Herpesvirus 2 in mouth,blisters on mouth treatment 2014,herpes and eye symptoms appear,alternative & natural therapies for itchy skin - You Shoud Know

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Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), 4 and 9 are a varicellovirus (Alphaherpesvirinae) which affect horses worldwide. Outbreaks of EHV-1 and EHV-2 respiratory disease occur annually among foals in areas with concentrated horse populations. Equine viral rhinopneumonitis cannot be clinically differentiated from equine influenza ( Equine Influenza), equine viral arteritis ( Equine Viral Arteritis: Introduction), or other equine respiratory infections solely on the basis of clinical signs. In cases of suspected EHV-1 abortion, a diagnosis is based on characteristic gross and microscopic lesions in the aborted fetus, virus isolation, and demonstration of viral antigen in fetal tissues. Gross lesions of viral rhinopneumonitis are hyperemia and ulceration of the respiratory epithelium, and multiple, tiny, plum-colored foci in the lungs. Horses with EHV-1-associated neurologic disease may have no gross lesions, or only minimal evidence of hemorrhage in the meninges, brain, and spinal cord parenchyma. Immunity after natural infection with either EHV-1 or EHV-4 involves a combination of humoral and cellular immunity. For prevention and control of EHV-4- and EHV-1-related diseases, management practices that reduce viral spread are recommended. New horses (or those returning from other premises) should be isolated for 3-4 wk before commingling with resident horses, especially pregnant mares.
Parenterally administered modified live vaccines are licensed in some countries but banned in others. Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) is ubiquitous in respiratory mucosa, conjunctiva, and WBC of normal horses of all ages.
El agente etiológico es un herpes virus perteneciente a la misma subfamilia del virus de la enfermedad de Marek.
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Clinical signs vary from mild incoordination and posterior paresis to severe posterior paralysis with recumbency, loss of bladder and tail function, and loss of sensation to the skin in the perineal and inguinal areas. Definitive diagnosis is determined by virus isolation from samples obtained via nasopharyngeal swab and citrated blood sample (buffy coat) early in the course of the infection and by serologic testing of acute and convalescent sera.
EHV-4 infection is restricted to respiratory tract epithelium and associated lymph nodes; EHV-1 strains have a predilection for vascular endothelium, especially the nasal mucosa, lungs, adrenal, thyroid, and CNS. Histologically, there is evidence of inflammation, necrosis, and intranuclear inclusions in the respiratory epithelium and germinal centers of the associated lymph nodes.
Histologically, lesions are discrete and comprise vasculitis with endothelial cell damage and perivascular cuffing, thrombus formation and hemorrhage, and in advanced cases, areas of malacia.

While little cross-protection occurs between virus types after primary infection of immunologically naive foals, significant cross-protection develops in horses after repeated infections with a particular virus type. Management-related stress-inducing circumstances should be avoided to prevent recrudescence of latent virus.
An inactivated vaccine is the only product currently recommended by the manufacturer as an aid in prevention of EHV-1 abortion. El virus se encuentra casi exclusivamente en el tracto respiratorio y puede permanecer latente durante largos períodos en las aves infectadas.
La capacidad de establecer y posteriormente reactivar las infecciones latentes juega un papel clave en la perpetuación de estos virus en la naturaleza. The age, seasonal, and geographic distributions vary and are determined by immune status and horse population.
Horses infected with EHV-1 strains often develop a diphasic fever, with cell-associated viremia coinciding with the second temperature peak.
Aborted fetuses are fresh or minimally autolyzed, and the placenta is expelled shortly after abortion. EHV-1 gains access to peripheral tissues via cell-associated viremia, which may manifest as abortion or neurologic disease. Lung lesions are characterized by neutrophilic infiltration of the terminal bronchioles, peribronchiolar and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration, and serofibrinous exudate in the alveoli.
Pregnant mares should be maintained in a group away from the weanlings, yearlings, and horses out of training. Una placa de acero inoxidable bajo el sistema de rodillos recoge el exceso de líquido en caso de ser necesario. In individual horses, the outcome of exposure is determined by viral strain, immune status, pregnancy status, and possibly age. Secondary bacterial infections are common and manifest with mucopurulent nasal exudate and pulmonary disease. There is no evidence of damage to the mare’s reproductive tract, and subsequent conception is unimpaired. Diagnosis of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy depends on demonstration of characteristic vascular lesions in sections of CNS tissue of horses that die or are destroyed. Antibiotic therapy is instituted upon suspicion of secondary bacterial infection evidenced by purulent nasal discharge or pulmonary disease. The infection remains dormant for most of the horse’s life, although stress or immunosuppression may result in recrudescence of disease and shedding of infectious virus.

In an outbreak of respiratory disease or abortion, affected horses should be isolated and appropriate measures taken for disinfection of contaminated premises. Humoral immunity induced by vaccination against EHV-1 and EHV-4 generally persists for only 2-4 mo.
Equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) is the cause of equine coital exanthema (Equine Coital Exanthema: Introduction), a benign, progenital exanthematous disease. Transmission occurs by direct or indirect contact with infectious nasal secretions, aborted fetuses, placentas, or placental fluids. Mares exposed late in gestation may not abort, but give birth to live foals with fulminating viral pneumonitis.
Neurologic disease associated with EHV-1 is thought to occur more commonly in mares after abortion storms, but it has been reported in barren mares, stallions, geldings, and foals after an outbreak of EHV-1 respiratory infection[4]. Otherwise, the diagnosis is presumptively based on clinical signs and CSF analysis (xanthochromia, albuminocytologic dissociation)[5]. Most foals infected prenatally with EHV-1 succumb shortly after birth despite intensive nursing and antimicrobial medication. Immunity to reinfection of the respiratory tract may persist for up to 3 mo, but multiple infections result in a level of immunity that prevents clinical signs of respiratory disease.
Antigenic variation within each virus type means that available vaccines do not cover all strains to which horses can be exposed.
Such foals are susceptible to secondary bacterial infections and usually die within hours or days.
If horses with EHV-1-associated neurologic disease remain ambulatory, or are recumbent for only 2-3 days, the prognosis is usually favorable. Diminished resistance in pregnant mares allows cell-associated viremia, which may result in transplacental infection of the fetus. Vaccination should begin when foals are 3-4 mo old and, depending on the vaccine used, a second dose given 4-8 wk later. Intensive nursing care is necessary to avoid pulmonary congestion, pneumonia, ruptured bladder, or bowel atony.

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