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Before we begin, study the diagram on the right to learn what structures are being described.
The viral pharyngitis is benign processes that resolve spontaneously, unlike bacterial pharyngitis or tonsillitis that can lead to complications such as abscesses and rheumatic fever. Bacterial and viral tonsillitis The more correct way is by collecting material from throat swabs or swab with a cotton stick on the tip to collect material from the inflamed area for further laboratory evaluation. Despite help from the swab, there is a practical problem: the identification of the infectious agent takes at least 48-72h.
We explain below how to distinguish a viral sore throat from a bacterial pharyngitis by only clinical elements. Having tonsillitis caused by bacteria not present with respiratory symptoms described above, usually causes spots of pus on the tonsils and swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the neck. The presence of pus and swollen glands in the neck speaks strongly in favor of a bacterial pharyngitis. Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and usually goes with fever, purulent tonsillitis and swollen lymph nodes in the back of the neck (unlike bacterial tonsillitis that has swollen lymph nodes in the anterior neck). As can be seen, the distinction between viral and bacterial pharyngitis is important, since the treatment is different. Streptococcus pharyngitis Among the complications of bacterial pharyngitis, the main is rheumatic fever, which occurs mainly in children and young people.
The post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a kidney injury also caused by the same bacterium Streptococcus. There is a type of psoriasis, called guttate psoriasis, which is related to the Streptococcus pharyngitis. Antibiotics for angina To avoid the complications of bacterial tonsillitis described above, treatment should always be done with antibiotics.
Treatment with antibiotics derived from penicillin and amoxicillin (Amoxil) should be done for 10 days.
If the symptoms of a bacterial pharyngitis are very strong, while waiting for the effect of antibiotics anti-inflammatory drugs can be used to relieve the inflammation of the throat.
There are no studies that prove the effectiveness of homeopathy or herbal medicine in the treatment of pharyngitis. Who wants symptomatic relief without taking many drugs, the ideal is to perform various daily gargling with warm water and a pinch of salt.
The removal of the tonsils (tonsillectomy) is an option in children who present more than six episodes of strep throat every year.
If you manage this site and have a question about why the site is not available, please contact us directly. Preseptal cellulitis is an eye infection which is commonly found in children of age group 4-7. Some of the symptoms and sign of preseptal cellulitis are redness around the eye, discharge of whitish fluid from the affected eye, and swelling of eyelids. Cleft lip, which occurs in approximately 1 in 1,000 births, is a vertical opening in the upper lip.
Cleft lip and palate cause feeding difficulties if the newborn is unable to suck effectively. In esophageal atresia, the upper end of the newborn’s esophagus ends in a blind pouch, making it impossible for the baby to obtain food.
When esophageal atresia is accompanied by a tracheal fistula, it is referred to as a tracheoesophageal fistula. Pyloric stenosis is a congenital anomaly in which an increase in size of the musculature at the junction of the stomach and small intestine occurs, causing the pyloric opening to constrict. In an imperforate anus, the baby’s rectum ends in a blind pouch, causing an obstruction to the normal passage of feces that must be corrected immediately. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic defect that renders the newborn incapable of metabolizing certain amino acids, which spill into the blood and tissues in the form of phenylalanine. Galactosemia is a genetic disorder in which the newborn is incapable of metabolizing galactose; thus, galactose builds up in the body and causes vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and mental retardation. Bladder exstrophy results from abnormal development of the bladder, abdominal wall, and symphysis pubis, causing exposure of the bladder, urethra, and ureteral openings to the abdominal wall. Infections that are present in the woman during pregnancy or delivery can adversely affect her fetus. If the organism causing gonorrhea gets into the newborn’s eyes during delivery, it causes a bilateral conjunctivitis (eyelid inflammation). Signs of syphilis in the newborn are general skin eruptions of rose spots, blebs (blisters) on the soles and palms, snuffles (a catarrhal discharge from the nasal mucous membrane), hoarse cry, cracks and ulcerations around the anus and mouth, and a positive blood test. Herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 and type 2) can complicate a pregnancy and can be harmful to the newborn.
FIGURE 69-2 • Ointment is applied to the eyes of a neonate within the first hour after birth. A woman who is known to be infected with herpes and is near term will usually undergo a cesarean delivery, unless the amniotic fluid is considered contaminated.
The most common way children become human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive is through mother-to-child transmission, which accounts for nearly all acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in children in the United States.


Although not all pregnant women who are HIV positive will transmit the virus to their babies, continual monitoring and treatment are essential. The virus of rubella (German measles, 3-day measles) can be dangerous in pregnancy, but has no permanent ill effects on the woman.
Thrush (also known as a monilial infection) is a yeast infection, in which milk-like spots form in the newborn’s mouth. An asymptomatic woman can transmit cytomegalovirus (CMV), which belongs to the herpesvirus group, to her fetus through the placenta or through contact during delivery. Newborns of mothers who drink, smoke, or use drugs are more likely to be preterm, of low birth weight, and to have intellectual impairments. Most babies born to chemical-using mothers experience withdrawal symptoms serious enough to require treatment.
Nursing Alert Advise pregnant women to avoid alcohol completely Rationale: Safe levels of alcohol intake during pregnancy have not been established. Cocaine-dependent newborns often experience a significant withdrawal syndrome, which can last 2 to 3 weeks. These newborns may have experienced small strokes in utero, because of sudden changes in the mother’s blood pressure.
Key Concept The addicted newborn is hypersensitive.The central nervous system and gastrointestinal system are usually most affected. A sore throat caused by bacteria should always be treated with antibiotics (I'll explain why below). The analysis of the collected material by the swab can identify the infectious agent is a bacterium or a virus. Respiratory viral infections do not usually cause symptoms restricted to the pharynx or tonsils.
The bacterial pharyngitis can also cause swelling of the uvula and petechiae (bleeding points) on the palate.
However, some viral infections such as infectious mononucleosis may also be present with these findings. Other signs and symptoms are the possible increase in spleen weight loss, and extreme fatigue signals hepatitis.
They are skin lesions that arise whenever there is a throat infection, which disappears after the cure.
But you should remember that the anti-inflammatory drugs are only symptomatic, they do not treat the bacterial infection.
As the incidence of complications is much lower in adults in this group the indication for tonsillectomy is more controversial, as there is a possibility of no improvement, just making sure the patient had bouts of tonsillitis and possibility to have bouts of pharyngitis, which ultimately is the same. They accumulate caseous (or caseum), a yellowish substance, like pus, which is actually debris of old inflammatory cells. The eyelids may get infected or the soft tissue surrounding the eye may develop inflammation. The situation is life-threatening because the esophagus channels food and mucus directly into the lungs.
Imperforate anus is suspected if the newborn does not pass a stool within 24 hours of delivery. This condition causes problems later during toilet training because the child is unable to direct his urinary stream.
Examples of such infections include sexually transmitted infections (STIs), rubella, toxoplasmosis, thrush, and cytomegalovirus. With the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of staphylococcal organisms, the infection rate with staphylococcal organisms has risen. If the test is positive, prompt treatment with penicillin early in pregnancy will prevent harmful effects on the newborn.
The most common treatment to prevent eye i nfections related to birth is the use of erythromycin ophthalmic ointment. HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy via the placenta, during delivery, or through breastfeeding. Both mothers and babies benefit from preventive measures, early diagnosis, and consistent treatment, which can lead to longer and healthier lives. Although the pregnant woman may have no symptoms, possible fetal effects include stillbirth, premature delivery, microcephaly, hydrocephaly, seizures, and mental retardation. Possible effects on the newborn include SGA, microcephaly, hydrocephaly, and mental retardation.
The newborn of a mother who uses any chemicals is likely to have symptoms because drugs reach the fetus through the placenta. Spontaneous abortions, abruptio placentae, and stillbirths also are more common in these women.
Care of these newborns is based on the type and extent of withdrawal symptoms, and focuses on ensuring adequate respiration, nutrition, and temperature.
The resulting condition is called fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).Effects of FAS include growth deficiency, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, cardiac anomalies, and mental retardation. As laboratory tests are now faster to identify bacteria, but it's not always easy to collect and send the material for analysis.


Another tip is that the viral pharyngitis, although the throat becomes very inflamed, pus is unusual.
The fever of bacterial infection is usually higher than in viral, but this is not a rule, since there are cases of influenza and high fever. If the frame suggests bacterial pharyngitis, we should start antibiotics in order not only to accelerate the healing process, but also to prevent complications and transmission to other family members, especially those with intimate and prolonged contact. In those patients with marked edema of the pharynx, who can not swallow tablets, or those who do not want to take medication for several days, an option is intramuscular injection of benzathinepenicillin, the famous one-time Benzetacil. If the symptoms are very uncomfortable, anti-inflammatory can be used by two or three days. When the palate is split, the condition is known as cleft palate; this condition occurs less frequently than cleft lip. Surgical reconstruction is done in steps; it is usually completed by the time the child is of school age.
Surgical repair involves the use of the foreskin, so circumcision should not be performed on this newborn. One common infection is bronchopneumonia, which is dangerous because the newborn is too weak to cough up secretions and may choke. An outbreak of “staph” in the newborn nursery is dangerous because it is so difficult to control. The prophylactic installation of antibiotic ointment into the eyes soon after birth prevents this condition.Law requires this treatment in all states.
After delivery, the newborn is isolated to prevent transmission of the virus to others in the nursery.
Common defects are cataracts, deafness, congenital heart defects, cardiac disease, and mental retardation. Infected healthcare personnel, or family members who fail to use proper aseptic technique, can also spread thrush. The degree of defect relates to the mother’s level of alcohol intake; safe levels of intake are currently unknown. Current research indicates that the long-term outlook for these infants, however, is better than in FAS. If used during pregnancy, marijuana may cause shortened gestation or a precipitate labor of fewer than 3 hours. As they are anatomically close, it is very common for the pharynx and tonsils to ignite simultaneously, a framework called tonsillitis.
The prescription of antibiotics such as amoxicillin in patients with mononucleosis may lead to the development of allergy with red spots appearing all over the body. Untreated, PKU results in mental impairment, behavioral problems, retardation, and other abnormalities. Postural drainage, along with the proper concentrations of oxygen and humidity, aid breathing. If a newborn should contract conjunctivitis, he or she receives large doses of antibiotics and is kept in isolation to prevent spreading the infection to others. Complications for the infant include congenital infection, anomalies (defects), and stillbirth (born dead).
If the virus becomes active before the 20th week of gestation, a spontaneous abortion (“miscarriage”) may occur. The infected newborn is isolated and treated with nystatin (Mycostatin, Nilstat) by mouth or, less frequently, with a 1% to 2% aqueous solution of gentian violet. Research has shown that as little as 1 ounce a day of alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. Although they ignite together, some people have predominantly tonsillitis, while others, pharyngitis. All newborns are tested for PKU before discharge from the healthcare facility and at the 6-week checkup. Without treatment or breastfeeding, one in four women who are HIV positive will transmit the virus to the infant.
No increased incidence of congenital complications or effects on growth or physical parameters are specific to marijuana use alone. Throughout the text I will differentiate the terms pharyngitis and tonsillitis, but what goes for one, also serves to the other.
When treatment is continued before, during, and after birth, HIV maternal-fetal transmission is greatly reduced in infected pregnant women when detected and treated early.
Wiping the newborn’s mouth with a gauze sponge after each feeding is important because lactose (milk sugar) promotes the growth of Candida albicans, the causative organism.



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