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Ian Lipkin flew to Lake Tahoe this December to fundraise for work he’s doing with the Simmaron Research Foundation. Lipkin’s Columbia Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) has established close ties with the Simmaron Research Foundation.
Ian Lipkin began a new era in pathogen detection when he became the first researcher to isolate a virus (Borna disease virus) using genetics.  He identified the West Nile Virus that had throw New York City into a panic, developed technologies to identify SARS and then hand carried 10,000 test kits to Beijing at the height of the outbreak. Lipkin has pioneered many technological breakthroughs in finding pathogens including the use of MassTag-PCR, the GreeneChip Diagnostic, and High Throughput Sequencing.
Called the top virus hunter in the world, Ian Lipkin runs the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia, and is the director of the Center for Research in Diagnostics and Discovery (CRDD) at the NIH. He also worked closely with Steven Soderbergh on his film Contagion. Lipkin then worked on a virus which demonstrated the effects a persistent viral infection can have on the central nervous system.
Bats –  Called to investigate an ill Saudi Arabian man (with four wives), he uncovered a new virus called MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) similar to those found in bats.
Ticks –  Coming closer to home Lipkin believes chronic Lyme patients who are not recovering from antibiotics may have gotten another infection from the ticks.
In one of his many asides (did you know he loves Sinatra?) Lipkin referred to the hamburger and French fries lunch that he and Peterson  usually have. The timing of an infection is just one of many factors that determine the effects it will have. A pathogen is just one of the players, however, in a vast swirl of factors which ultimately determines whether one is going to have a chronic illness. If you expose a mouse to a pathogen at one stage of pregnancy, it’ll stop moving around its cage. Yet, here he was in the Lake Tahoe area in mid-December exhorting the audience to support an important Simmaron study that he believed needed funding. Lipkin was at the event to support the Simmaron Research Institute’s next spinal fluid study. In a recent  Simmaron Tea event, Simmaron’s research collaborators talked about their work to propel discovery in our disease. From malaria to dengue fever to Lyme disease, “vector-borne”  (primarily mosquito and tick-borne) illnesses are among the more difficult challenges facing the medical community. No study, however, has examined the extent of insect triggered illness or looked for regional clusters of such illnesses in chronic fatigue syndrome – until now. Plus, a virus like tick-borne encephalitis virus (TEBV) could hold a clue to controversy that’s roiled the medical profession. Maybe, just maybe, an infection triggered by a recognized (or unrecognized) pathogen set disturbed the immune systems of both sets of chronically ill patients.
Mg2+ Regulates Cytotoxic Functions of NK and CD8 T Cells in Chronic EBV Infection Through NKG2D. The authors had recently characterized a primary immunodeficiency disease in people with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection called XMEN. XMEN is a rare genetic disease that combines low magnesium levels and Epstein-Barr virus infection.
XMEN disease is a rare genetic disease mostly appearing in men that is caused by mutations in the MAGTI magnesium transporter gene.
They also typically have high levels of Epstein-Barr virus infection and are at increased risk of coming down with EBV associated lymphoma. The link to lymphoma and the recurrent infections were explained when they discovered that increased magnesium levels are required for natural killer (NK) and T-cell activation. XMEN disease is not chronic  fatigue syndrome and vice versa, but the two diseases may share four intriguing  factors: EBV reactivation, poorly functioning NK and T-cells, the need for magnesium supplementation and possibly increased risk of lymphoma.
They  found reduced levels of the NKG2D receptors needed to turn NK and T cells into killing machines. Low levels of free magnesium turned off NK and T-cells – and allowed EBV to take up residence in the cell. Further testing indicated that infusions of magnesium sulfate and oral supplementation of magnesium threonate were more effective. This was an early study (which did make it into Science) but it suggests that something as simple as magnesium supplementation may reduce the rate of infections and possibly the risk of lymphoma in XMEN patients. Indeed, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID believes that further research into magnesium associated EBV reactivation could help patients with chronic EBV disorders. Because chronic EBV infections afflict patients of other disorders, this information may be useful for designing general therapies against EBV.
Breakthrough findings in an individual disorder are special, but developing new technology that expands our ability to understand many diseases is something else entirely.
Last month Mark Davis and his huge immune machine determined that exposures to herpesviruses, in particular, vastly altered the states of our immune system. Just last week researchers uncovered a lymphatic network in the brain that provides a new window on neuro-immune disorders. This week the journal Science published a breakthrough study that has major implications for understanding the role pathogens play in illness. Pre-Elledge –  researchers and doctors determined whether antibodies to a pathogen are present one antibody at a time. Comprehensive serological profiling of human populations using a synthetic human virome George J. The new technology was used to screen for antibody reactions to more than 1,000 strains of 206 viruses in over 500 people across the globe. Elledge said, however, that improvements to the test will enable it to pick up those antibodies.
Irving noted the test may be helpful in determining the cause of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), for instance.

We also have a related technology that reveals all the targets of autoantibodies in a blood sample.  We also plan to apply this technology to the sample blood samples to look for evidence of immune dysfunction in people with CFS.
The pattern of remission and then relapse, particularly, after stressful situation, suggested herpesviruses.
The big surprise was that his patients were reporting relief from a whole panoply of other symptoms. Apres la premiere infection, le virus de l’herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) demeure de facon latente dans le ganglion de Gasser (ganglion trigemine) et peut se reactiver a tout moment pendant la duree de vie de l’hote. Au-dela de la gene causee par ce virus, differentes etudes considerent une possible relation entre cet agent pathogene et le developpement de la maladie d’Alzheimer, comme par exemple l’etude japonaise publiee en Janvier 2013 dans la revue « Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ». L’etude portait sur 85 personnes atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer, 34 personnes souffrant de troubles cognitifs legers de type amnesique (stade prodromique de la maladie d’Alzheimer) et 28 personnes en bonne sante. Les resultats ont revele que l’indice d’avidite des anticorps IgG anti HSV-1 etait plus eleve chez les personnes atteintes de troubles cognitifs legers de type amnesique que dans les autres groupes impliques dans l’etude. Cependant cette etude est la premiere dans laquelle la presence d’une reactivation virale dans le stade precedent a la maladie d’Alzheimer a ete constatee, plus exactement dans l’etape de troubles cognitifs legers de type amnesique. L’etude indique egalement que l’indice d’avidite des anticorps IgG anti HSV-1 pourrait etre utilise comme biomarqueur dans le diagnostic precoce de la deterioration cognitive legere de type amnesique, ainsi que de la maladie d’Alzheimer. This image shows a focal point of infection by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) from one of the strains sequenced in research led by Moriah L. MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) null mutants reactivate poorly in the rabbit ocular model. Join the Microbiology Society and become part of the largest microbiology community in Europe. The Focused Meeting on Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Avian Viruses will take place 27 - 29 September at Charles Darwin House, London, UK.
Only a couple of months before, his chief collaborator, Mady Hornig (and Simmaron Scientific Advisory Board member) had given a talk.  Now Ian Lipkin was here. He most recently discovered a highly dangerous virus that recently jumped into humans called MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus).
His latest breakthrough is the development of a new screening technique that enhances researchers ability to find viruses 10,000 fold.
It took him two years but using a new method involving genetic cloning he uncovered the Borna disease virus. Jump forward thirty years(after it took the medical community almost three years to find HIV, and viruses are being discovered using molecular means every week. Lipkin shifted his work from the West to East coasts to search for the virus and ultimately identified it. Twenty-one million passengers traveling to and from 72 countries pass through New York city airports every year. A survey of one species of bats found fifty-five viruses, fifty of which were new to science. Further research indicated that MERS jumped into camels in the 1990’s, and then rapidly escaped into humans around 2010.
Lipkin consulted extensively on the movie which involved a worst-case scenario of a virus wiping out much of humanity.
He found that over 70% of the Ixodes scapularis ticks associated with Lyme disease carried at least one pathogen and 30% carried more than one in New York. If you expose the same mouse to the same pathogen later in pregnancy, it will run round and around its cage unceasingly. Knox, CEO of Coppe Healthcare Solutions, is a longtime collaborator of Simmaron Research and Dr.
We know it can be triggered by many different types of infections (Epstein-Barr virus, parvovirus, Giardia, SARS, hepatitis, etc.).
Over 50% of people with an active West Nile Virus infection still experienced fatigue, cognitive problems, headaches and muscle weakness eighteen months later. Different groups assert that Lyme disease is either a) a relatively rare disease that responds well to antibiotics or b) a common disease that often does not respond to antibiotics and often persists in a chronic state.
What if that tick bite transmitted a different infection along with the Borrelia – an infection that is resistant to antibiotics? Knox believes she will find a much greater prevalence of exposure to insect borne infections than anyone expects at this point. People with XMEN disease suffer from increased infections including upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media, viral pneumonia, diarrhea, epiglottitis, and pertussis. First they looked at the receptors on the NK and T-cells that activate them in the presence of EBV infected cells.   If the receptors are not present or are damaged the cells are effectively blind to EBV. They knew the genetics of the XMEN patients prevented them from taking up magnesium properly.  When they pumped their NK and T-cells full of magnesium (by culturing them in magnesium sulfate) the NKG2D receptors started working again.
They could elucidate problems with magnesium transportation and they could uncover other ways to fight EBV.
He pioneered a technique that quickly and thoroughly determines both the antibodies present in the blood and the strength of that response.
It found that the average person had been exposed to about ten viruses but that some had been exposed to as many as 25. He’s working on similar tests to assess autoantibodies and antibodies to bacteria and fungi.
Tomasz Kula, a co-author of the study, highlighted chronic fatigue (syndrome) as a prime candidate for this technology. We plan to use this technology to examine the blood from people with and without CFS in order to find viruses that are associated with CFS.

Michael Houghton) were awarded the Lewis S. Rosenstiel Award for Distinguished Work in Basic Medical Science. It’s also in some cases getting access to technology  being developed specifically to understand this disorder.
Pridgen is right, his protocol for treating fibromyalgia could end up turning the medical world’s conception of FM (and perhaps even chronic fatigue syndrome) on its head. Pridgen explained why the first trials result were good but not earth-shattering and why the next trial results will be better. First some background. The fact that some of the patients did get better encouraged him, but it was not until he combined it with the anti-inflammatory Celexicob (Celebrex) that he really began to see results.
Differents facteurs tels que la fievre, le rayonnement solaire, les variations extremes de temperature ou les changements hormonaux peuvent provoquer une reactivation du virus, qui se manifeste par l’apparition de petites vesicules populairement appelees boutons de fievre. L’indice d’avidite des anticorps IgG anti HSV-1, un indicateur de la reactivation du virus HSV-1, fut mesure afin de determiner s’il existait une relation entre la reactivation et la deterioration cognitive.
Plusieurs etudes ont demontre que la reactivation du virus HSV-1 est un facteur de risque determinant dans le developpement de la maladie d’Alzheimer.
L’etude souligne de plus que le traitement du HSV-1 pourrait jouer un role important dans la prevention de l’apparition de la maladie d’Alzheimer.
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Organisation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome, showing the origin of latency-associated transcripts. Exhibiting a wry sense of humor, Lipkin poked fun at himself and virtually everyone around him.
After it’s jump from primates to humans, HIV is, of course, the most familiar example, but viruses are also escaping from bats, birds, pigs, rodents, insects and even camels into humans.
As the outbreak spread, it got the attention of Senator Joesph Lieberman who sponsored the first big initiative to learn how viruses spread from animals to humans.
Lipkin estimated 320,000 viruses were still unknown and they’re bumping up against humans all the time.
It took just one Saudi Arabian to spread MERS to South Korea this year where it killed several dozen people, put several thousand others into quarantine and basically threw the country into a panic. Last year he identified a rhabdovirus (Long Island tick rhabdovirus) new not just to ticks but to science itself. Could the chronic Lyme disease patients are suffering from be a different, undiagnosed tick-borne illness? The cytotoxic T cell killing  problem was partially resolved and the NK cell killing problem was fully resolved. A decline in the number of his B-cells harboring EBV suggested that his NK and perhaps T-cells were, indeed, more effectively targeting EBV infected  B-cells.
Nor does magnesium supplementation, as common as it is, lead to a cure as it might for XMEN disease.
Williams multi-year, multi-million dollar NIH study will further investigate the effects these proteins are having in this disease. Herpesviruses, rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and enteroviruses were most commonly found viruses.
We hope this study will identify a pathogen as a likely causative agent of the disease in order to focus future study. The first treatment trial had good results but they didn’t exactly turn the FM world upside down. Throw in the fact that his patients gut problems typically got worse during stressful events and a herpesvirus infection became a viable option.
Reports concluding that LAT null mutants reactivate poorly in the mouse explant-induced reactivation (EIR) model are contradicted by a similar number of reports of normal EIR of LATa?’ mutants in mice.
XMRV turned out to be a laboratory artifact, and the paper was retracted – something Lipkin said was not all that unusual in science.
If the bats weren’t biting the humans, though, how was the bat virus jumping into people?
Schools were closed, tourists stopped coming, and parts of the economy slumped as South Korea fought off the virus. Konstance Knox will lead the first study allowed to use the rigorously collected and characterized samples from the XMRV study. Lukacs,1 Ping Jiang,1 Lixin Zheng,1 Amber Shatzer,4 Matthew Biancalana,1 Stefania Pittaluga, et. Because they continue to be produced for decades after an infection antibodies provide a library of past infective events. Geoff Langhorne asked him about that in an interview a couple of months ago and I followed up with my own questions.
Major LATs are introns of ~1.5 kb and ~2 kb that are spliced from mLAT as indicated in the figure. The New York Times reported that on any given day his lab had 140 viral research projects underway.
Sudden seizures or blindness may get you tested for West Nile virus, for instance, but more moderate flu-like symptoms it often produces probably will not.
Compared to LAT+ virus, LATa?’ virus reactivated poorly in Swiss Webster mice (P<0A·05).
The first case of West Nile Virus in the Western Hemisphere was identified in New York in 1999.

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