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Reprinted from The Horse Report (April 2007) with permission from the Center for Equine Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis. Equine herpesvirus-1 is one of a large group of viruses that causes potentially serious disease in horses. EHV-1 occurs throughout the world and indeed almost all horses older than 2 years of age have been exposed to it, similar to the herpes simplex type 1 virus in humans, which affects about 85% of the world population sometime during childhood. The neurological form of EHV-1 is not a new disease, but the evidence currently supports the observation that it is emerging as a more virulent strain than in the past.
How Horses Become SickEHV-1-induced neurological injury occurs when large numbers of the virus damage small blood vessels in the brainand spinal cord. EHV-1 is contagious and is spread by direct horse-to-horse contact, by contaminated hands, equipment and tack, and for a short time, through aerosolization of the virus within the environment of the stall and stable. It is also possible that stress factors may reactivate the virus and elicit the onset of clinical signs. Clinical Signs of EHV-1The initial clinical signs of EHV-1 infection may be nonspecific and include fever of 102°F or greater. Horses with the neurological form of EHV-1 can soon become uncoordinated and weak and have difficulty standing. VaccinationsWhile several vaccines are available for protection against the respiratory and abortogenic forms of EHV-1, at this time there is no equine vaccine that has a label claim for protection against the neurological strain of the virus. Until such time as a vaccine is developed to protect horses from the neurological form of EHV-1, the best way to prevent the spread of disease is through isolation, quarantine and the practice of biosecurity—a series of management steps taken to prevent the introduction of infectious agents into a herd. This is for a very few special password protected areas within this site, intended for personal use only.
If you steal our images, you'll find yourself listed right here , with an image of the originals. Please note: The Agriplex is managed by the Arena & Stable Association, not the DC Horse Club, thanks. Question 10 month old infent is seen in clinic with history of fever up to 39.44 C (103 F ) for past 3 days.
Following initial exposure, EHV-1 has the ability to develop into an inapparent, latent infection—that is, it remains in a dormant state and does not produce any clinical signs. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the clustering of outbreaks in certain regions of the country—primarily the eastern United States—could be related to where high-level performance horses are located or where they tend to travel. It is possible that a strain of EHV-1 has a mutation that allows the virus to reproduce rapidly to create very high levels of EHV-1 in the blood. This leads to inflammation of the blood vessels and the formation of clots that obstruct the flow of blood through the circulatory system or hemorrhages into the nervous tissue. Therefore, to prevent the spread of infection, it is essential to institute isolation and quarantine measures immediately.

These stress factors may include stress from transport, strenuous physical exercise, suppressed immune system, and excessive fatigue. Once a fever occurs, clinical signs can progress to nervous system involvement over the next 1 to 7 days. Within a day or two, become progressively weaker, make less vigorous attempts at nursing, lose weight rapidly, and die.
Measles RNA virus, Paramyxoviridae Family Humans are the only host Incidence declined in 1963 after vaccine Current. This ability to reside as a silent and persistent infection in horses provides a reservoir of virus that may play a role in transmission. However, since this disease is not well understood, other factors could also play a role in these outbreaks.
Since it has a preference for nervous tissue it can produce a fulminating disease (one that occurs suddenly and with great intensity) that rapidly leads to death. Ultimately, this results in tissue infarct (tissue that is dead or dying because of a lack of blood supply) or a restriction in blood supply to regions of the brain and spinal cord, with resultant damage or dysfunction to tissues. Other signs may be combinations of fever and respiratory symptoms of nasal discharge and cough.
Fading puppies should not be confused with a litter suffering from Canine Herpes Virus.There are often positions or movements (or lack of movements) that these puppies display.
This latter form is of particular concern because it results in a high death rate, it is resistant to prevention by vaccination, and it affects horses of all breeds, ages and vaccination status.
However, in other individuals—even in the face of outbreaks—the virus appears to be restricted to latency, much like the herpes simplex type 1 virus in humans.
This is not unlike what happens when cardiac blood supply is impaired in human heart attack. Just bring your ideas and energy to the regular monthly meeting (3rd Tuesday of the Month) or contact one of the executive. It has the potential to cause catastrophic losses to both the health of horses and the economy of the horse industry.
Signs of brain dysfunction may occur as well, including extreme lethargy and a coma-like state. The first signs of a fading puppy are often that they lie still, with less of the jerking and moving that their littermates do.
Even though pneumonia is often difficult to diagnose in a puppy this young, if a puppy is positioning itself in a sniffing position, it should be suspected, and often the vet will treat for pneumonia at this time, even if a positive diagnosis can't be made. Sandy Jameson  Equine Herpes(Rhino) Herpes viruses are very common in all animal groups.
Their heads may sway from side to side, and where they vigorously nursed on the first day, each day they seem to have less and less energy as the days go by, and despite adequate milk, do not thrive and grow poorly.

It is absolutely a cry of distress, and causes both breeder and the bitch to experience a great deal of distress as well. In the end, fading puppies lack the body fat that their littermates are rapidly developing, despite extra bottle feeding, which often by this time, the breeder has begun.
Fading puppy syndrome is thought to be caused by bacterial or viral infection, inborn metabolic problems, or physical causes (such as renal or cardiac anomalies).Before you consider that a puppy is suffering from fading puppy syndrome, be aware of a few specific issues.
Giving glucose will show positive results in moments if hypoglycemia is the issue.Bacterial Infection can start in the navel stump. Although, it can be transmitted in the uterus prior to birth or in the vaginal canal during birth, and contaminates the pups causing general sepsis.
In severe cases, puppies that are born small and weak may already be infected by the germs that build up in the womb, because of a low-grade infection in the uterine horn(s), and infection quickly spreads.
Collection of the blood and preparation of the serum should be left to your vet.Extra warmth, bottle feeding, and antibiotics (if the vet prescribed them) will help to increase the chance of recovery.
It is essential that a fading puppy be kept warm and receive extra calories if there is to be a chance of recovery. But be aware, that with even the most vigorous treatment, often puppies just don't make it.
One of the hardest things for a breeder to do, is to simply understand that nature must take its course, and sometimes, fighting too hard to save a puppy can bring heartache later, when physical anomalies are discovered, and there is little to no hope of saving a puppy after endless hours of attempts to save it.The following photographs shows the poor development of a fading puppy. On day three, she had lost body tone, and although she was nursing well, and eagerly, she did not have the body fat her littermates did.
She eagerly nursed from the bottle, and took good quantities of milk, only to return to the box and nurse from her mother, although still, she gained no weight. Her bottle feedings increased, and although she suckled the milk, she tended to chew the nipple more. When given to her mother for some motherly attention, she tended to crawl under her mother, or behind her.
I have noticed before, that poor doers often root under their mother, and on the last day, crawl away from her and into a cold area of the box, where they die. Other horses, including brood mares can also be given a four-way vaccine including EHV 1, and EHV4. In the end, I had started fluids on the puppy, given her plasma, had her on a heating pad of her own, and tried everything there was to do until she took her last breath.

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