swelling, but clinical signs always recurred. A core or excisional biopsy taken from affected tissue some distance away from sites of ulceration and drainage is recommended. Beyond the obvious importance of knowing why an animal died, the potential threat of exposure or transmission of a disease to other herd members and even to people makes accurate, timely diagnosis paramount.
We must recognize that diagnostic laboratories are essential to safeguarding animal health and more by protecting animal industries, food supply, human health, and potentially homeland security.
Since 1977 the overall number of EHV-1 abortions has ranged from a low of 11 in 1993 to a high of 47 in 1997, with 18 recorded in 2006 and 22 in 2007. In a mare with enlarged mammary glands and poor response to antibiotic therapy, neoplasia should be considered a differential diagnosis. The majority of cases in recent years are single events on individual farms among a population of mares that is routinely vaccinated against the disease.
However, multiple abortions may still occur, as evidenced by one farm in 2007 that experienced six abortions. When multiple abortions occur, the initial or index case is usually the source of infection to subsequent losses. The aborted fetus and placenta are a potent source of virus that overwhelms the immunity of even a vaccinated mare that is a contact in the same barn or paddock. To prevent such an occurrence, the precautions outlined in Figure 3 should be strictly followed. The accumulated data confirms that sound management practices (as illustrated in Figure 4) combined with an annual vaccination program at five, seven, and nine months of pregnancy, have contributed to a low level of EHV-1 abortions over the past 30 years.



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