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Before we begin, study the diagram on the right to learn what structures are being described.
The viral pharyngitis is benign processes that resolve spontaneously, unlike bacterial pharyngitis or tonsillitis that can lead to complications such as abscesses and rheumatic fever. Bacterial and viral tonsillitis The more correct way is by collecting material from throat swabs or swab with a cotton stick on the tip to collect material from the inflamed area for further laboratory evaluation. Despite help from the swab, there is a practical problem: the identification of the infectious agent takes at least 48-72h. We explain below how to distinguish a viral sore throat from a bacterial pharyngitis by only clinical elements.
Having tonsillitis caused by bacteria not present with respiratory symptoms described above, usually causes spots of pus on the tonsils and swollen lymph nodes (glands) in the neck.
The presence of pus and swollen glands in the neck speaks strongly in favor of a bacterial pharyngitis.
Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and usually goes with fever, purulent tonsillitis and swollen lymph nodes in the back of the neck (unlike bacterial tonsillitis that has swollen lymph nodes in the anterior neck).
As can be seen, the distinction between viral and bacterial pharyngitis is important, since the treatment is different.
Streptococcus pharyngitis Among the complications of bacterial pharyngitis, the main is rheumatic fever, which occurs mainly in children and young people. The post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a kidney injury also caused by the same bacterium Streptococcus. There is a type of psoriasis, called guttate psoriasis, which is related to the Streptococcus pharyngitis. Antibiotics for angina To avoid the complications of bacterial tonsillitis described above, treatment should always be done with antibiotics. Treatment with antibiotics derived from penicillin and amoxicillin (Amoxil) should be done for 10 days. If the symptoms of a bacterial pharyngitis are very strong, while waiting for the effect of antibiotics anti-inflammatory drugs can be used to relieve the inflammation of the throat. There are no studies that prove the effectiveness of homeopathy or herbal medicine in the treatment of pharyngitis.
Who wants symptomatic relief without taking many drugs, the ideal is to perform various daily gargling with warm water and a pinch of salt. The removal of the tonsils (tonsillectomy) is an option in children who present more than six episodes of strep throat every year.
Shingles is an infection of the nerves and surrounding skin caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox, the herpes varicella-zoster virus. Shingles affects people who've had chickenpox before when the dormant or inactive varicella-zoster virus becomes active again. Shingles generally affects older people, but it can appear in younger people or in people with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV.
Pain or bruised feeling - usually on one side of your face or body - often along with a fever, chills, headache or upset stomach.
A complication of shingles for at least one in 10 people with the condition is postherpetic neuralgia. Small blisters that appear only on the lips or around the mouth may be cold sores rather than shingles. Itchy blisters that appear after gardening or spending time outdoors could be an allergic reaction to plants or trees. The affected area becomes secondarily infected with bacteria (indicated by spreading redness, swelling, a high fever or pus).
Herpes is not a particularly harmful disease, but herpes complications can be dangerous, especially for newborns or people with weak immune systems. Genital herpes is generally spread through sexual activity or other skin-to-skin contact with an infected area. Pregnant women infected with herpes are at a higher risk for miscarriage, retarded fetal growth and premature labor, as well as the risk of transmitting HSV to the newborn infant.


Herpes infections in newborns can be dangerous and even fatal, especially if undiagnosed and untreated. Encephalitis is a rare but dangerous brain disease that kills over 70 percent of all patients left untreated.
When HSV enters a skin lesion, it can cause eczema herpeticum, a severe and potentially fatal condition. Herpes may also affect the gums and mucous membranes in the mouth, causing painful ulcers in a condition called gingivostomatitis. The presence of HSV increases the risk of contracting or transmitting other sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, especially in patients with weak immune systems. The virological, clinical, and histopathological manifestations of acute and experimentally reactivated infections of eyes and trigeminal ganglia have been studied following intranasal infection of rabbits with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain KOS-63). References1.Arao Y, Hatano A, Yamada M, Uno F, Nii S (1991) Reactivatable latency of three avirulent strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 after intranasal inoculation of mice. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. A sore throat caused by bacteria should always be treated with antibiotics (I'll explain why below). The analysis of the collected material by the swab can identify the infectious agent is a bacterium or a virus.
Respiratory viral infections do not usually cause symptoms restricted to the pharynx or tonsils. The bacterial pharyngitis can also cause swelling of the uvula and petechiae (bleeding points) on the palate. However, some viral infections such as infectious mononucleosis may also be present with these findings. Other signs and symptoms are the possible increase in spleen weight loss, and extreme fatigue signals hepatitis. They are skin lesions that arise whenever there is a throat infection, which disappears after the cure.
But you should remember that the anti-inflammatory drugs are only symptomatic, they do not treat the bacterial infection. As the incidence of complications is much lower in adults in this group the indication for tonsillectomy is more controversial, as there is a possibility of no improvement, just making sure the patient had bouts of tonsillitis and possibility to have bouts of pharyngitis, which ultimately is the same. They accumulate caseous (or caseum), a yellowish substance, like pus, which is actually debris of old inflammatory cells. As well as lowered immunity, becoming older increases the risk and suffering from stress may trigger a shingles outbreak.
If the pain becomes too great to bear, a doctor may prescribe stronger painkillers or other treatments. If you take antiviral drugs in the early stages, you may shorten the course of the infection. The herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes both oral and genital herpes, which may appear as sores in the affected area. Oral herpes is also spread through direct contact with contagious areas of the skin through kissing and oral sex. It can be more serious in pregnant women, or when the virus affects the brain, nervous system, skin or eyes. However, complications occur in fewer than four of every 1,000 births to infected pregnant women, according to the New York Times.
HSV infections have also been linked to diseases like Alzheimer's, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, myelitis, atypical pain syndromes and neuralgia. Prompt acyclovir treatments can improve the chances for survival, but the disease still causes impairment in all survivors.
Ocular herpes generally causes short-lived inflammation or sores on the eyelids or outside the cornea.
People with herpes who have compromised immune systems are also at risk of acquiring a variety of other potentially life-threatening complications, including pneumonia, liver damage, inflammation of the esophagus and destruction of the adrenal glands.


Many infected patients feel depression, humiliation, guilt, anger and shame as a result of their condition. All animals shed virus in nasal secretions, but only three shed virus in tear film during the first 12 days of infection.
As laboratory tests are now faster to identify bacteria, but it's not always easy to collect and send the material for analysis. Another tip is that the viral pharyngitis, although the throat becomes very inflamed, pus is unusual. The fever of bacterial infection is usually higher than in viral, but this is not a rule, since there are cases of influenza and high fever. If the frame suggests bacterial pharyngitis, we should start antibiotics in order not only to accelerate the healing process, but also to prevent complications and transmission to other family members, especially those with intimate and prolonged contact.
In those patients with marked edema of the pharynx, who can not swallow tablets, or those who do not want to take medication for several days, an option is intramuscular injection of benzathinepenicillin, the famous one-time Benzetacil. If the symptoms are very uncomfortable, anti-inflammatory can be used by two or three days. Women with active herpes lesions at the time of birth are generally encouraged to have Caesarean sections to avoid infecting their infants. However, it may also cause stromal keratitis, which affects deeper layers of the cornea and can lead to corneal blindness and iridocyclitis, which inflames the iris. No animal developed clinical or histological evidence of corneal or retinal ocular disease at any time after infection. As they are anatomically close, it is very common for the pharynx and tonsils to ignite simultaneously, a framework called tonsillitis.
The prescription of antibiotics such as amoxicillin in patients with mononucleosis may lead to the development of allergy with red spots appearing all over the body.
This decreases the risk that a newborn will be infected, but does not eliminate the possibility entirely. If left untreated, it can lead to death or more severe infections of the nervous system, liver, adrenal glands and lungs. KOS-63 established trigeminal ganglionic latency; viral RNA, restricted to neuronal nuclei, was detected by in situ hybridization, and virus was recovered from co-cultivation cultures of nervous tissue, but not from cell-free homogenates.
Although they ignite together, some people have predominantly tonsillitis, while others, pharyngitis.
Some doctors also recommend that infected pregnant women take antiviral medications during pregnancy to reduce the probable need for a Caesarean section.
A central nervous system infection caused by herpes can lead to meningitis or encephalitis, which kills many infants and can lead to mental disabilities in those that survive. Reactivation of latent trigeminal ganglionic infection was attempted by intravenous administration of cyclophosphamide, followed by dexamethasone 24 h later. Throughout the text I will differentiate the terms pharyngitis and tonsillitis, but what goes for one, also serves to the other. Injection of the drugs failed to reactivate KOS-63 latency; no animal shed virus in nasal or ocular secretions, and no animal developed gross or microscopic corneal lesions.
In addition, viral antigens were not detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in ganglia from rabbits subjected to the drug protocol, and virus was only recovered from ganglia by in vitro co-cultivation reactivation techniques.
The failure of KOS-63 to reactivate was not due to an inherent failure of populate and infect the ganglion, because the virus did not reactivate from ganglia that contained many latently infected cells. These studies demonstrate that, although KOS-63 is neuroinvasive and capable of establishing latency, it is virtually non-virulent for the eye, and cannot be reactivated by a systemic immunosuppressive trigger known to reactivate other HSV-1 strains. If you believe you may be experiencing a medical emergency, then call for emergency medical help.



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