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Viral infection, especially by reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been considered to be a possible explanation for the pathogenesis of idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy). References1.Adour KK, Bell DN, Hilsinger RL (1975) Herpes simplex virus in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell palsy). JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Symptoms: seizures, confusion, delirium, stupor, coma, reflex assymetry (reflexes present on one side but not the other), ocular palsies (loss of control of eye movements). Cytomegalovirus is a virus which is common in people that have a compromised immune system or in cases of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which is caused by HIV). Despite the fact that herpes does not specifically attack the brain, it can attack the brain and cause herpes encephalitis. HIV is infamous for two reasons: its ability to mutate at a rapid rate and avoid the immune system, thereby preventing the immune system to develop antibodies, and its severe effect on the immune system, leading to early death due to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV can also affect the CNS directly: over half of people that develop AIDS as a result of HIV infection have neurological (brain-originated) symptoms.
HIV meningitis often leads to dementia, which has the symptoms of memory loss, mood disturbances and loss of mental capacity.
Symptoms: gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestine), flaccid paralysis (floppy muscles), muscle wastage, lack of reflexes, paralysis of the lungs. Ever since the invention of vaccines, the crutches and iron lungs often associated with polio infection has gone down significantly. Varicella-Zoster virus is more commonly known as chickenpox, and it commonly occurs in children. We investigated whether the geniculate ganglia of man contain latent HSV type 1 (HSV-1), and compared the frequency of HSV-infected ganglia and that of latently infected neurons in human geniculate ganglia and in trigeminal ganglia.
Some viruses are specifically designed for the brain, but other ones can spread across the whole body. Examples of  infections involving arboviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue fever and the Eastern and Western equine encephalitis. Any type of cell within the central nervous system can be infected, however it tends to infect the ventricles of the brain and causing ventriculoencephalitis (inflammation of the ventricles in the brain). What I mean by that is that there is an initial outbreak of herpes and then after a while it goes into remission (disappears).
Encephalitis (brain inflammation) caused by type 1 herpes usually affects children and young adults, and it focuses on the frontal and temporal lobes, leading to mood swings, and alterations in memory and behaviour.

As its name suggests, it leaves the host susceptible to all types of opportunistic infections (that would not infect healthy individuals) by attacking the coordinating cell of the immune system, T-helper or CD4+ cells. There are three different subtypes of brain pathology associated with HIV: aspetic HIV meningitis, HIV meningoencephalitis, and vaculoar myelopathy. It was even declared that polio virus no longer existed in developed parts of the world thanks to vaccines, but unfortunately in recent years it has made a comeback. It usually only occurs once and then the body cures it, but it can occur again in adults and cause the painful condition of shingles. It leads to the development of small, painful blisters commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. Causes Herpes labialis is a common disease caused by infection of the mouth area with herpes simplex virus type 1. The infection may lead to the development of small and painful blisters known as fever blisters or cold sores. From autopsy specimens of eight adults 15 geniculate ganglia and 16 trigeminal ganglia were examined by means of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining. Some of the viruses that infect the brain only tend to occur in people whose immune systems are compromised, but others occur even in immunocompetent (healthy) patients.
In this case, the disease is not native to humans: rather, animals carry the viruses and the mosquitoes pass them on to human. That does not mean it is cured, however: rather, the herpes virus has remained in the body and avoided detection by the immune system by not rupturing the host nerve cells. Polio viruses are not designed specifically to infect the brain, however it can cause paralysis due to damage of the motor neurons in the brain stem, motor cortex or spinal cord.
The amount of time between the bite from a rabid animal and infection from the virus is dependent on the location of the bite: the closer to the head, the quicker the infection rate. In people with healthy immune systems, VZ virus doesn’t affect the brain, but in people whose immune system has already been damaged, inflammation caused by VZ virus (or herpes zoster encephalitis) can occur.
Most people in the United States are infected with this virus by age 20. The initial infection may cause no symptoms or mouth ulcers.
The HSV-1 genome was detected in 11 of the 15 (71%) geniculate ganglia and in 13 of the 16 (81%) trigeminal ganglia.
When they are passed onto humans, they can cause brain inflammation, but not every case in the same: some cases end up more severe than others.
Eventually, the herpes virus travels down to the axons of those nerve cells, and blisters appears again on the skin in those areas as a consequence.
Type 2 herpes usually affects adults and tends to affect the meninges and cause meningitis.

In severe cases of encephalitis caused by arboviruses, haemorrhage can occur as necrotizing vaculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels leading to cell death). Herpes can also be passed on from mother to child through labour: the child can develop severe encephalitis.
The virus, once it enters the body, transfers up the peripheral nerves near the site and then up to the central nervous system. Spread may occur through intimate and personal contact, or through contact with infected razors, towels, dishes, and other shared articles.
Occasionally, oral-to-genital contact may spread oral herpes to the genitals (and vice versa). Symptoms The first episode may be mild or severe.
Our results suggest that reactivation of latent HSV in the geniculate ganglia is a probable cause of some cases of herpetic stomatitis and of idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy. It usually occurs in children between 1 and 5 years old. First symptoms usually appear within 1 or 2 weeks, and as long as 3 weeks, after contact with the virus. Antiviral medications taken by mouth may help the symptoms go away sooner and decrease pain. Acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir are the three oral treatments currently available. Herpes sores often come back again and again. The antiviral medicines work best if you take them when the virus is just starting to come back -- before you see any sores. If the virus returns frequently, your doctor may recommend that you take the medicines all the time. Topical (rubbed onto the skin) antiviral cream (penciclovir andacyclovir) may be used, but must be applied every 2 hours while you're awake. Applying ice or warmth to the area may reduce pain. Tips to prevent future outbreaks include applying a sunblock or lip balm containing zinc oxide to the lips when you're outdoors. A moisturizing balm to prevent the lips from becoming too dry may also help. Outlook (Prognosis) Herpes labialis usually goes away by itself in 1 to 2 weeks.
Minimize the risk of indirect spread by thoroughly washing items such as towels in hot (preferably boiling) water before reuse.
Avoid triggers (especially sun exposure) if you are prone to oral herpes. Avoid performing oral sex when you have active herpes lesions on or near your mouth and avoid receiving oral sex from someone who has oral or genital herpes lesions.

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