Herpes test in india,how to treat herpes type 1,holistic remedies for diabetic cats - You Shoud Know

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About 1 out of 6 adults in the United States have antibodies to HSV-2, the virus typically linked to genital herpes. 13.Kaiwar R, Pal SR, Gangwar DN, Saigal AK, Biswas J, Sporadic cases of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis due to Enterovirus 70. 16.Broor S, Kishore J, Dogra V, Satpathy G, Seth P, An epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by Coxsackie A24 variant.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a bacteria known as Treponema pallidum.
Syphilis can be transmitted by direct contact with syphilis sore during oral, anal and vaginal sex. The primary stage indicates a single sore or multiple sores which are usually firm, round and painless and the location of sore is where the syphilis has entered into your body that can even go unnoticed. Skin rashes, sores in your mouth, vagina or anus are some of the indications of 2nd stage of syphilis. Gonorrhoea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoea, a bacterium that grows and multiplies quickly in moist, warm areas of the body such as the cervix, urethra, mouth, or rectum.
The early symptoms of gonorrhoea are often mild, and many women who are infected have no visible symptoms of the disease. In both men and women, if gonorrhoea is left untreated, it may spread locally, causing epididymitis or pelvic inflammatory disease or throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves.
Antibiotics can cure gonorrhoea but commonly it's seen that in certain percentage of cases treated with antibiotics, resistance to antibiotic is developed due to wrongly prescribed class of antibiotics with incorrect treatment duration, the disease is not fully cured and it enters a remnant stage which we call it as Remnant Chronic gonorrhoea.
Itching inside the urethra with mild burning sensation and pain, mild pain and burning sensation after ejaculation and urination, urge to urinate often.
These symptoms are also present in Urinary Tract Infections, therefore analysing the correct history and diagnosis is important. Patients presenting with the above symptoms when the history is inquired, it always reveals that they have had the history of gonorrhoea with antibiotic therapy. If left untreated this remnant stage can cause Male Infertility by effecting the prostate gland secretion, inflammation of the epididymitis, and spermatic cord abnormality. In Females it can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, fallopian tube inflammation and cervix abnormality. Remnant Chronic gonorrhoea can be effectively and fully cured with the right combination of Herbo mineral Ayurveda treatment and thus Infertility and other complication can be prevented.
Chlamydial infection of the neck of the womb (cervicitis) is a sexually transmitted infection which is asymptomatic for about 50-70% of women infected with the disease. Chlamydia is known as the "Silent Epidemic" because in women, it may not cause any symptoms in 70'80% of cases, and can linger for months or years before being discovered. In men, Chlamydia shows symptoms of infectious urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) in about 50% of cases. It is to be noted that this disease gets undiagnosed in majority of the cases, and patients with symptoms of Chlamydia generally approaches a General Physician or Urologist who miss diagnoses it and consider the infection to be a Urinary Tract Infection and prescribes antibiotic without diagnosing specifically for Chlamydia. The bacteria remains inside the prostate gland and often causes mild discomfort with pain and burning sensation while ejaculation, and when the bacteria is present in the secretions of prostate gland it effects the quality of semen and sperm motility factors, it can invade the epididymis where in the sperm vital parameters are affected. Therefore if you have any of the above symptoms consult a specialist in STD, and get yourself tested for Chlamydial antibody test which is done by all major laboratories. In majority of the cases it's seen that the right class of antibiotics are not prescribed as per the correct duration which leads to resistance and the bacteria is not completely cured and causes symptoms in mild intensity on and off. Therefore with the right combination and targeted Herbo Mineral Ayurveda Medicine complete eradication of the bacteria is possible and the disease can be fully cured within few months of treatment depending upon the case. Genital warts (or condylomata acuminata, venereal warts, anal warts and anogenital warts) are symptoms of a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by some types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Over 100 types of HPVs have been identified; about 40 of these types have the potential to infect the genital area. Most genital warts are caused by two specific types of the virus (HPV-6 and -11), and these HPV types are considered "low risk," meaning they have a low cancer-causing potential. It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact, usually during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. They can be as small as 1-5mm in diameter, but can also grow or spread into large masses in the genital or anal area. A routine Pap smear should always be done in order to look for evidence of HPV infection and abnormal cells on the cervix.
Genital Warts has to be treated with active Herbo Mineral Ayurveda Medicine to attack and kill the HPV virus, along with the internal medicine, external application of drugs and parasurgical procedures like Raktamokshana (blood letting), Ksharakarma (chemical cauterization) and Agnikarma (thermal cauterization) has to be done to remove the warts. These indigenous treatment methods are minimal invasive procedures which do not cause the scar formation, no recurrence and found to be more beneficial in the treatment of warts.
Lekhana karma (scraping procedure) - Mixture of lime and copper sulphate paste should be applied over the wart, after five minutes the area should be rubbed by the stalk of the betel leaf (Piper betle) from the base continuously till cutting of the full base of the wart.
Application of the Kshara Jala (alkali lotion) - The concentrated Kshara Jala should be applied only over the warts for about 4-5 h for every day till it falls. Ligation of the horse hair or Kshara sutra ' Horse hair or Kshara sutra should be tied after applying around the base of wart.
Thermal cauterization (Agnikarma) ' After giving local anethesia at base, the warts can be excised by red hot Shalaka (pointed metallic rod) or electro cautery.
Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons aged 14–49 years—United States, 2005–2008. Healthwise, Incorporated, disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information.
Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques were applied on 74 conjunctival swabs during the 1996 outbreak of acute viral conjunctivitis. Laboratory investigations on viral and chlamydia trachomatis infections of the eye : Sankara nethralaya experiences.
The ocular diseases considered in this review are viral conjunctivitis (of sufficient public health importance in India), congenital cataract due to rubella virus (a preventable viral disease), and acute viral retinal inflammation (a blinding ocular disease).
General principles of laboratory diagnostic methods for viral, rickettisial and chlamydial infections. Evaluation of laboratory tests for diagnosis of chalmydial infections in conjunctival specimens. Evaluation of rapid culture method for detection of adenovirus from conjunctival specimens. Development and use of nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of adenovirus from conjunctivitis specimens. Rapid diagnosis of adenoviral conjunctivitis by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
Comparison of an ELISA technique with quantal micro-neutralisation test for seroryping of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infected patients. The Syphilis Sores are usually found on the lips and in the mouth, penis, vagina, anus and in the rectum.
The rashes may appear over one or more areas of your body and may show up after the primary sore gets healed.
In many cases it is seen that the patient hide many of his sexual behavior aspects from the doctor thereby leading to wrong prescription of antibiotics that do not cure the infection completely.
If symptoms of gonorrhoea develop, they usually appear within 2 to 10 days after sexual contact with an infected partner, although a small percentage of patients may be infected for several months without showing symptoms. This infection is easily spread because it often causes no symptoms and may be unknowingly passed to sexual partners. Symptoms that may occur include unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, pain in the abdomen, painful sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), fever, painful urination or the urge to urinate more frequently than usual (urinary urgency).


Symptoms that may occur include: a painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge from the penis, swollen or tender testicles, or fever. Thus proper class and correct duration of antibiotic therapy is not done in majority of the patients.
PID can cause scarring inside the reproductive organs, which can later cause serious complications, including chronic pelvic pain, difficulty becoming pregnant, ectopic (tubal) pregnancy, and other dangerous complications of pregnancy.
The bacteria can reside inside the prostate gland and epididymis of Males and cause symptoms.
Genital warts may look like small, flesh-colored bumps or have a cauliflower-like appearance. They may be found anywhere in the anal or genital area, and are frequently found on external surfaces of the body, including the penile shaft, scrotum, labia majora of the vagina, or around the anus. Sometimes warts may cause itching, redness, or discomfort, especially when they occur around the anus.
This technique involves the application of 5% acetic acid solution to the area of suspicion for about 5-10 minutes. In females, a colposcope may be used to look for lesions in the vaginal canal and on the cervix. In predisposed patients, bacterial or viral infection could trigger cross-reactive autoimmune responses resulting in Behcet's disease. PCR is used mainly for testing spinal fluid in rare cases when herpes may have caused an infection in or around the brain.
The occurrence of Rubella virus in 86 lens aspirates of congenital cataract was investigated. The rashes look like red, reddish brown and rough spots on the bottom of your feet or palm of your hands which is usually non-itchy and are faint enough that sometimes remain unnoticed.
The later stage symptoms include paralysis, blindness, numbness, difficulty in coordinating your muscle movements and dementia. When the disease enters the second stage it becomes resistant to the antibiotics developing many complications.
However, the disease can also spread to the uterus (womb) and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease leading to infertility. Of those who have an asymptomatic infection that is not detected by their doctor, approximately half will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a generic term for infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Discharge, or the purulent exudate, is generally less viscous and lighter in color than for gonorrhoea. When such patients takes a course of antibiotics, generally its seen that the major symptoms of Chlamydia subsides which makes the patient think that the infection has been cured, but generally what happens in such cases is, the bacterium still remains active and cause mild symptoms on and off. It can also be one major reason for Pelvic Inflammatory disease in females, thus it's seen that in majority of the patients after antibiotic therapy the bacteria still remains and over a period of time it can lead to many complication including Male Female Infertility. They can also occur on internal surfaces like the opening to the urethra, inside the vagina, on the cervix, or in the anus.
Although they are usually without other physical symptoms, an outbreak of genital warts may cause psychological distress, such as anxiety, in some people. Symptoms include sore throat, headaches, patchy hair loss, fever, swollen lymph glands, muscle aches, weight loss and fatigue . Gonorrhoea is most commonly spread during genital contact, but can also be passed from the genitals of one partner to the throat of the other during oral sex.
If left untreated, it is possible for Chlamydia in men to spread to the testicles causing epididymitis, which in rare cases can cause sterility if not treated within 6 to 8 weeks. We describe a case of Behcet's disease occurring in HIV positive patient with false positive veneral disease research laboratory (VDRL) test.A 32-year-old married female presented with multiple skin colored to erythematous painful papules and plaques over neck and shoulder. We have, however, excluded a review of our investigations of viral keratitis because of the large volume of the results and discussions required. Without right medication your infection can possibly reach to the latent and late stage of syphilis. A person with syphilis infection for a year or less is considered an 'early' case and the person can easily infect his sex partner. She also had history of recurrent oral and genital erosions and ulcerations, four to five episodes in 1-year duration which used to heal in a span of 2-3 weeks with treatment, details of which could not be found.
The early stage of syphilis indicates swelling in the nearby lymph nodes or single, painless and small sore.
Such chances of infection are more among men having sex with another men but women and the unborn child are also at higher risk. Hameed Ibrahim can effectively cure the infection in few months based on the type of syphilis. In pregnant women, gonorrhoea can be passed from an infected woman to her newborn infant during delivery if left untreated. The patient was also having moderate grade fever and joint pains, with difficulty in continuing her daily routine activities. If you find any such symptoms then immediately consult your specialist for early detection and proper treatment. Her spouse expired due to high-risk sexual behavior and chronic alcoholism.On examination there were multiple erythematous, tender, infiltrated papulo-nodules coalescing into plaque predominantly over neck and shoulder [Figure 1]. Examination of the oral cavity showed multiple superficial erosions with surrounding rim of erythema over the hard palate and gingiva.
Adenovirus antigen was tested by indirect FAT using rabbit anti-adenovirus antiserum (National Institute of Health, USA) and Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated swine anti-rabbit immunogiobulin (Dako, Denmark). Syphilis can transmit HIV to someone during sex and if you are pregnant then it can lead to birth defects. Genital examination revealed single erosion over labia along with multiple healed atrophic scars [Figure 2]. Adenoviruses were isolated by inoculating 100ml of the specimen in HBSS or 2SP medium into tubes of monolayer of HEp-2 cells obtained from the National Facility for Animal and Tissue Cell Culture (NFATCC), Pune, India. When cytopathic effects involved about 80% of cells, they were scraped and stained by indirect FAT as described above. The viral isolates were identified by the micro-neutralisation test (NT)[6],[7] using the available anti-adenoviral antiserum types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7a, and 14 (NIAID antisera, ATCC, Rockville, MD, USA). In due course, she developed multiple papules at the sites of blood collection within 48 hours indicating positive pathergy test [Figure 4]. For the detection of HSV, the smears were stained by indirect FAT using polyclonal rabbit antibody (DAKO, Denmark) against the virus and FITC-conjugated swine anti-rabbit immunoglobulin serum (DAKO, Denmark), or direct FAT using FITC-conjugated polyclonal rabbit anti-HSV antibody.
On investigations erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised with 42 mm at the end of 1 hour. Indirect FAT was done for this purpose using EV 70 and Coxsackie A 24 monoclonal antibodies (Chemicon, USA) and FITC-conjugated anti-mouse antiserum (DAKO, Denmark).C. The growth of the organism was detected by FAT using FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibody against MOMP of C. Gradual resolution of skin lesions was seen with decrease in oral and genital ulcers over a period of 2 months. Patient was also referred for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and further investigations and management to ART center in our institute. The presence of more than one punctate or round fluorescent green body [Figure - 2] (not yellow) indicated chlamydial elementary or inclusion bodies. Unfortunately the patient was lost to follow-up.Biological false positive VDRL test are seen in various conditions like, lupus erythematosus, lepromatous leprosy, infectious mononucleosis, malaria, viral hepatitis, relapsing fever, tropical eosinophilia, narcotic abuse, old age, malignancies and Behcet's disease with HIV infection as in our case. The sensitivity and specificity of nPCR were determined using DNA from ATCC VR-846 adenovirus serotype 2 (Ad 2) and DNA of viruses and bacteria that commonly cause conjunctivitis. HIV-induced disturbances in the immune system may result in clinical or immunological findings usually associated with autoimmune diseases and increased susceptibility to certain viral infections.


We also applied the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique[9] on the amplified products of the conjunctival specimens using restriction enzymes Hae III and Hinf I (Bangalore Genei, India). Standardised RFLP technique was applied on the amplified products of conjunctival specimens obtained during the outbreak of acute conjunctivitis in late 1996.
However, patient was lost to follow-up.This case highlights both clinical resemblance to secondary syphilis and biological false positive VDRL test in a setting of HIV infection in a patient with Behcet's disease, creating diagnostic dilemma. Whether HIV infection or Behcet's disease is a cause of false positive VDRL can not be said in our case. The specimen was mixed well using a Cyclomix (Remi, India) and 100 ml lots were inoculated into BHK 21 and Vero cell lines (NFATCC). Thus, Behcet's disease may cause false positive VDRL; hence advised TPHA is advisable to confirm diagnosis of syphilis. The smears were stained by indirect FAT using suitably diluted hyperimmune anti-rubella human serum and FTTC-conjugated polyclonal anti-human immunoglobulin (DAKO, Denmark).
The hyperimmune anti-rubella serum was prepared from sterile pooled convalescent sera of patients with proven rubella virus infection and standardised to the dilution required to detect only rubella antigen and not other virus antigens commonly associated with ocular clinical specimens. If the virus was not isolated in the first passage, three more blind passages were made and scraped cells were stained for the growth of the virus before the specimen was declared negative for rubella virus.
The clinical diagnoses made in these cases were: acute retinal necrosis (27 patients), multifocal choroiditis (1), granulomatous uveitis (1), and CMV retinitis (3).
The methods used were as described by us earlier.[10] Aqueous humor (AH) and vitreous fluid (VF) collected as diagnostic tap or during therapeutic vitrectomy were tested for the presence of these viruses by FAT on direct smears and by virus isolation in diploid cell lines (MRC-5 and WI38 obtained from NFATCC) and Vero cell line. Detection of HSV in the direct smear and by isolation from the intraocular specimens was made as described above. For detection of CMV in the direct smears and identification of the isolate, indirect FAT was done using the monoclonal anti-CMV serum and rabbit anti-mouse serum obtained from DAKO, Denmark.
Optimally diluted VZV hyperimmune human serum was used for detection and identification of the virus in the specimen by indirect immunofluorescence using FITC conjugated anti-human globulin antibody (DAKO, Denmark).
The hyperimmune anti-varicella zoster virus serum was prepared from sterile pooled convalescent sera of patients of proven varicella zoster virus infection and standardised to the dilution to detect only VZV antigen and not other virus antigens commonly associated with ocular clinical specimens.
Serum samples were assayed for IgG and IgM antibodies to HSV, VZV and CMV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
ELISA tests were done on the first serum samples as soon as they were received for tentative initial diagnosis and they were later tested again along with subsequent samples (if available) at one sitting for assay of rise in antibody titres. For the assay of anti-HSV antibodies, microwell modules (Nunc-immuno module, Denmark) coated with HSV antigen prepared from HSV type 1 strain # 753166 supplied by the National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune, India were used.
This antigen was prepared as described by Fortier et al[11] with virus grown on Vero cell line. ELISA tests for assay of antibodies to CMV (Diamedix, USA) and for VZV (Novum Diagnostica, Germany & Melotest, Spain) were done. If the serum was positive for HIV antibody, it was reconfirmed at the YRG-Centre, Chennai by the western blot method.
Serotypes isolated during these epidemics were Adenovirus type 4 in 1991, type 3 in 1992-93 and type 7a in 1996. However, 20 isolates could not be identified due to the non-availability of several type specific antisera. The study suggests that PCR on conjunctival swabs is a rapid and reliable tool for the detection of in conjunctivitis. RFLP done on the amplified products of DNA of conjunctival specimens during the 1996 epidemic clearly showed a pattern similar to that of the standard strain of adenovirus 7a (ATCC VR-1084) as shown in [Figure - 3]. VZV was detected in AH of a case of granulomatous uveitis and the serum of this patient was positive for antibodies to HIV 1 and 2. CMV retinitis occurred in two patients who were on immunosuppressive therapy following renal transplantation. Thus, 19 patients in this series had acute retinal inflammation with proven viral infection. Often no importance is given to the required investigations, since most of these diseases are self-limiting in nature. Adenovirus conjunctivitis has more often caused epidemics [12, 13] either as epidemic kerato-conjunctivitis (EKC) or pharyngo-conjunctival fever (PCF). EKC, predominantly caused by serotypes 8, 19 and 37 and less commonly by serotypes 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 11, 21, and 29 is the most serious manifestation of adenovirus kerato-conjunctivitis. PCF, a disease commonly affecting children, is most commonly caused by serotypes 3, 4, 5 and 7. Though our experience indicates that adenoviruses were the most common causes of sporadic instances and epidemics of acute conjunctivitis in Chennai, there have been reports mainly of epidemics due to EV 70 and Coxsackie virus A 24 variant in India.[13][14][15][16] We believe such studies were undertaken only when pandemics due to these viruses occurred.
However, our attempts to isolate these viruses in Vero and HEp-2 cell lines were unsuccessful. We wish to emphasise that only sporadic cases of infections due to these viruses were recorded in our laboratory during 1995-98. Our most important finding was the occurrence of a large (20.9%) number of laboratory-proven C trachomatis conjunctivitis. In our earlier study[20] on consecutive patients of conjunctivitis during the period September 1991 to September 1992, 36.4% of patients had C. Application of PCR and RFLP techniques may be of great value in the further study of adenoviral conjunctivitis.One of the important clinical features associated with congenitally acquired Rubella infection is cataract. Rubella virus can be recovered from most infants from nasopharyngeal secretions and other organ systems with severe congenitally acquired Rubella. Since Rubella virus persists for 1-3 years in the lens, its isolation is diagnostic of congenital cataract due to this virus. In our study, nearly 8% of lenses with congenital cataract yielded Rubella virus, which we believe formed a significant percentage of this disease. This could have been prevented if immunisation against this virus infection been mandatory for girls in our country.Viral infections of the retina, if left untreated, often lead to blindness. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), a distinct ocular inflammatory syndrome, is characterised by a severe, occlusive vasculitis primarily involving the arteries of the retina as well as the choroid, resulting in full-thickness, diffuse necrotising retinitis.
In this series, predominant among the virus as causing ARN was VZV, followed by HSV and CMV. Almost all our patients with proven intraocular viral infections were apparently healthy except for one HIV-positive patient with VZV infection and two CMV retinitis patients who were on immunosuppressive agents because of renal transplants. Rapid virological diagnosis did help in prompt institution of specific chemotherapy and supportive measures resulted in useful vision in some of the patients as reported by us earlier.[26] In this report, we described the clinical and virological features of 5 cases of viral retinitis.
One patient with CMV retinitis showed excellent response to intravenous ganciclovir and another with HSV retinitis responded to acyclovir treatment. The microscopic techniques described here can be followed as an annexe to a bacteriology laboratory. Substantial resources in terms of virologists, trained technicians and laboratory facilities are needed for virus isolation.
Serological tests using commercially available reagents may be performed for the commonly encountered viruses but the results require careful evaluation and interpretation.
Finally, molecular biological techniques should be employed by larger diagnostic virology laboratories because of their specialised needs and the cost factor.



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