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Princeton sophomore student Micheal Moorin believes he contracted meningitis B while overseas in Greece for the summer. In a live interview with Huffington Post’s Mike Sacks he said that he was rushed to a hospital in Greece and later flown to a hospital in Paris to be treated.
A female student began experiencing symptoms Wednesday night and was taken to a hospital Thursday. Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, or outer layers of the brain and spinal cord that can be caused by a bacterium, virus, parasite, fungus, or a non-infectious means. Bacterial meningitis outbreaks are the most dangerous type as the disease can lead to death even with proper treatment. Meningitis can be transmitted through close contact with oral secretions, contaminated food, fecal matter, soil contaminated with fungal spores, or warm freshwater (containing parasites). The symptoms of meningitis are fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, seizures, and hallucinations. Any form of meningitis is a cause for concern but there are quite a few things you can do to protect yourself.
Acyclovir pills can treat primary or recurrent herpesviral infections and can stop or lessen the number of herpes events. Famciclovir and valacyclovir are other medicines used to treat recurrent genital herpes and for prevention of recurrences. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2).
Results of a nationally representative study show that genital herpes infection is common in the United States.
Genital HSV-2 infection is more common in women (approximately one out of four women) than in men (almost one out of eight).
HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be found in and released from the sores that the viruses cause, but they also are released between outbreaks from skin that does not appear to have a sore. HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, but it more commonly causes infections of the mouth and lips, so-called “fever blisters.” HSV-1 infection of the genitals can be caused by oral-genital or genital-genital contact with a person who has HSV-1 infection. People diagnosed with a first episode of genital herpes can expect to have several (typically four or five) outbreaks (symptomatic recurrences) within a year.
Genital herpes can cause recurrent painful genital sores in many adults, and herpes infection can be severe in people with suppressed immune systems. There is no treatment that can cure herpes, but antiviral medications can shorten and prevent outbreaks during the period of time the person takes the medication.  In addition, daily suppressive therapy for symptomatic herpes can reduce transmission to partners. The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital herpes, is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be un-infected. Genital ulcer diseases can occur in both male and female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in areas that are not covered. Persons with herpes should abstain from sexual activity with uninfected partners when lesions or other symptoms of herpes are present. Properly interpreted tests can make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) a key tool in the diagnosis of a variety of diseases.
Data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples submitted to the Trust Virology Laboratory (Sheffield, UK) from April 2004 through April 2007 were reviewed. In a search for new drugs to treat viral infections, scientists at the University of Utah School of Medicine found that a medicine routinely used to treat heart failure, spironolactone, has an unexpected ability to block infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a herpesvirus that causes mono and is associated with several human cancers.
Swaminathan’s team uncovered spironolactone’s antiviral properties in a screen to identify drugs that work through a mechanism that is different from that of existing anti-herpesvirus drugs. Importantly, spironolactone’s ability to block viral infection appears to be independent from its ability to treat heart failure.
But because all herpesviruses depend on SM-like proteins to spread infection, the work also has broader implications. Meningitis occurs when the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord become infected and inflamed. The viral form of meningitis is more common and is sometimes referred to as "aseptic meningitis." Viral meningitis is caused by a number of different viral infections including mumps, herpes, Epstein-Barr, varicella zoster (the virus that causes chickenpox), measles and influenza.
Doctors diagnose viral meningitis by collecting spinal fluid through a spinal tap and having it analyzed in a lab. As with viral meningitis, this form can be diagnosed only by collecting spinal fluid with a spinal tap.
Some forms of bacterial meningitis are contagious and usually spread through respiratory and throat secretions (oral contact and exposure to coughing or sneezing). If you or someone you know is experiencing any of these symptoms, get to an emergency room right away.
Michael is the seventh of eight established cases of meningitis at Princeton University since last spring.


She is still being treated for what is now the eighth meningitis case affecting Princeton students. The most common cause is Cryptococcus, occurring when the fungus travels from the blood to the spinal cord.
Sometimes it can be detected by a bulging fontanelle in infants who also display behavior like poor feeding, irritability, and extreme sleepiness. Acyclovir also comes in a cream to put on sores during the primary stage or during recurrences. Nationwide, at least 45 million people ages 12 and older, or one out of five adolescents and adults, have had genital HSV infection.
This may be due to male-to-female transmission being more likely than female-to-male transmission. Generally, a person can only get HSV-2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection.
However, if signs and symptoms occur during the first outbreak, they can be quite pronounced. Health care providers can diagnose genital herpes by visual inspection if the outbreak is typical, and by taking a sample from the sore(s) and testing it in a laboratory. It is important to know that even if a person does not have any symptoms he or she can still infect sex partners. White blood cell differential may be misleading early in the course of meningitis, because more than 10 percent of cases with bacterial infection will have an initial lymphocytic predominance and viral meningitis may initially be dominated by neutrophils. Enterovirus infection was the most common cause of viral meningitis in immunocompetent adults in this study.
When this happens, CSF findings may resemble those of viral meningitis, but antibiotic treatment may need to be continued until there is definitive positive evidence of a viral cause (e.
Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis are two life-threatening causes of infection and inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS). Typical features of HSV-2 meningitis are headache, fever, stiff neck, and lymphocytic pleocytosis in the CSF. If viruses become resistant to these frontline treatments, a growing problem particularly in clinical settings, there are no alternative drugs to serve as backup.
They find that the drug’s antiviral properties stem from its ability to block a key step in viral infection that is common to all herpesviruses. Currently available drugs block a middle step of the viral infection cycle by inhibiting virus’ ability to replicate DNA. Previous studies showed that the drug treats heart failure through a different, metabolic mechanism. Spironolactone could be developed as a new medicine against EBV, a common and dangerous infection among transplant and other immunocompromised patients. Spironolactone could be a template for a new class of drug directed against all herpesviruses.
Both the viral and bacterial forms of the debilitating disease exhibit similar signs and symptoms at first -- but bacterial meningitis is generally much more severe. If no bacteria are detected in the fluid but the patient is exhibiting the signs and symptoms of meningitis, the patient is thought to have viral meningitis. Some vaccines, such as MMR and varicella-zoster, can protect children from the diseases that can lead to viral meningitis, so it's important to keep children up to date with the recommended childhood vaccination schedule. Patients who contract bacterial meningitis exhibit the same flu-like signs and symptoms as the viral form of the disease, but their symptoms worsen within hours rather than days. If the bacterium that causes the infection is detected, it can be treated with intense antibiotics that can reduce the risk of death. Effective and safe vaccines, such as that for Hib, can protect individuals from some of the bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis. The recent meningitis outbreak is scary and school officials are recommending that all students get vaccinated.
It can be caused by Enteroviruses (Polioviruses, Coxsakievirus, Rhinoviruses and Echoviruses); herpes, HIV, Rubulavirus (mumps), measles, Varicella (chicken pox),  Epstein Barr virus, Influenza, and West Nile.
Medicines to help your body fight the virus can help lessen symptoms and decrease outbreaks. The medicine acyclovir can speed up healing and can lessen the pain of herpes for many people. Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible sore and may not know that he or she is infected. The first outbreak usually occurs within two weeks after the virus is transmitted, and the sores typically heal within two to four weeks.
Sex partners of infected persons should be advised that they may become infected and they should use condoms to reduce the risk.


CSF findings in bacterial meningitis may mimic those found in viral meningitis (particularly early on). When an LP is performed, four tubes of CSF, each containing about 1mL of fluid, should be obtained and sent to the laboratory for analysis. The improved pharmacokinetic profiles and simpler dosing regimens of oral valaciclovir (1, 000 mg three times daily for 7 days) or famciclovir (250 mg or 500 mg three times daily) have led to their use instead of aciclovir (800 mg five times daily) as the preferred treatment. Spironolactone’s target is distinct from that of existing drugs, revealing that it could be developed into a new class of anti-herpesvirus drug. They found that like these drugs, spironolactone can block EBV replication in cells, but it does so by targeting the so-called SM protein, required for a late step in the infection cycle. This study demonstrates that a drug similar to spironolactone shares its ability to treat heart failure but not its antiviral properties.
Figuring out whether the meningitis is bacterial or viral immediately is crucial, because the treatment and risks for each type are very different.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that symptoms for viral meningitis either appear quickly or manifest over several days -- usually following a cold, runny nose, diarrhea, vomiting or other signs of infection. Lack of treatment or complications from bacterial meningitis include hearing loss, blindness, loss of speech and memory, brain damage, paralysis, kidney and adrenal gland failure, shock and death. Bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics and fungal meningitis with antifungal medications. Correct usage of latex condoms can reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading herpes. Most individuals have no or only minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection.
Other signs and symptoms during the primary episode may include a second crop of sores, and flu-like symptoms, including fever and swollen glands.
If a woman has active genital herpes at delivery, a cesarean delivery is usually performed. The CSF analysis shows elevated opening pressure, elevated protein, low glucose (hypoglycorrhachia) , cloudy fluid and a positive Gram stain. The diagnosis of herpes simplex meningitis was made at the time of the fourth episode by a positive PCR for herpes simplex virus infection in the cerebrospinal fluid. Autoimmune disease and the effects of cancer can also cause encephalitis. Encephalitis is uncommon. Illness from viral meningitis generally lasts seven to 10 days, and the patient typically sees a full recovery. When signs do occur, they typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum.
However, most individuals with HSV-2 infection  never have sores, or they have very mild signs that they do not even notice or that they mistake for insect bites or another skin condition. Symptoms include fever, headache, and altered mental status, often accompanied by seizures or focal neurologic deficits. The elderly and infants are more vulnerable and may have a more severe case of the disease. Symptoms When the virus enters the bloodstream, it may cause inflammation of brain tissue and surrounding membranes.
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening consequence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Characteristics include usually normal opening pressure, slightly increased protein and normal glucose (glucose is below normal for bacterial meningitis). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the diagnostic method of choice for HSE, but negative results need to be interpreted in the context of the patient’s clinical presentation and the timing of the CSF sampling. In contrast to aseptic viral meningitis, neuropsychiatric symptoms often predominate in encephalitis, for example, anomia, hallucinations, psychosis, personality changes, and agitation. Typically, another outbreak can appear weeks or months after the first, but it almost always is less severe and shorter than the first outbreak.  Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years. Herpes infection of the CNS, especially with HSV-2, can also cause both monophasic and recurrent aseptic meningitis, as well as myelitis or radiculitis. The cerebrospinal fluid profile in acute viral encephalitis is indistinguishable from aseptic meningitis.
Other cases are severe, and permanent impairment or death is possible. The acute phase normally lasts for 1 - 2 weeks.
Some people may take several months to fully recover. Possible Complications Permanent brain damage may occur in severe cases of encephalitis.



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