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Once a cat has Eye Herpes they will always have it in their system, despite the fact it may lie dormant for months at a time.
Adrienne Kawamura, Founder and Owner of City Kitty®, is one of the first National Certified Feline Master Groomers, NCGIA. Even high-dose antiherpetic therapy may not be enough to quell short bursts of subclinical genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation, which may account for the continued transmission of HSV despite suppressive antiviral therapy. Researchers from the University of Washington, Seattle, United States, conducted 3 separate but complementary open-label crossover studies that compared standard-dose acyclovir (400 mg twice daily), standard-dose valacyclovir (500 mg daily), high-dose acyclovir (800 mg 3 times daily), high-dose valacyclovir (1 g 3 times daily), and no medication. In all, 23,605 swabs were collected from 90 patients, of which 5.4% were HSV-positive and 80% were subclinical. TweetThe eye is a highly sensitive organ to light, pressure and other sensations like itching and pain. It is important understand certain terms when discussing and assessing any disease of the eye. Iritis is inflammation of the iris, the front part of the middle layer of the eye, which is the pigmented part of the eye that is responsible for the variation in eye color among people. Neuritis is the inflammation of the nerve and in relation to the eye, optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve.
The cornea and conjunctivata of the eye are prone to injury and infections as it makes direct contact with the environment when the eyelids are open.
Contact lens keratitis – inflammation of the cornea due to irritation by contact lens which may be non-infectious (sterile) or infectious.
Herpes simplex keratitis which is also viral in nature and caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Fungal infections are uncommon but more likely seen in immunocompromised patients (HIV-positive particularly). Photokeratitis which is also known as welder’s keratitis or UV keratitis, is induced by exposure to very bright light, either articifical or natural (sunlight). Corneal ulceration is seen with severe mechanical or chemical trauma, long term inflammation particularly in infections that are left untreated and persistent inflammation of the eyelids (blepharitis). Scleritis, which is the inflammation of the whites of the eye, may be seen along with conjunctivitis or keratitis. Iritis rarely arises on its own but may be associated with scleritis or the other parts that make up the middle layer of the eye (uvea) including the choroid and ciliary body.
Blepharitis is inflammation of the eyelids and may also involve the eyes, particularly the conjunctiva, cornea and sclera. Inverted eyelid (entropion) where the eyelid is turned inside and rubs against the cornea thereby causing corneal abrasion.
Everted eyelid (ectropion) where the eyelid is turned outwards and exposes the eye to air thereby leading to dry eyes. It is important to understand the different parts of the eye when considering pain emanating from this area. To the inner side (medial) is the nose (nasal cavity) and the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. Above the eye lies the frontal sinus as well as the brain and meninges housed within the cranial cavity. The skull itself has many superficial muscles which may also be responsible for pain in and around the eye. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Eye strain, from looking at a computer screen and reading for too long, does not cause eye pain as such although there is soreness.
Orbital cellulitis is inflammation of the fat surrounding the eyeball and often extending to neighboring structures including the eye, forehead (eyebrows), cheek and eyelids.
This infectious condition is mostly isolated to the eyeball but can involve surrounding tissue like the eyelids and skin of the forehead and even cheek.
Ask a Doctor Online Now!Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis. A retrospective study of the clinical presentation and outcome of herpes zoster in a tertiary dermatology outpatient referral clinic.
Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in patients at risk for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Natural history of herpes zoster ophthalmicus: predictors of postherpetic neuralgia and ocular involvement. Varicella zoster virus retrobulbar optic neuritis preceding retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Valaciclovir compared with acyclovir for improved therapy for herpes zoster in immunocompetent adults.
Comparison of the efficacy and safety of valaciclovir and acyclovir for the treatment of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Most prevalent are Persians as their sinus cavity is compressed and it is a perfect breeding ground for bacteria to form.
As I am typing this she is sitting on a shelf she hasn't been able to jump to in a long time. Looking fabulous is our job, and we trust no one else with our beautiful tresses but Adrienne and Uncle Earl at City Kitty.


With Adrienne’s help and advice, Mac is now healthy and happy – and much better looking, too!
We believe in a holistic approach for the care of your cat and see beyond the needs of their hair. She holds a Master Cat Groomer Certification and is a Master Cat Groomer Certifier with Professional Cat Groomers Association of America. Since it is exposed to the environment and lacks the protection of skin, apart from the eyelids, the eyes are prone to injury and diseases. Due to its close relationship with the underling uvea (middle layer of the eye comprising the choroid, ciliary body and iris), it may be associated with inflammations in these areas. It is commonly caused by infections, toxicity associated with substances used during intraocular surgery, an artifical lens, foreign bodies, trauma or spread of cancer (metastasis). It usually arises at the base of the eyelid where oil glands (sebaceous glands) occur with the hair follicles (eyelashes).
The eye is housed in the bony area of the skull known as the orbit, or simply as the socket.
To the outer side (lateral) lies the large temporal muscles which play a role in chewing (mastication). Herpes zoster opthalmicus (HZO) is caused by the varicella zoster virus which is also responsible for chickenpox and shingles. It is a member of the same family (Herpesviridae) as herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Because the nasociliary branch innervates the globe, the most serious ocular involvement develops if this branch is affected.
A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. Cats that have come out of a shelter situation are prone to have this, although most cats were born with it.
We also want to be on the Facebook page of City Kitty before Red Butler kicks our butts off the bus!
Its location and closeness to several other highly sensitive structures may also be a factor to consider when investigating eye pain.
Vasculitis which is systemic inflammation of blood vessels may also be a cause of scleritis. It can be acute or chronic and may be due to physical trauma, infections, cancer or autoimmune diseases that are not normally associated with inflammation of the eye.
One of the most prominent causes of eye pain associated with the internal structures is that of raised intraocular pressure (high eye pressure).
Optic neuritis is more commonly due to autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.
This area may be prone to various skin diseases, infections, allergies and non-infectious inflammatory conditions. It has become extremely common these days due to the widespread use of computers and has been termed computer vision syndrome.
Most patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus present with a periorbital vesicular rash distributed according to the affected dermatome. Reactivation of the latent virus in neurosensory ganglia produces the characteristic manifestations of herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles. Classically, involvement of the tip of the nose (Hutchinson's sign) has been thought to be a clinical predictor of ocular involvement.
This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. It is simply an opthamolic antibiotic that when used daily for 4-5 days will clear up the eyes. In these cases, the pain may not be emanating from the eye or eyeball itself but referred from surrounding areas.
Any condition affecting the cornea or its neighboring parts like the anterior chamber of the eye which is filled with the clear watery aqueous humor, the iris and its peripheral attachment known as the ciliary body can induce pain. The outermost part of the sclera, known as the episclera, may be inflamed and this is known as episcleritis. It may lead to glaucoma and patients with a specific type of glaucoma known as angle-closure glaucoma are more likely to experience pain particularly in acute cases. Other causes may not be specific for the optic nerve and involve other parts of the eye or socket.
Orbital cellulitis is a very dangerous condition and should be considered a medical emergency. A minority of patients may also develop conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, and ocular cranial-nerve palsies.
Normal aging, poor nutrition, and immunocompromised status correlate with outbreaks of herpes zoster, and certain factors such as physical or emotional stress and fatigue may precipitate an episode.Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when reactivation of the latent virus in the trigeminal ganglia involves the ophthalmic division of the nerve. Treatment includes topical capsaicin cream, over-the-counter analgesics, tricyclic antidepressants, and anticonvulsants.18Cranial nerve palsies involving the third (most common), fourth, and sixth nerves may occur rarely (Figure 5). Other signs and symptoms, ocular (eye) or non-ocular, may therefore provide a clue to the possible.


It arises with infections like herpes zoster, syphilis and tuberculosis or non-infectious disorders like rheumatoid arthritis or Sjogren’s syndrome. This includes infections, drugs, radiation and systemic autoimmune conditions like vasculitis or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Permanent sequelae of ophthalmic zoster infection may include chronic ocular inflammation, loss of vision, and debilitating pain. These days with the widespread use of contact lens, the cornea is even more at risk of injury and infections. Antiviral medications such as acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir remain the mainstay of therapy and are most effective in preventing ocular involvement when begun within 72 hours after the onset of the rash.
Direct ocular involvement is not specifically correlated with age, gender, or severity of disease. Optic neuritis has been noted in about one in 400 cases and may precede retinal disease or follow acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus infection (Figure 6).17,19,20The rightsholder did not grant rights to reproduce this item in electronic media. Oral acyclovir may be beneficial as an adjunct to topical antivirals and topical steroids in severe cases of zoster keratouveitis.
Timely diagnosis and management of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, with referral to an ophthalmologist when ophthalmic involvement is present, are critical in limiting visual morbidity. Patients may develop blepharitis and present with ptosis secondary to edema and inflammation.
A vast majority of patients will have vesicular lesions on the eyelids that resolve with minimal scarring.Conjunctivitis is one of the most common complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus.
The conjunctiva appears injected and edematous, often with petechial hemorrhages.9 The findings usually resolve within one week. The clinical features of corneal disease include direct viral infection, antigen-antibody reactions, delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, and neurotrophic damage.7 Patients with corneal disease present with varying degrees of decreased vision, pain, and light sensitivity. Corneal complications occur in approximately 65 percent of cases of herpes zoster ophthalmicus.7Epithelial Keratitis. The earliest corneal finding is punctate epithelial keratitis.10 On slit lamp examination, this appears as multiple, focal, swollen lesions that stain with rose bengal or fluorescein dye. These lesions probably contain live virus and may either resolve or progress to dendrite formation. Punctate epithelial keratitis may present as early as one or two days after the initial skin rash, while dendrites often present at four to six days but can appear many weeks later.11Herpes zoster virus dendrites appear as elevated plaques and consist of swollen epithelial cells.
Dendrites also stain with rose bengal and fluorescein dye ( Figure 2, part b) and can be viewed by Wood's lamp or slit lamp examination.
The earliest finding of corneal stromal involvement presents during the second week of disease, occurring in 25 to 30 percent of patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus.13 The condition, known as anterior stromal keratitis or nummular keratitis, is characterized by multiple fine granular infiltrates in the anterior corneal stroma below the epithelial layer (Figure 3).
Most of the infiltrates lie directly beneath pre-existing dendrites or areas of punctate epithelial keratitis.
This later stage of stromal keratitis is relatively uncommon and typically develops three to four months after the initial acute episode, but development can range from one month to many years later.7 It is usually central and preceded by anterior stromal keratitis.
The keratitis may present as a lesion consisting of a localized area of inflammation affecting all levels of the stroma, or as peripheral infiltrates that may have a surrounding immune ring.
Corneal edema may be a prominent feature at this stage, usually with associated anterior chamber inflammation.
A chronic relapsing course is not unusual, especially without timely and adequate treatment. Corneal neovascularization and lipid infiltrates may occur in patients with uncontrolled chronic disease.
The pathogenesis of stromal disease probably involves a delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction.Neurotrophic Keratopathy. Neurotrophic keratitis is the end result of decreased corneal sensation from herpes zoster virus-mediated destruction, including susceptibility to mechanical trauma, decreased lacrimation, and delayed epithelial healing.7 Corneal thinning is a serious complication that may lead to corneal perforation. Using preservative-free lubricating drops and ointment can prevent the development of epithelial defects.UVEITISAnterior uveitis, which is diagnosed by slit lamp examination, refers to inflammation of the iris and ciliary body and occurs frequently with herpes zoster ophthalmicus.
The inflammation is generally mild and transient, but it frequently causes a mild elevation in intraocular pressure.
As with stromal keratitis, the course of disease may be prolonged, especially without timely, adequate treatment.
Chronic inflammation can lead to endothelial cell injury, resulting in corneal edema.EPISCLERITIS AND SCLERITISFindings of episcleritis include localized or diffuse redness, as well as pain and swelling of the conjunctiva and episclera. Both conditions may be accompanied by localized stromal keratitis.ACUTE RETINAL NECROSIS AND PROGRESSIVE OUTER RETINAL NECROSIS SYNDROMESHerpes zoster virus is considered the offending agent in most cases of acute retinal necrosis and progressive outer retinal necrosis syndromes. Acute retinal necrosis is characterized by peripheral patches of retinal necrosis that rapidly coalesce (Figure 4), occlusive vasculitis, and vitreous inflammation.
Conversely, immunocompromised patients with progressive outer retinal necrosis are unable to mount a vitreous inflammatory response, leading to rapid involvement of the macula.



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