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Household energy consumption by end-use 2001 (Data from Table 2.5 (Energy Information Administration, 2007a)). Appliances Space Heating Water Heating Air Conditioning Figure 3 - Household energy consumption by end-use 2001 (Data from Table 2.5 (Energy Information Administration, 2007a)).
Hot water heating can account for more than 30% of the domestic homes’ total energy usage, and is the single highest contributor to your annual electricity bills, using more energy than all of your other domestic appliances combined? Over 30 years of ongoing product development means that Quantum continuously improves the energy efficiency of the heat pumps while at the same time reducing component, manufacturing and installation costs.
The below table demonstrates the efficiency and running costs of various methods of water heating.
The table provides an overview of consumption per appliance and below you will find a complete full answer with the parameters used to estimate this consumption. The energy used by household appliances is calculated on the basis of their capacity (expressed in watts) and the length or frequency of use. Below you will find an overview of the annual consumption of most common electrical appliances. Japan is an island nation situated off the eastern seaboard of the Eurasian continent in the northern hemisphere. Since the Japanese archipelago is located in a zone of relatively young tectonic plate movement, it is particularly prone to various physiographical phenomena.
The Japanese archipelago has a temperate marine climate, with four distinct seasons, an annual average temperature of between 10 to 20 degrees centigrade, and annual precipitation of 1,000 to 2,500 millimeters. From the eighteenth century through the first half of the nineteenth century, Japan's population remained steady at about 30 million. The Population Census shows that Japan had 51.84 million private households (excluding "institutional households" such as students in school dormitories) in 2010, surpassing 50 million for the first time since the Census began.
From the 1920s to the mid-1950s, the average number of household members remained at about five. The number of elderly households (private households with household members 65 years of age or over) in 2010 was 19.34 million. The population pyramid of 1950 shows that Japan had a standard-shaped pyramid marked by a broad base. In Japan, the period when the percentage of persons aged 65 and older exceeded 10% was 1985, but when looking at the U.S. Population growth in Japan had primarily been driven by natural increase, while social increase played only a minor part. During the second baby boom, the live birth rate was at a level of 19 (per 1,000 population) between 1971 and 1973. The decline in the live birth rate may partly be attributable to the rising maternal age at childbirth. Average life expectancy in Japan climbed sharply after World War II, and is today at the highest level in the world. The annual number of marriages in Japan exceeded one million couples in the early 1970s, which, coupled with the marriage rate (per 1,000 population) hovering over 10.0, showed an apparent marriage boom.
In contrast, divorces have shown an upward trend since the late 1960s, hitting a peak of 290,000 couples in 2002.
In 2010, Tokyo had the largest population of 13.16 million among Japan's 47 prefectures, followed in decreasing order by the prefectures of Kanagawa, Osaka, Aichi, and Saitama. In addition, the population density in Tokyo was the highest among Japan's prefectures, at 6,016 persons per square kilometer. In October 1973, the fourth Middle East War led to the first oil crisis, triggering high inflation.
In the 1980s, the trade imbalance with advanced industrial countries expanded because of the yen's appreciation.
At the end of the 1980s, Japan's economy enjoyed favorable conditions, with stable wholesale prices and a low unemployment rate. At the end of 1980, Japan's net worth (national wealth) stood at 1,363 trillion yen, 5.6 times the GDP. At the beginning of 1990, stock prices plummeted, followed by sharp declines in land prices. Massive bad debts were created in financial institutions' loan portfolios, as corporate borrowers suffered serious losses due to declining land prices. During the phase of Japan's economic recovery from the beginning of 2002, there was a common trend whereby exports were showing signs of steady growth, reflecting a brisk recovery of the world economy, but then a soft patch set in and pushed exports down, resulting in sluggish growth in both production and personal spending. At the start of 2008, the Japanese economy was faced with a standstill in its path to recovery as private consumption and investments in plant and equipment fell flat and so did production. Based on this, there are expectations that the Japanese economy will recover at a moderate pace as the effects of policy measures are realized. Japan's industrial structure has undergone a major transformation over the half century since the end of World War II. In the future, it is anticipated that companies in the manufacturing industry in Japan will expand their overseas business. Japan's national budget consists of the general account, special accounts, and the budget for government-affiliated agencies. Special accounts are accounts established for the national government to carry out projects with specific objectives, and are managed and administered independently of the general account.
Government-affiliated agencies are entities established by special laws and are entirely funded by the government.
With regard to revenue sources for the fiscal 2015 initial general account budget, income tax, consumption tax and corporation tax account for 46.3 percent. There are two budget categories in local government finance: the ordinary accounts and the public business accounts. While expenditures such as national defense are administered solely by the national government, a large portion of expenditures that directly relate to the people's everyday lives are disbursed chiefly through local governments. The revenue composition of local governments usually remains almost the same each fiscal year, while their budget scale and structure vary from year to year. The net total indicates the actual amount of government expenditures after eliminating duplications such as the transfer of funds between different accounts in the national budget, the local allocation tax grants and other subsidies from the national government to local governments.
The settlement amount for fiscal 2013, the net total of national and local government expenditures was 166 trillion yen. Japan's ratio of outstanding general government debt to GDP, a stock measure in a fiscal context, has been increasing rapidly due to its public bond issues over a series of years and is now the worst among major industrial countries. Taxes consist of national tax (income tax, corporation tax, etc.), which is paid to the national government, and local tax, which is paid to the local government of the place of residence. In January 2013, the government and the Bank of Japan decided to strengthen policy coordination in order to overcome deflation and achieve sustainable economic growth with stable prices. In addition to the Bank of Japan, Japan's financial system is comprised of private and public financial institutions. As to the latest number of offices, including the branches of financial institutions operated domestically, post offices handling postal savings had the largest network with 24,182 offices.
The Flow of Funds Accounts Statistics, which is a comprehensive set of records of financial transactions, assets and liabilities, indicates that financial assets in the domestic sectors totaled 6,434 trillion yen according to figures at the end of March 2014. Stock prices in Japan rose sharply in the second half of the 1980s, spearheading the bubble economy. A survey conducted of 250 securities firms by the Japan Securities Dealers Association (JSDA) showed that 24.0 percent of those companies offered Internet trading at the end of September 2014. Over the course of Japan's economic growth, its agricultural, forestry and fishing industries employ fewer and fewer workers every year, and their GDP share has also dropped. Japan's forest land area is 25.08 million hectares (approximately 70 percent of the entire surface area of the country). In the forests, many planted forest resources have matured and are entering their harvest period. The slowdown in domestic lumber production activities has resulted in a decline in the number of workers engaged in forestry.
In Japan, a country surrounded by the ocean, the fishing industry has played an important role in supplying animal protein and bringing a healthy and rich diet to the population.
The number of workers in the marine fishery industry (the workers who engage in work at sea for 30 days or more yearly) has been decreasing constantly. As the aging of fishing vessels progresses and the fishery workers aging increases, fisheries have been gaining attention as a place for employment, based on the diversification of values regarding work and life, and support is also being provided for new fishery workers. Japan's food self-sufficiency rate in terms of calories, although there is a downward trend over the long term, the ratio has been fluctuating at a level of around 40 percent since fiscal 1997. In fiscal 2013, the self-sufficiency rate (on an item-specific weight basis) was 100 percent for rice, 12 percent for wheat, 9 percent for beans, 79 percent for vegetables, 39 percent for fruits, 55 percent for meat, and 60 percent for seafood.
Japan's present food self-sufficiency rate is the lowest among major industrialized countries, and Japan is thus the world's leading net importer of agricultural products. The proportion of added value produced in Japan's manufacturing sector to its nominal GDP has been around 20 percent recently, and the sector has a large ripple effect on other sectors.
In 2013, there were 208,029 establishments (with four or more persons engaged) and a total of 7.40 million persons engaged in the manufacturing sector. The construction industry, accounting for about 10 percent of both GDP and all employed persons, is one of the core industries in Japan. In fiscal 2013, the total primary energy supply in Japan was 21,973 petajoules, up 1.1 percent from the previous fiscal year. Joule (J) is employed as a common unit (International System of Units: SI) for energy across all energy sources in presenting international statistical information.
As a result, the government has been working to construct a new energy supply-demand structure oriented toward stable supply of energy and lowering energy costs.
Total primary energy supply per GDP is lower in Japan than in other industrialized countries. Approximately half of Japan's primary energy supply of petroleum, coal and other energy sources is converted into electric power. Electricity output (including in-house power generation) in Japan totaled 1,091 billion kWh in fiscal 2013, down 0.3 percent from the previous fiscal year. Gas production was 1,352 petajoules in fiscal 2013, up 2.1 percent from the previous fiscal year. Japan's expenses for the research and development (R&D) of science and technology are at a top level among major countries, and support the technology-based nation of Japan. As of the end of March 2014, the number of researchers amounted to 485,300 persons in business enterprises, 38,600 persons in non-profit institutions and public organizations, and 317,700 persons in universities and colleges. Universities and colleges spend more than 90 percent of their R&D expenditure on natural sciences for basic research and applied research, while business enterprises allocate over 70 percent for development purposes.


Based on the Science and Technology Basic Law, which was promulgated and enforced in 1995, the Japanese government has formulated a Basic Plan since fiscal 1996, and has promoted science and technology policies.
Technology trade is defined as the export or import of technology by business enterprises with other countries, such as patents, expertise, and technical guidance. The total number of patent applications remained robust in and after 1998 as more than 400,000 applications were filed every year, but a gradual drop has been seen since 2006. Over 140 countries, including Japan, have joined the international patent system of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) as of May 2014.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office ranked first among major patent offices for applications filed by Japanese applicants in 2013, with 84,429 filings. The population of Internet users, the commercial use of which began in 1993, continues to increase.
Among enterprises, the Internet usage rate at the end of 2013 was 99.9 percent, which was the same rate as that of the previous year. This fact sheet is part of the "Energy sheets" series and looks at the way energy is used in our homes. Subscribe to our mailing list to get regular updates about our educational projects and free educational resources. We recently partnered with other educational organisations to exchange educational dossiers and make them available in other languages or through local websites.
Subscribe to our mailing list to get updates about our educational projects and free educational resources. All donations to the IPF are tax deductible.Donations can be made by various means, depending if they are made by a company or by individuals. Proportions of carbon emissions from various activities in housing are shown in Figure 1, which illustrates that the major portion of energy consumption is in space heating and hot water.
Comparative energy usage and costs of popular water heating methods are illustrated in the table below.
Try it now!Need a heater?We have the largest range of hot water heat pump systems in Australia. The islands form a crescent-shaped archipelago stretching from northeast to southwest parallel to the continental coastline with the Sea of Japan in between.
Therefore, the number of earthquakes in the country is quite high, and so is the proportion of active volcanoes. There are approximately 250,000 square kilometers of forestland and fields (which equates to 67 percent of the nation's surface area), followed by approximately 50,000 square kilometers of agricultural land (12 percent).
Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, it began expanding in tandem with the drive to build a modern nation-state.
However, due to the increase in one-person households and nuclear families since the 1960s, the average size of households was down significantly in 1970, to 3.41 members. The shape of the pyramid, however, has changed dramatically as both the birth rate and death rate have declined. In terms of their proportion of the total population, the aged (65 years and over) have surpassed the child population since 1997.
However, in 2005, the natural change rate (per 1,000 population) fell for the first time since 1899, and has since been on a declining trend. Since 1988, however, it has been on an uptrend, reflecting the increased percentage of the elderly in the overall population. The declining marriage rate and rising marrying age in recent years as described above is one explanation for the dropping birth rate.
Subsequently, both the number of divorces and the divorce rate have been declining since 2003. These five prefectures each had a population of seven million or more, and together accounted for 35.7 percent of the total population. Their total population topped 28 million, a figure equivalent to 22.5 percent of the national total. Accordingly, Japan recorded negative economic growth in 1974 for the first time in the post-war period. As part of administrative and financial reforms, Japan National Railways and Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation were privatized. Corporate profits were at their highest level in history, and corporate failures were at their lowest level, while investments in plant and equipment for manufacturing products, such as semiconductors, were very active.
It then increased, reaching 3,531 trillion yen, 8.0 times the GDP, at the end of 1990, owing to increasing land and stock prices.
This, however, was only a temporary phenomenon, as investments in plant and equipment were weak and the economy was too dependent on foreign demand and information and communication technologies.
This occurred against the backdrop of soaring crude petroleum and raw material prices and repercussions from the American subprime mortgage loan problem that, since mid-2007, rapidly clouded future prospects for the world economy further.
The chronological changes in the industrial structure during this period by industry share of employed persons and GDP show that shares in the primary industry in particular have fallen dramatically since 1970, when Japan experienced rapid economic growth. Overseas expansion by companies in the manufacturing industry is progressing against the background of the advancing appreciation of the yen following the Lehman Shock, the decentralization of production bases that occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake, and the increases in energy charges, etc., that have occurred over the past few years. There are many companies that are planning on expanding their business to India, Indonesia, China, and Thailand.
In setting the national budget, the government submits a proposed budget for the upcoming fiscal year to the Ordinary Session of the Diet, which begins in January. The number and particulars of special accounts change from year to year; for fiscal 2015, a total of 14 special accounts have been established, including the national debt consolidation fund, the grants of allocation tax and transferred tax and the Great East Japan Earthquake recovery fund. Currently, the Japan Finance Corporation, the Okinawa Development Finance Corporation, Japan Bank of International Cooperation, and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (Loan Aid Section) are operated as government-affiliated agencies. Since fiscal 2008 in particular, the worsening economy has decreased tax revenues, contributing to an increasing gap between revenue and expenditure. Even with the addition of other taxes and stamp revenues, these revenue sources only amount to 56.7 percent of the total revenue.
The former covers all kinds of expenses related to ordinary activities of the prefectural and municipal governments. The largest portion of fiscal 2012 (net) revenues came from local taxes, accounting for 34.5 percent of the total. In the initial budget for fiscal 2014, the gross total of national government expenditure was 510 trillion yen, the net total was 239 trillion yen after eliminating duplications. The national government disbursed 42 percent of this amount, while the local governments disbursed 58 percent. The ratio of taxation burden, which is the ratio of national and local taxes to national income, was 18.3 percent in fiscal 1975. In order to achieve price stability targets at the earliest possible time, in April 2013, the Bank of Japan changed the operating target for money market operations from the uncollateralized overnight call rate to a monetary base to facilitate quantitative easing. This was followed by domestically licensed banks, including city banks and regional banks, with a combined total of 13,713 offices and branches. Internet trading thus accounted for 25.5 percent of the total value of stock brokerage transactions from the period of April 2014 to September 2014. In the one-year period of 2014, there were 6,930 hectares of new cultivation but also a 26,200-hectare decrease. Of this, natural forests account for 54 percent while planted forests, most of which are conifer plantations, make up 41 percent. For forests to continuously exhibit their functions of soil conservation and prevention of global warming, it is necessary to smoothly follow the cycle of planting, tending and thinning planted forests. In 2010, there were 69,000 workers engaged in forestry, a level that represented the same number recorded ten years before. In 2014, there was a 4.4 percent decrease from the previous year, bringing the count to 173,000 workers.
Although completely self-sufficient in rice, the staple food of its people, Japan relied almost entirely on imports for the supply of wheat and beans.
Additionally, in 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake, the historically high yen, and the slowing global economy contributed to sluggish domestic production. This was attributable to an increase in the production and shipment of semiconductor and flat-panel display manufacturing equipment, etc. This was due to an increase in the production and shipment of electronic parts, integrated circuits, etc.
This was due to a decrease in the production and shipments of all types of information and communication electronics equipment. A decrease in the production of metal products for building contributed to the total production decrease in the industry. Construction investments at current prices had been on a declining trend after reaching a peak of 84 trillion yen in fiscal 1992, and fell to half of this peak (42 trillion yen) in fiscal 2010, but turned upward in fiscal 2011.
This can be considered to be the impact of recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake as well as improvements in the economic climate.
Since experiencing the two oil crises of the 1970s, Japan has taken measures to promote energy conservation, introduce alternatives to petroleum such as nuclear power, natural gas, coal, etc., and secure a stable supply of petroleum through stockpiling and other measures.
The unit Petajoule (PJ: 1015 or quadrillion joules) is used here to reduce the number of digits.
In this process, energy-saving and renewable energy that takes global warming into consideration has been introduced, and aims are being made toward reducing dependency on nuclear power. Researchers in the fields of science and technology (including social sciences and humanities) as of the end of March 2014 totaled 841,600.
Currently, the Fourth Science and Technology Basic Plan (fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2015), which orients the recovery and reconstruction from the Great East Japan Earthquake as one of its main pillars, is being initiated. In 2013, the number of international patent applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) was 205,300, of which 43,918 were from Japan, accounting for 21.4 percent. The number of patent applications filed by Japanese applicants at the State Intellectual Property Office of the People's Republic of China was 41,193.
Figures for the rate of Internet use by terminal by age group show that over 70 percent of people in each age group of between 13 and 49 use home PCs. Trends in the Internet usage rate remained flat, at around 99 percent, showing that Internet usage at businesses is fully diffused. It explains the important impact of household electric consumption on greenhouse gas emissions and more specifically of the consumption related to electric appliances.
The country is located between approximately 20 degrees to 45 degrees north latitude and stretches over 3,200 kilometers. The land is full of undulations, with mountainous regions including hilly terrain accounting for about three-quarters of its total area.
Together, forestland, fields and agricultural land thus cover approximately 80 percent of the nation.


The topography of Honshu, however, features a series of major mountain ranges running from north to south. Japan's population density measured 343.4 persons per square kilometer in 2010, ranking seventh among countries with a population of 10 million or more.
The life expectancy at birth for men exceeded 80 years for the first time, setting a new all-time record for both genders. They rose again in the late 1980s, but in recent years, they have been on a declining trend in general. In 2013, the number of divorces totaled 231,000 couples, and the divorce rate (per 1,000 population) was 1.84.
The largest single city was the 23 wards (ku) of central Tokyo, with 8.95 million citizens. Population density in the Kanto major metropolitan area was 2,631 persons per square kilometer. Stock and land prices continued to rise rapidly, and large-scale urban developments and resort facility developments in rural areas progressed at a very fast pace. After that, however, Japan's national wealth began to decrease due to the collapse of the bubble economy.
Japan's financial and economic systems, which were excessively dependent on land, consequently approached collapse.
With the global decline in IT demand from mid-2000, Japan's exports to Asia dropped, necessitating adjustments of excess inventory and production facilities. The Great East Japan Earthquake that took place on March 11, 2011 and the nuclear power plant accident it caused weakened the economic recovery.
During the 1980s, the secondary industry's share of employed persons and GDP also began to decline gradually. The proposal is then discussed, and an initial budget is approved usually before the fiscal year begins in April.
Since fiscal 2009, bond issues have exceeded tax revenues in most years, but since fiscal 2013, tax revenue exceeded borrowing (on an initial budget basis) in three consecutive years. The latter covers the budgets of independently accounted enterprises such as public enterprises (water supply and sewerage utilities, hospitals, etc.), the national health insurance accounts and the latter-stage elderly medical care accounts. Furthermore, the local public finance plan, which consists of the estimated sum of ordinary accounts for the following fiscal year for all local governments, amounted to 86 trillion yen.
Their issue volumes have increased mainly due to, for example, economic stimulus measures and decreasing tax revenues after the bubble economy ended at the beginning of 1990.
The average outstanding money stock in 2014 was 587 trillion yen in M1 and 875 trillion yen in M2. The household sector (including the business funds of individual proprietorships) had assets of 1,624 trillion yen, in the forms of deposits, stocks and other financial assets. At the end of 1989, the total market capitalization of the first section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange was 591 trillion yen, but only three years later, at the end of 1992, it had dropped by more than 50 percent to 281 trillion yen.
The ratio of Japanese stocks held by foreign investors (total of corporations and individuals) was 30.8 percent in value terms, the highest ever recorded. This was due to the rice output decreasing despite outputs of vegetables and fruits and nuts increasing.
The most common cause for the decrease was degraded farmland, accounting for approximately 50 percent of all cases, followed by land-use conversion for residential and other land uses, making up approximately 30 percent.
Meanwhile, Japan's forest growing stock is 4,901 million cubic meters, of which 3,042 million cubic meters are from planted forests.
Currently, Japan depends mostly on imported lumber for pulp, woodchip, and plywood materials. However, approximately one out of six workers was aged 65 and over, highlighting the aging of the labor force. The number of workers in the fishery industry aged 44 years and younger was 43,000, representing a 1.0 percent increase from the previous year. The principal cause for the drop in the food self-sufficiency rate is the fact that the diet of Japanese people changed significantly, leading to a lower consumption of rice, while there was an increase in the consumption amount of livestock products such as meat that domestic agricultural production alone cannot supply sufficiently. This was attributable to a decrease in the production and shipment of plastic (materials), industrial organic chemicals, etc. The decrease in total shipments was caused by a fall in metal products for building and in fabricated structural metal products. Meanwhile, the number of housing construction starts (in the case of apartment buildings, the number of apartment units was counted) decreased for owned houses and built-for-sale units alike, totaling 0.89 million housing units.
Other sources were also used, though only in small quantities, including energy from waste, geothermal, and natural energy (solar photovoltaic, wind power, biomass energy, etc.).
Final energy consumption in fiscal 2012 decreased by 1.3 percent compared to the previous fiscal year. The number of people who used the Internet exceeded 100 million people for the first time, accounting for 82.8 percent of the population 6 years of age and older. It consists of the main islands of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa, and more than 6,800 smaller islands of varying sizes.
Because of this feature, the northwest monsoon in the winter brings humid conditions with heavy precipitation (snow) to the Sea of Japan side of Honshu but comparatively dry weather with low precipitation to the Pacific Ocean side. However, Japan's population growth has slowed in more recent years, with the annual pace of population growth averaging about one percent from the 1960s through the 1970s.
Although the Japanese population has shifted into decline, the number of households is expected to continue to increase for some years to come, as the size of the average household will shrink further.
In share terms, it accounted for 61.3percent of the entire population, continuing its decline since 1993. In 2011, 662,000 couples married, marking the first time this number fell below 700,000 couples.
In the Chukyo major metropolitan area, it was 1,288 persons per square kilometer, and in the Kinki major metropolitan area, it was 1,484 persons per square kilometer. However, excessive funds flowed into the stock and real estate markets, causing abnormal increases in capital asset values (forming an economic bubble). In 1998 and 1999, the government injected public money into the banking sector to stabilize the financial system.
On the other hand, the tertiary industry's shares of both employed persons and GDP have risen consistently. In the event that the Diet does not approve the budget by the end of March, an interim budget comes into effect.
Therefore, after eliminating duplications between national and local accounts (35 trillion yen), the net total of both national and local government expenditures combined was 290 trillion yen. A rising amount of public bond redemptions and an increase in social security expenditures associated with the progression of an aging society in recent years has resulted in public bonds and social security expenditures making up a high percentage of government expenditures net of overlaps.
The ratio subsequently decreased due to the decline in tax revenue arising from the recession that ensued after the bubble economy ended, reaching 21.2 percent in fiscal 2003. It is the combined total of banknotes in circulation, coins in circulation, and current account balances. In the course of the financial system reform, mergers and restructuring progressed among major banks, resulting in their being reorganized into three major financial groups. In Japan, the household sector holds more than 50 percent of its financial assets in cash or relatively secure forms of assets. The market recovered to reach 442 trillion yen at the end of 1999, later dipped again, and then increased to 539 trillion yen at the end of 2006. However, since the Great East Japan Earthquake, the percentage of fossil fuels has been increasing, as a substitute for nuclear power as fuel for power generation. While energy consumption in the industrial sector has remained mostly level, there were sharp increases in energy consumption in the commercial and residential sector and in the transport sector. Observation by age group shows that the individual Internet usage rate exceeded 90 percent among people in each age group between 13 and 59, although the rate drops as the age increases.
Its surface area totals approximately 380,000 square kilometers, a figure equivalent to 0.3 percent of the global land mass.
As a result, the ratio of the dependent population (the sum of aged and child population divided by the productive-age population) was 63.2 percent. The interim budget is effective from the beginning of April until such time when the proposed budget is approved. Regional banks and credit depositories operating in their respective regions have been making efforts to their expand operations bases through corporate mergers, but there have been no major mergers recently. The subprime mortgage problem surfaced after August 2007 and the September 2008 "Lehman shock" led to a fall in total market capitalization, which amounted to 251 trillion yen at the end of 2011. Afterwards, in April 2014, there were impacts caused by a response to last-minute demand associated with the increase in consumption tax. The level of dependence on petroleum, which had been on a declining trend in recent years, increased to 47.2 percent in fiscal 2012.
In the commercial and residential sector, energy consumption by the commercial sector in particular has risen in recent years.
Another unique characteristic of Japan's climate is that it has two long spells of rainy seasons, one in early summer when the southeast monsoon begins to blow, and the other in autumn when the winds cease. A vicious circle developed, in which the long-term economic stagnation exacerbated the bad loan situation, while the bad loans hindered economic growth. Declining exports contributed to a large drop in production and a sharp rise in unemployment.
If it becomes necessary to amend the budget in the course of a fiscal year, the government submits a supplementary budget for Diet approval.
In 2012, the high yen in Japanese economy was corrected due to expectations toward anti-deflationary economic and fiscal policies by the new government, and share prices soared. However, the economy has continued a gradual upward momentum, and improvements in earnings can also be seen in enterprises in the manufacturing industry.
From summer to autumn, tropical cyclones generated in the tropical seas develop into typhoons and hit Japan, sometimes causing storm and flood damage. Second, there was another vicious circle, in which the continuing economic slump led to pessimism about the future on the part of corporations and consumers, and their hesitation generated further recession. As the economy continued to recover with foreign demand and economic measures after April 2009, the government defined March 2009 as the trough of the economic cycle.
Hereafter, there is a possibility that the taxation burden will become heavier due to an increase in welfare and pension-related spending as the population ages.



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