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Human herpesvirus 6: A herpes virus that apparently lies dormant in many people, human herpesvirus 6 is most likely to cause problems when the immune system is compromised by disease, as in AIDS patients, or by deliberate immune suppression, as in organ transplant patients.
This document is a summary of the current published science about human-to-human transmission of Ebola virus. The risk of Ebola virus transmission from direct skin contact with an Ebola patient is lower than the risk from exposure to blood or body fluids but may be more likely in severe illness (when the Ebola virus RNA levels are highest). The maximum recorded persistence of Ebola virus RNA in the blood and other body fluids of convalescent Ebola patients varies by fluid type, but data are limited.
A substantial number of healthcare personnel have acquired Ebola in the 2014 outbreak in West Africa,2 and investigations to understand risk factors for Ebola virus transmission are ongoing. In outbreak investigations, some Ebola patients have not reported contact with another Ebola patient, leading to speculation regarding transmission via aerosolized virus particles. Most of the evidence regarding human-to-human transmission of Ebola virus is derived from investigations of previous Ebola outbreaks. Ebola among healthcare personnel and other people is associated with direct contact with symptomatic people with Ebola (or the bodies of people who have died from Ebola) and direct contact with body fluids from Ebola patients. Each bar represents the arithmetic mean value, and the error bars represent 1 standard error of the mean for each time point. En el ambito medico se define paralisis facial a la perdida absoluta del movimiento muscular voluntario de un lado del rostro humano. El nervio facial, conocido tambien con el nombre de septimo par craneano, es una estructura organizada por pares que se extiende por un conducto oseo estrecho (el canal de Falopio) del craneo.
Se trata de un nervio mixto (formado por fibras eferentes y motoras) y doble que se encuentra en la cara. La paralisis facial puede surgir como una consecuencia directa de un trauma de nacimiento, por un tumor cerebral (en estos casos, surge de manera lenta y se manifiesta con dolores de cabeza, convulsiones o perdida de la audicion) o por un accidente cerebrovascular (el ojo en el lado afectado se cierra y la frente se arruga). A su vez las paralisis faciales pueden ser centrales o perifericas, de acuerdo al grado de la lesion, a la zona que afecte y a cuales hayan sido las causas que lo provocaron.
La explicacion cientifica de este problema es que se debe a una lesion provocada por la mala circulacion de la sangre en el nervio facial o por una infeccion que se desarrollo en el mismo nervio, generalmente como causa de un virus. La paralisis facial traumatica es causada por traumatismos externos consecuencia de accidentes de trafico que afectaron a la cabeza, accidentes durante el parto, operaciones en la region del cerebro que no se realizaron correctamente o por heridas de arma blanca en esta misma region. En el caso de la paralisis causada por herpes zoster (un virus peligroso), los sintomas que mas se manifiestan son perdida de audicion y vertigos. Uno de los tratamientos que se realizan para tratar la paralisis es a traves de fisioterapia.
De todos modos, antes de llegar a este punto es necesario que un medico especialista en neurologia realice un diagnostico para saber cual es el tratamiento adecuado, de acuerdo al tipo de paralisis facial frente a la que se este. Los ejercicios de la fisioterapia tienen como objetivo fundamental incentivar al paciente a comprometerse con el tratamiento, a trabajar duro siendo consciente de que posiblemente no vea avances hasta bastante despues de comenzado dicho tratamiento.
En lo que respecta al tratamiento, en ciertos casos de paralisis facial, se recomiendan esteroides y aciclovir. Otros recursos empleados en el tratamiento es el suministro de corticoides, que evita que el nervio continue deteriorandose; ademas, si las causas han sido un virus, debe desarrollarse un tratamiento para combatirlo y suministrar vitamina B que permitira conseguir una sana rehabilitacion del nervio. Genital HSV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in both men and women, but as many as 90% don’t know they are infected because their symptoms are too mild to notice or mistaken for another condition. Symptomatic genital herpes is characterized by a burning and itching sensation in the genitals, followed by blistering. HSV skin lesions usually appears as small blisters or sores around the mouth, nose, genitals, buttocks, and lower back, though infections can develop almost anywhere on the skin. This photo shows HSV-1 lesions on the buttock of a five-year-old girl — also called sacral herpes simplex.
Herpetic whitlow is an intensely painful infection of the hand involving 1 or more fingers that typically affects the terminal phalanx.
Serologic testing for HSV has limited value in acute clinical diagnosis because of the time delay for seroconversion following initial infection.


Acyclovir, valacyclovir and famciclovir are the most commonly used agents for treating HSV infections. A wide disparity exists between the public and medical community regarding the significance of herpes infections. The majority of recurrent oral herpes cases are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the majority of genital herpes cases are caused by HSV-2. Differentiating between the two types of infection using either type specific swab testing, preferably PCR, or type specific IgG antibody testing, is very important because HSV-1 genitally recurs less, is shed less, and presents far less risk of transmission to others than HSV-2. Fifty seven percent of Americans between 14 and 49 have HSV-1, and 16% of the same group has HSV-2 infection.
It is not known if transmission from direct skin contact is mediated by Ebola virus primarily on the skin where it has been documented by histopathology14 and RT-PCR of a skin swab15 or by micro-contamination of the skin with blood or other body fluids. Across combined studies (each study did not examine the exact same fluid types at the same time points), Ebola virus RNA was detected up to 199 days after symptom onset in semen from one Ebola survivor,20 and up to 33 days from vaginal swabs, 29 days from rectal swabs, 23 days in urine, 22 days from conjunctival swabs, 21 days in blood, 15 days in breast milk, eight days in saliva, and six days on skin (Table 1).15,18,19,21 Given the relatively small number of patients in these persistence studies, durations may underestimate the longest that Ebola virus can persist in the blood and body fluids or in immunologically privileged sites of individual Ebola patients.
Ebola Virus Disease in West Africaa€”The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections. Transmission of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: a study of risk factors in family members, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995: risk factors for patients without a reported exposure. Interventions to control virus transmission during an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: experience from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: discovery and control measures. Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome. A novel immunohistochemical assay for the detection of Ebola virus in skin: implications for diagnosis, spread, and surveillance of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Clinical virology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF): virus, virus antigen, and IgG and IgM antibody findings among EHF patients in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. Persistence and genetic stability of Ebola virus during the outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995.
Clinical, virologic, and immunologic follow-up of convalescent Ebola hemorrhagic fever patients and their household contacts, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Aerosol exposure to Zaire Ebolavirus in three nonhuman primate species: differences in disease course and clinical pathology. Transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory.
Functional analysis and treatment of human-directed undesirable behavior exhibited by a captive chimpanzee. Evaluation of transmission risks associated with in vivo replication of several high containment pathogens in a biosafety level 4 laboratory.
Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak. Las personas contamos con dos nervios faciales, cada uno hace posible el movimiento de los musculos de cada lado y transporta impulsos nerviosos hacia las glandulas lagrimales, las glandulas salivares y los musculos del estribo. En el 70% de los casos la afeccion surge por razones desconocidas y se denomina frigore, o paralisis de Bell; en el 25% se da como consecuencia de alguna enfermedad o accidente cerebral, en estos casos de la llama paralisis facial traumatica. En casi todos los casos aparece de forma brusca y si se recibe un tratamiento adecuado, podra haber recuperacion (el 80% de los casos se rehabilitan completamente).
Antes de comenzar con los ejercicios de cada sesion, el fisioterapeuta realiza un estudio exhaustivo de la motricidad de la cara para tener constancia de la evolucion que se esta obteniendo con el tratamiento; para ello pide al enfermo que responda a una serie de comandos que tienen como finalidad saber como estan reaccionando sus musculos faciales.
Cuando el paciente ha sido debidamente analizado y se ha realizado un diagnostico de su paralisis es cuando debe comenzarse con la fisioterapia.
La motivacion es fundamental y para ello se recomienda a los pacientes utilizar cuanto mas puedan la region afectada, mascando chicle, hablando de forma articulatoria, etc.


Cuando el ojo no puede ser cerrado de forma total, es necesario proteger la cornea contra la resequedad usando gotas o un gel oftalmico lubricante de prescripcion medica. In women who contract the disease, the cervix is infected 80% to 90% of the time during primary infection.
This photo shows a close-up of lesions on the upper eyelid in a 20-year-old male patient due to HSV-1. Of patients who develop seropositivity, 65% do so within six weeks, while approximately 20% do not make antibodies for six months. While all three drugs decrease the duration and severity of illness and viral shedding, they have no effect on nonreplicating viruses, nor do they eliminate the virus from the ganglia. Although treatment options exist, respondents in one survey considered contracting herpes as worse than breaking up with a significant other, getting fired from a job, or failing a course in school. HSV infection is a persistent and chronic infection of the sensory ganglia with a varying, unpredictable degree of skin expression. Indirect exposure to blood and body fluids (via fomites) has also been implicated in Ebola virus transmission but is not common. Ebola virus has been isolated from the ocular fluid of a recovered Ebola patient with uveitis 14 weeks after illness onset and initial Ebola diagnosis. In 1996, an unrecognized case of Ebola was treated in a hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa, for two weeks.21 One healthcare provider who assisted with placement of a central line in the patient developed Ebola and died. El resto de los casos se deben a tumores, virus, infecciones auditivas o enfermedades en el organismo que afectan al nervio facial. Primary infections can range from subclinical to severe, with fever, headache, malaise, anorexia, pain, lymphadenopathy and edema.
Clinical recurrence occurs on average 3 to 4 times a year, but some patients experience monthly outbreaks. Cervical infection alone is rarely symptomatic, but because the cervix is not sensitive to pain, infection may pass unnoticed. Be sure to provide adequate counseling to help patients put their diagnosis in perspective. This slideshow will highlight variations in presentation and provide more information about diagnosis and treatment.
Moreover, due to the limited amount of longitudinal data that exists, it is not known whether viral presence may be intermittent. The authors speculated that the provider may have had a percutaneous exposure as symptoms developed three days after the central line was placed. While working in PPE, healthcare workers caring for patients with Ebola should have no skin exposed. As of July 1, 2015, there have been two imported cases of confirmed Ebola, including one death, and two locally acquired cases of confirmed Ebola in healthcare workers reported in the United States. Ebola virus has been detected in breast milk from two mothers (at 7 and 15 days after symptom onset, respectively), and both of their infants subsequently died of Ebola;15 however, there are not enough data to provide guidance about the amount of time after illness onset at which it is safe for infants to resume breastfeeding. Unfortunately, by the time Ebola was diagnosed, the healthcare provider was critically ill and could no longer be interviewed regarding potential Ebola virus exposures. Multiple studies have shown that Ebola virus can persist in semen longer than in blood or other body fluids,15,18a€“20 and sexual transmission of Ebola virus has been suggested but not definitively established. Treatment is experimental at this time, but anti-viral drugs or beta interferon may be tried.



Timeline for first herpes outbreak
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