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Experimental results are shown for three energies in a coplanar symmetric geometry, and for three energies in an asymmetric geometry.
Ionization of atomic and molecular targets is one of the most complex and fundamental collision processes that can be studied in detail.
To fully characterize these interactions, it is necessary to perform sophisticated measurements where an incident electron of well controlled momentum scatters and ionizes the target. In these (e,2e) experiments, information about the collision is obtained by measuring the outgoing momenta of the collision products.
For molecular targets, it is difficult to know the orientation and alignment of the molecule prior to the interaction occurring, unless this can be defined prior to the collision or can be measured following the collision.
The interaction of low to intermediate energy electrons with molecular targets has been much less studied compared with high energy electron collisions.
Experiments on molecular targets often employ effusive beams produced at room temperature, and so the targets may have internal rotational and vibrational energy. Results are presented here for an H2O target at significantly lower energies than has been studied before.
Figure 1.1 Representation of the 1b1 state of H2O, showing an incident electron ionizing the molecule. The experiments described here were carried out in the fully computer controlled and computer optimized (e,2e) spectrometer that operates in Manchester. For the coplanar symmetric experiments described here, the electron detectors were moved so that their angles with respect to the incident beam direction were equal to each other throughout measurement (see figure 1.2). For coplanar asymmetric experiments, analyzer 1 was fixed at a scattering angle thetaa = 22A°, while analyzer 2 was swept around the scattering plane.
The fixed scattering angle thetaa = 22A° was chosen as this was the smallest angle that could be used without the incident electron beam from the gun striking the side of the analyzer (and so producing unacceptable levels of noise on the coincidence signal). The energy resolution of the spectrometer is set by the resolution of the electron gun and the pass energy of the analyzers. Production of a high quality molecular beam of H2O required careful monitoring of the experiment as it progressed.
The de-gassed water was then transferred to a 150mm long tubular stainless steel flask which was connected to the main vacuum system using a swagelok fitting. An AD590 sensor was secured to the aluminium block surrounding the flask, so that the temperature of the insulated assembly could be monitored and controlled. To monitor the molecular beam inside the vacuum chamber produced from the water, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was installed onto the spectrometer. Figure 1.3 shows a typical coincidence energy spectrum obtained from the experiment during operation.
The experiments were carried out over a period of several months, using electron beam currents ~200nA for all data runs. As the incident energy increases, the ratio of forward to backward scattering cross section increases, as has been seen for most atomic targets in this geometry. The measured coplanar asymmetric data is shown in figure 4, again normalized to unity at thetab = 45A°. As the incident energy is increased to 55eV above threshold, the forward lobe splits into two clear peaks of approximately equal magnitude, as seen in figure 1.5(b).
Results from the 1b1 state of water have been presented for coplanar symmetric and asymmetric energies. These results have been compared to a DWBA theory in the paper J Phys B, however the averaging used in this theory was not a good approximation, and so is not expected to yield accurate results for this state. Experimental results are presented for electron impact ionization of water in the energy regime from near threshold to intermediate energies.
Results of a sophisticated model which approximates the random orientation of the target using a spherical averaging of the wave-function prior to the collision, using sophisticated distorted wave Born calculations that include post-collisional interactions in first order and to all orders of perturbation theory are also shown for comparison (see J. The calculations predict the data most accurately at the lowest energy studied (4eV above threshold) in a coplanar symmetric geometry, whereas the comparison between theory and experiment is generally poor for higher energies and for non-coplanar geometries. Energy deposition and angular distributions resulting from electron collisions with water are used in charged particle track structure analyses to model radiation damage in biological samples.
These low energy electrons have an effect over a much wider volume than the targeted cancer site. At incident energies less than ~200eV, the collision dynamics are strongly influenced by effects including post-collision interactions, target polarization, distortions in the wave-functions for the participating electrons and multiple collisions.
Current models now yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for a range of atoms, implying a good understanding of the collision dynamics under the conditions used in the experiments, and these models are now being extended to low energy (e,2e) collisions from molecules. Recent experiments studying simple diatomic targets including H2 and N2 have provided benchmark data. The apparatus at Manchester can also access non-coplanar geometries, and so has provided additional data to further test these models. In a previous study the groups at Manchester and Missouri investigated the 1b1 (HOMO) state of H2O in coplanar kinematics. By contrast, the 3a1 orbital of interest here is involved in the O-H bonding and has a charge density distribution distorted from that of a symmetric atomic like orbital. The experimental triple differential cross sections (TDCS) presented here were measured in the (e,2e) apparatus at the University of Manchester. The spectrometer can be operated in a standard coplanar geometry where the momenta of all three electrons (the incident and two outgoing electrons) are within the same detection plane (psi = 0A°, figure 2.1).
The power supplies for the electrostatic lenses in the electron gun and the electron analyzers are fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing for automated tuning at regular intervals, with the analyzers being re-optimized each time they move to a new angle.
The energy of the spectrometer was re-calibrated at the start of each new kinematic arrangement, by measuring the coincidence binding energy spectrum. Over the course of this study the binding energy spectra were recorded for various energies and geometries, and it is estimated that contamination from neighbouring orbitals was always less than 10%, and is more typically in the range of 0.5%. The distilled water sample used to provide the molecular target beam was contained within a 50mm diameter 100mm long stainless steel vessel sealed by a CF-70 flange to a 6.35mm swagelok fitting. The sample vessel and gas handling line were held at a constant temperature of 50A?C throughout data collection, so as to create sufficient driving pressure for the target beam.
The purity of the target beam was verified with a Spectra VacScan mass spectrometer fitted to the scattering chamber. The background pressure within the scattering chamber was set to 1.1 x 10-5 torr during operation, and was found to remain constant throughout all data runs.
During these experiments we observed an unusual behaviour of the tungsten hairpin filament used as the incident electron source.
To facilitate this, the current measured by the Faraday cup located on the opposite side of the interaction region to the electron gun was monitored by the computer control software, and the current through the filament adjusted to maintain a beam current of 300nA throughout data collection.
In the present study we also measured the coincidence energy resolution from ionization of helium, and found this did not change, indicating that the temperature of emission remained approximately constant.
The data presented in figures 3-5 were then averaged over these angular sweeps, and the uncertainties in the measurements determined from the complete set of data for each scattering angle. The experimental data are not measured on an absolute scale and so experiment and theory are normalized to a maximum of unity at each energy, as shown in figure 2.2.
As the energy of the outgoing electrons is lowered, it would be expected that the Coulomb repulsion between the outgoing electrons should play an increasingly important role, driving the electrons apart. The best agreement between experimental data and theory is at the lowest energy, where the experimental data and MDW model are in excellent agreement for the binary peak. A key advantage of the spectrometer in Manchester is the ability to measure data for kinematics in non-coplanar geometries. Non-coplanar measurements were hence taken here with both outgoing electrons having an energy of 10eV.
As shown in figure 1, the geometry adopted in this spectrometer provides a common normalization point (xi1 = xi2 = 90A°) for all gun angles psi, which allows ALL data at a given energy to be referenced to a common point. For the current measurements, the coplanar data have been normalized to a maximum of unity, as before. The data in figure 2.3 show a clear trend indicating the binary and recoil peaks diminish in magnitude as the angle of the electron gun angle increases. The data contrasts strongly with the theoretical models for the larger gun angles y, where the theories predict significantly more structure than is seen in the data. The final kinematic configuration used symmetric geometries and 20eV excess energy as above, however in this case the data are for unequal energy sharing between the outgoing electrons.
The data were only taken for coplanar and perpendicular plane geometries, so as to contrast differences in these two extremes. The key differences that can be seen in these data for the coplanar geometry are that the binary peak moves to a smaller angle as the energy asymmetry increases, as might be expected from post collisional interactions. Agreement is mixed, and rather surprisingly gives best results at low energies, where it might be expected that the approximations are least accurate. The experimental results for both equal and non-equal energy sharing in the perpendicular plane show almost no structure, whereas the theoretical calculations predict that three clearly defined lobes should be seen.
This work was supported by the University of Manchester and the US National Science Foundation under Grant. 12.A A  Naja A, Staicu-Casagrande E M, Lahmam-Bennani A, Nekkab M, Mezdari F, Joulakian B, Chuluunbaatar O and Madison D H 2007 J. There is near consensus that leaving the EU would have a greater negative effect on the UK’s economy than that.
These are among the main findings of a new report published today and funded by the ESRC’s UK in a Changing Europe initiative. If, on leaving the EU, the UK were to join the European Economic Area, like Norway, its net contributions might be about halved. A vote to leave the EU would increase uncertainty in the short run and make trade more expensive in the long run. It is unlikely that government would respond with bigger spending cuts and tax rises in the short run. In any of these scenarios public sector debt would be significantly higher than planned by the end of the parliament. School spending in England has become increasingly targeted at schools with pupils from poorer backgrounds over the past 20 years. That said, there is also a lot of variation in funding between schools with similar pupil intakes.
There are substantial differences in spending levels per pupil between schools in England, and these differences have grown over time.
A key driver of this variation is the increased spending in the most deprived set of schools and areas.
Local authorities can and do make different choices in the way they fund different sorts of schools in their area.
Differences in average spending levels between local authorities are, however, largely explained by characteristics of the local authorities: 80% of the variation in spending per pupil across local authorities can be explained by whether they are in London and their level of deprivation. It is the total amount of spending that pupils experience over all their years in schooling that is likely to matter most for educational outcomes.
On average, students taking their GCSEs in 2015 had £57,000 spent on them over the course of their schooling career between Reception and Year 11.
Changes in school spending policy take a long time to affect the amount different cohorts experience in total school spending. Graduates from richer family backgrounds earn significantly more after graduation than their poorer counterparts, even after completing the same degrees from the same universities. The research used anonymised tax data and student loan records for 260,000 students up to ten years after graduation. Funded by the Nuffield Foundation, this work was carried out by researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), UCL Institute of Education, Harvard University and the University of Cambridge. All this means, of course, is that it is the IPC approach that will ultimately determine the BGAs. The Agreement also means that part of the growth in devolved tax revenues in rUK will continue to be redistributed to Scotland to help fund its higher levels of government spending: something that the UK government said should no longer happen once a tax is devolved.
These are among the findings of a new report released by researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies and the University of Stirling, funded by the Nuffield Foundation and the Economic and Social Research Council. The deal agreed will protect the Scottish budget from revenue and welfare spending risks associated with Scotland’s lower population growth. The method agreed for adjusting the block grant also largely insulates Scotland from the impact of any shocks that hit the whole of the UK – such as the global financial crisis and associated recession. But the Scottish Government’s budget will be exposed to long- and short-term economic risks that affect Scotland differently from the rest of the UK. Borrowing would not be an appropriate response to long-term declines in revenues or increases in welfare spending, but it can be an important tool in managing shorter-term risks.
Recent experience suggests the resource borrowing limits and reserves limits agreed should be large enough to smooth temporary fluctuations in devolved revenues.
Strong employment growth has reduced the number of people living in households with incomes below a fixed poverty line over the last two years, but planned cuts to benefits and tax credits will mean no growth in the incomes of poorer households on average over the next five years. This income growth partly reflects strong employment growth, particularly towards the bottom of the income distribution. Relative poverty rates have not changed as the incomes of poorer households have grown at a similar rate to median income. Incomes are likely to continue growing for many households as earnings rise faster than inflation.
The Joseph Rowntree Foundation is an independent organisation working to inspire social change through research, policy and practice. The IFS Green Budget 2016, produced in association with ICAEW and funded by the Nuffield Foundation with analysis from Oxford Economics, is published today. The rule has the merit of simplicity and transparency but is very inflexible and this could come at a cost.
The fiscal mandate also rules out borrowing to invest even where low interest rates mean such investment would be economically beneficial and would not otherwise occur. Mr Osborne has promised £8billion per year of income tax cuts in the form of a higher personal allowance and an increased higher-rate threshold. His forecasts depend on him raising fuel duties in line with the RPI – something he has failed to do since 2011.
His forecasts also depend on keeping the £150,000 threshold, at which the 45% income tax rate kicks in, frozen. Spending plans are based on pay in the public sector rising by at most 1% a year for the rest of this parliament. Oxford Economics, with whom we are again collaborating, forecast that UK growth will be a relatively disappointing 2.2% in 2016, similar to growth in 2015. Looking further ahead, Oxford Economics say that the combination of a sizeable output gap and solid prospects for potential output should provide the conditions for firm growth and low inflation over the medium term. ICAEW provide a detailed analysis of Whole of Government Accounts (WGA), which illustrates the importance of taking a wider view of government finances than the traditional National Accounts. Current accounting measures and the desire to reach a surplus on a relatively narrow measure of government borrowing will favour public–private finance partnerships over simply borrowing to invest. There is a case for extending excise duties to other products, excess consumption of which can cause social harm; hence the recent calls for a sugar tax. The Green Budget also contains chapters on universal credit and tackling tax avoidance by multinational companies, which were pre-released last week and the week before, respectively.
We are delighted to have produced this year’s Green Budget in association with ICAEW and with funding from ICAEW and the Nuffield Foundation. During this parliament the government plans to replace most of the means-tested benefits system for working-age families with a single payment called universal credit (UC).
These are among the findings of new analysis by IFS researchers which forms part of the forthcoming IFS Green Budget 2016, produced in association with ICAEW and funded by the Nuffield Foundation. UC will dramatically reduce the number facing very weak financial incentives to move into or stay in work.
UC will tend to weaken the incentive for single parents to be in work, and to strengthen the incentive for couples to have one person in work (rather than none or two). Working single parents and two-earner couples are relatively likely to lose, and one-earner couples with children are relatively likely to gain. Owner-occupiers and those with assets or unearned income are relatively likely to lose, but working renters are relatively likely to gain. Distilling microeconomics research into direct policy implications will be the focus of a new website developed by researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies, University College London, Princeton University, Harvard University, London School of Economics Northwestern University, University of California, San Diego, University of Manchester and Yale University. The summaries, which will be written by academics and edited by journalists, will cover all areas of microeconomics including development, health economics, environmental economics, international trade, public finance, industrial organisation and labour economics. Like an academic journal, content featured on the website will be chosen by an editorial committee that will select the best research in microeconomics, irrespective of institution and political or ideological viewpoints. The editorial committee will work with its academic authors to produce short research briefs intended for public policy practitioners. Many fear that climate change will have severe effects on the global economy, particularly through the threat to food production and farmers’ earnings. NHS hospitals in England are rarely closed in constituencies where the governing party has a slender majority. Argues that reform of Barnett may remove some of the conflicts between the Smith Commission’s principles. Wealth among working-age households increased on average by more than inflation over the late 2000s, despite the financial crisis. These are among the findings of a new report published today by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), funded by the IFS Retirement Savings Consortium and the Economic and Social Research Council.
Increases in average wealth for working-age households over this four-year period were driven by increases in pension wealth.
For virtually all age groups, average property wealth fell in real terms over the period due to declines in house prices.
Taking all wealth together, the majority of working-age households saw a real terms increase in their total wealth over this period. Nearly half of individuals (47%) in 2010–12 reported saving some income in financial assets over the previous two years.
30% of individuals reported saving for an unexpected expense, 23% reported saving for holidays or leisure, 15% for planned expenses, 10% for other people and 10% to provide a retirement income. Between 2006 and 2012 the odds of reporting saving for investment purposes halved, while the odds of reporting saving for an unexpected expense increased by 20% and the odds of saving for a housing deposit increased by nearly 60%. Only 35% of individuals who had not yet retired in 2010–12 expected private pensions to be their largest source of retirement income. Among households aged 25–34, nearly one-quarter (24%) do not expect to receive any income from the state pension in retirement, while nearly half (44%) do not expect to receive any income from a private pension. The report will be available on the IFS website from 00:01 AM on Thursday 19th November 2015. Reductions in social rents announced in the July Budget will be of little or no direct benefit to most of the 3.9 million households in England living in social housing.
The reduction in housing benefit will save the exchequer money, and will strengthen tenants’ work incentives as they have less means-tested support to lose by entering work or increasing their earnings. These are among the conclusions of a new report on social rent policy, published today by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) and funded by Trust for London. After many years of real increases in social rents, the July Budget announced a 1% annual reduction in social rents in England for the next four years.
The policy largely represents a transfer from social landlords (councils and housing associations) to the exchequer, rather than to social tenants. Tenants who do gain from the rent cut will tend to be around the middle of the income distribution.
The cut to social rents will strengthen the financial work incentives of social tenants, on average.
We expect Pay to Stay to hit around 250,000 households per year (about 7% of social renting households in England).
Important decisions about Pay to Stay have yet to be taken, including how sharply rents increase as incomes rise beyond the threshold. Pay to Stay will increase the incentive for higher-income social tenants to leave the sector, perhaps by exercising their Right to Buy. Johnson will set out how modelling by IFS researchers suggests that pensioners’ incomes will continue to rise for at least the next decade. Johnson will also use his lecture to outline some policy priorities for making state and private pensions more stable and sustainable, for example ending the so called triple lock on the state pension and bringing stability to the taxation of private pensions. Pensioners now have higher incomes on average than the rest of the population, once housing costs and family composition are taken into account. A large proportion of those retiring now will actually be better off in retirement than they were on average during their working life.


On state pensions Johnson will suggest that the new single tier pension for those reaching the state pension age on from next April will represent the logical culmination of 30 years of policy aimed at undoing the introduction of the State Earnings Related Pension Scheme (SERPS) in 1978.
Continuing increases in pension age, in order to help drive up the age at which people actually stop work, is likely to be vital to the sustainability of the system. When most pension income came from state pensions and defined benefit occupational pensions risks of poor investment returns and changing longevity were shared between individuals and generations. There is an urgent need to bring stability and rationality to the taxation of private pensions. Less than a quarter (22%) of children on free school meals in inner London obtained five or more A*–C grades at GCSE or their equivalent (including English and Maths) in 2002. New work published today, by researchers associated with the Centre for Social Exclusion (CASE) at the London School of Economics and the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), concludes that the improved performance largely reflects gradual improvements in school quality over time.
The researchers from the IFS, University of Surrey, University of Bath and the UCL Institute for Education used information from the National Pupil Database, which records the school outcomes of all children in England. London is much more ethnically diverse than the rest of England and ethnic minorities tend to obtain better GCSE results than children from white-British backgrounds. The main explanation for better GCSE results is that pupils from poorer backgrounds are entering secondary school with better test scores at age 11. In addition it seems that having lots of peers from deprived backgrounds is no longer holding children back as much. The researchers supplemented their analysis of administrative data by using the Millennium Cohort Study to look at the performance of one large group of children born around 2000 and for whom there is detailed data on their progress before age 11. In this cohort of around 19,000 children who all started school at age 5 in 2005, disadvantaged children in London were not ahead of those outside London at the point when they started school. Differences in the family background and characteristics of poorer pupils in London explain just under half of the London advantage at age 11 (mostly due to higher levels of ethnic diversity). Children were considered poor in the Millennium Cohort Study if their household was in receipt of Job Seekers Allowance or Income Support when the age 3, 5, 7 or 11 survey was taken. Disadvantaged children in London are different from their peers outside London, particularly in terms of ethnicity. Researchers at the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), Harvard University and the University of Cambridge found that median earnings of English women around 10 years after graduation were just over three times those of non-graduates.
The study shows that the recession had a large impact on the earnings of people in their twenties and early thirties.
The researchers used anonymised tax data and student loan records for over 260,000 graduates for up to 10 years after graduation. The researchers, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, report their results in a new working paper.
The administrative data suggests that the annual earnings of the highest earning graduates are greater than appears in other data. 3 a€“ 9 months: Coughs, wheezing and breathing problems should disappear as lungs are better able to resist infection. From 5 to 10 years: Risk of developing cardiovascular disease or blood clots is the same as for a non smoker.
From 10 to 15 years: Risk of lung, throat, oesophageal or bladder cancer is the same as for a non smoker.
3 a€“ 9 months:A  Coughs, wheezing and breathing problems should disappear as lungs are better able to resist infection.
As blood flow to the skin decreases, the skin turns leathery and becomes far more prone to wrinkles. Women smokers suffer greater menstrual distress, higher rates of infertility and ectopic pregnancy and earlier onset of menopause.
The latest research shows that second hand smoke affects babiesa€™ brains and has now been linked to causingA SIDS.
These days people see it more accurately for what it is: a sickly habit that kills by the thousands every month. October 31, 2014 If you're new here, please like my Facebook Page for all the best health hacks.
Coplanar symmetric and asymmetric electron impact ionization studies from the 1b1 state of H2O at low to intermediate impact energies. The experimental data show a wide variation in the cross section over this range of energies.
These ionizing collisions are important in a wide range of different areas, ranging from plasma physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, medical and biological processes involving low energy electrons through to the study of high voltage discharges. The scattered electron is then detected in time correlated coincidence with either the electron ejected during ionization, or with the resulting ion. This is usually accomplished by determining a cross section that is five fold differential in angle and energy.
In most cases, this means that an averaging over the orientation of the target must be included for theory to compare with experimental results. This energy region (from threshold to ~200eV) is important as it is here that the cross section for ionization is largest. The ionization potential from these ground ro-vibrational states is usually less defined than for atomic targets, due to the associated Franck-Condon overlap between the potential energy curves of the neutral molecules and the resulting ions. This apparatus is described in detail on other web pages on this fileserver, and has been designed to operate in the energy regime from ~10eV to ~300eV. In this configuration, the energies selected for the scattered and ejected electrons were equal. The inner diameter of this flask was 9mm, and the outside diameter was 12.7mm, so that a standard swaged fitting could be used. This was accomplished using a Newport model 325 temperature controller, which supplied drive current to the TEC. This proved invaluable, as it was then possible to continuously monitor the background gases in the chamber during operation. In this example, the analyzers were set to pass electrons of energy 20eV, and a symmetric geometry was chosen with thetaa = thetab = 45A°.
Over this period of time, the filament current driving the cathode had to be steadily decreased, probably since the water vapour within the vacuum chamber slowly reduced the diameter of the filament. The data is normalized to unity at thetaa = thetab = theta = 45A°, since the results have not been placed on an absolute scale. Results were taken in symmetric coplanar and non-coplanar geometries, with both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies.
The human body, and other biological material comprise of ~80% water, which makes it an ideal test case to investigate processes occurring in the body.
These models are an active area of research since the observation that high energy radiation that is used to treat cancers also liberates many low energy electrons, causing additional damage to cell DNA.
Knowledge of the collision dynamics of low energy electrons with biological systems is hence needed, so as to develop robust models of these processes.
In such experiments the energy and momenta of the outgoing electrons are measured, giving a five fold differential cross section. In this regime these processes must be considered on an equal basis, and so the complexity of the interactions means that theoretical studies have mainly been limited to atomic targets. This contrasts to atoms which have a single nuclear scattering centre, and which can hence be described using a spherical basis. A further challenge arises since the experiments cannot, at present, align the molecules prior to the collision, so the models must consider the random orientation of the targets for accurate comparison.
The majority of data is recorded in a coplanar geometry, where the incident and two outgoing electrons are in the same plane, and were conducted at a higher incident energy than the studies presented here. The symmetry of the 2py oxygen atomic orbital, representing the lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atoms, prevents it from hybridizing with the H atomic orbital, leaving the molecular 1b1 HOMO orbital essentially atomic like, and therefore symmetric.
However, the orientation averaged molecular orbital used in the theoretical calculation is a bad approximation for that state given the cancellations due to the orbital symmetry. The molecular orbital used in the model therefore should not suffer from the same cancellation problem during the orientational averaging procedure. This apparatus is fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing it to operate continuously without user intervention. A coplanar geometry (psi = 0A?) is defined when all three electrons are in the detection plane.
The angular resolution of the apparatus is estimated as A±3A°, based on geometric considerations of the electrostatic lenses at those energies.
Several freeze-pump-thaw cycles were performed using a salted ice slurry bath, to remove dissolved gas impurities from the water prior to admission into the scattering chamber.
Over time the emission current from the filament dramatically increased, when a constant current was delivered to the filament.
The data were normalized to a collection time of 1000sec for each measurement, and up to 30 sweeps of the detection plane were used to produce statistically significant results. The overall shape of the TDCS measured at corresponding energies in a previous study of the 1b1 state are qualitatively similar, however the 1b1 state shows a second peak in the binary region emerging at higher energies that is not observed in the 3a1 state. PCI would also be expected to shift the recoil peak towards xi = 90A°, although this cannot be confirmed in the data.
This agreement diminishes as the energy increases, which is unexpected since the MDW model is usually more accurate at higher energies. The TDCS measured in the perpendicular plane is almost constant over all analyzer angles, which is very different to what is observed for atomic targets. The progression in both models shows a decrease in cross section from psi = 0A° to 45A°, after which the intensity once again increases.
There also appears to be a narrowing in the main binary peak as the asymmetry increases, with a new shoulder appearing around xi = 60A°.
This contrasts markedly with the calculations, which predict triple peaks in the perpendicular plane that change magnitude only marginally with the asymmetry. This discrepancy is seen both for equal energy and for non-equal energy data, which have been taken in coplanar and perpendicular geometries.
The report examines both the direct and indirect effects of Brexit on the UK’s public finances, based on a comprehensive review of studies analysing the short- and long- term economic effects of Brexit. They imply that following a UK exit other EU countries would continue to pay a rebate to the UK on contributions it was not making.
Getting to budget balance from there, as the government desires, would require an additional year or two of austerity at current rates of spending cuts.
In 2013–14, the poorest fifth of secondary schools (in terms of the proportion of pupils eligible for free school meals) spent 31% more per pupil than the richest fifth, up from around 15% in the late 1990s.
In 10% of local authorities, secondary schools spend at least 40% more than primary schools per pupil; but in 10% of local authorities, the difference was less than 30%. A national funding formula therefore need not lead to significant redistribution between local authorities. For example, total spending per pupil will continue to grow over the current parliament, even though annual spending per pupil will fall in real terms.
This represents a major shift in the role of the state, with the school funding system playing an increasingly important role in redistribution,” said Chris Belfield, one of the authors of the report.
Replacing 152 different formulae with one single, simple formula will inevitably lead to substantial changes in funding across schools and, for good or bad, will almost completely remove local authorities from the school funding system,” said Luke Sibieta, the other author of the report. The Nuffield Foundation is an endowed charitable trust that aims to improve social well-being in the widest sense. The first stage of this consultation (which closes on April 17th) sets out the overall principles for a national funding formula. This is one of many findings in new research published today which looks at the link between earnings and students’ background, degree subject and university attended.
The full working paper is available here and we also have an accompanying executive summary.
The most difficult thing to agree was how to adjust the Scottish Government’s block grant funding to account for its new revenues and spending responsibilities. Scotland’s budget could fall a little if income tax rates are cut (or thresholds increased) in rUK and vice versa. There seems little rationale for adopting the convoluted process of adjustments set out in the Fiscal Framework other than to highlight this difference. Equally, Scotland will not benefit from the higher revenues that might result if its population grows more quickly than expected. The Scottish Government got less in the way of new borrowing powers than it hoped for: capital borrowing limits were barely increased, for instance. The Scottish block grant will continue to be determined largely by historical accident through the Barnett Formula, and will still bear no relation to Scotland’s relative spending need.
These are among the main findings from a new IFS Report funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, published today, that examines the prospects for incomes and poverty until 2020. In contrast to the stability of inequality over the past two years (and the decline in inequality since the recession), incomes at the 90th percentile are projected to increase by 2.3% per year while incomes at the 10th percentile are expected to remain constant in real terms. Less than a third of the projected increase in overall relative poverty, and around 40% of the increase in relative child poverty, is attributable to planned reforms.
For some, particularly the better off and pensioners, this is likely to continue over the next five years as earnings and state pensions grow more quickly than inflation.
Having set himself a very inflexible target to get to budget balance by 2019–20, Mr Osborne could be forced into additional spending cuts or tax rises if economic and fiscal forecasts again turn out unfavourably.
Borrowing to cover investment could leave debt still at 60% of national income in the mid-2030s. It could require big tax rises or spending cuts with very little notice in order to ensure it is met.
And because it is based on a narrow definition of borrowing, there is a danger that Chancellors will game the rule, just as they have gamed rules in the past. The number of additional-rate taxpayers has already increased by 40% since the additional rate was introduced in 2010.
Spending on public services other than health will be at its lowest level as a fraction of national income since at least 1948–49, at a time when the population continues to grow and age. If official forecasts for private sector pay are right, this will take public sector pay to easily its lowest level relative to that in the private sector for at least 25 years. On the plus side, the forces driving strong consumer spending growth last year are still present, while the environment for business investment remains favourable. However, the planned fiscal consolidation is so large that it will exert a significant drag on growth prospects and mean that the UK’s spare capacity is eroded more slowly than it otherwise could be. Uncertainty in the fiscal forecasts means that he may well have to cut spending further or raise taxes to get to surplus in 2019–20. Favourable treatment of these arrangements in the National Accounts is no good reason to favour funding infrastructure spending in that way. They are not focused on heavy drinkers and charge very different rates of tax on the same alcohol content depending on the form in which it is consumed.
Implementing such a tax successfully may be much harder than for traditional excise duties because diets are complicated and multifaceted. ICAEW is a world-leading professional membership organisation that promotes, develops and supports over 146,000 chartered accountants worldwide. As leaders in accountancy, finance and business ICAEW members have the knowledge, skills and commitment to maintain the highest professional standards and integrity. A series of pre-emptive cuts means that introducing UC will in the long run reduce the generosity of the benefit system – including to working families, in a reversal of the original intention.
On average, working single parents will effectively keep 8% less of their earnings under UC than under the system it is replacing, because of the way UC is withdrawn as their earnings rise (a disincentive to work made significantly greater by the July Budget cuts). This has the implication that UC will likely focus support more on those with long-term (rather than just temporary) low incomes, but it also weakens the incentive for some to save.
Expanding job search conditions to more people and removing the need to start new benefit claims when moving into work could act to increase employment and earnings. We are also grateful to the Economic and Social Research Council for funding much of the day-to-day research at IFS that underpins the analysis in this report. ICAEW is a world leading professional membership organisation that promotes, develops and supports over 146,000 chartered accountants worldwide. Particular emphasis will be placed upon the work of young researchers working at the research frontier. These summaries will be handed off to a team of editors and journalists adept at writing for the public.
This research suggests that much of the potential harm could be avoided if farmers can switch their crops in response to changing relative yields. This means that for near random reasons, those areas have more competition in healthcare – which has allowed Nicholas Bloom and John Van Reenen to assess its impact on management quality and clinical performance. A new joint paper by researchers at the IFS, the University of Stirling and the Centre for Constitutional Change, funded by the Nuffield Foundation looks at these issues. But if the Barnett Formula were reformed, a more comprehensive assessment of the UK’s system of devolved government finance than the Smith Commission was tasked with would be needed. Reform of Barnett may remove some of the conflicts between the Smith Commission’s principles that we have identified. This was driven by increases in pension wealth, which on average more than offset the declines in housing wealth resulting from falling house prices. They used detailed data covering the whole of Great Britain from the Wealth and Assets Survey.
After stripping out changes in how future pension income is valued, mean pension wealth increased in real terms (i.e. Few households hold the relatively risky financial assets that saw volatile returns over this period. The exception is households aged 25–34, among whom average property wealth increased as some moved into home ownership.
One third expected their largest source of income to be the state pension, while 8% expected it to be saving or investments, 6% their primary housing and 5% an inheritance. However, 28% of individuals expect an inheritance to provide them with some retirement resources.
The authors are very grateful to the IFS Retirement Savings Consortium and the Economic and Social Research Council for funding this research.
The Wealth and Assets Survey (WAS) is a longitudinal survey of the household population in Great Britain.
Most of those renting their home from councils or housing associations have low incomes and hence receive housing benefit to cover all or part of their rent. Given that previous policy was to raise rents by CPI inflation + 1% each year, this means that social rents are expected to be 12% lower than they would otherwise have been by 2019–20.
Low-income tenants are the most likely to be on housing benefit, while better-off households are less likely to be in social housing at all. With lower rents, tenants will have less means-tested housing benefit to lose if they move into work or increase their earnings. The Office for Budget Responsibility assumes that 14,000 fewer social sector properties will be built between now and 2020–21 as a result. The effects on tenants’ disposable incomes and work incentives, and on revenue for housing associations and the exchequer (which will require councils to hand it the extra rental income), are sensitive to these choices.
Work incentives would still be weakened on average, and this might be more complex to administer, but it would avoid the extreme disincentive effects associated with a cliff edge. Co-funding from the ESRC-funded Centre for the Microeconomic Analysis of Public Policy at IFS is also very gratefully acknowledged. Just 30 years ago pensioners were are at least three times as likely to be poor as non-pensioners. At some point it will prove to be prohibitively expensive; the OBR estimates that it will add well over one per cent of national income to pension spending by the middle of this century relative to the cost of earnings indexation.
The inaugural lecture will take place at 18.30 on Tuesday 20 October 2015 at JP Morgan Chase, 60 Victoria Embankment, Blackfriars, London.
Improvements in primary schools played a major role in explaining later improvements in secondary schools. To check this the researchers follow a group of children born around the year 2000 from preschool to age 11. This explains a lot of the higher performance of poorer children in London compared with those outside London but it does not explain why disadvantaged Londoners have improved their performance so much.
In 1997, about 47% of poorer pupils in both inner London and the rest of England achieved the expected level in English tests at age 11. Indeed, they were less school-ready on some measures, but this is mainly because of their more diverse ethnic background and because many do not speak English as a first language.
However, most of the advantage remains unexplained, again pointing to the important role played by London’s primary schools.


However, all the children we consider are on means-tested benefits and this tends to lead to similar living standards across the country. This project is part of the Social Policy in a Cold Climate programme of work which is funded by Joseph Rowntree Foundation, the Nuffield Foundation and Trust for London through the Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion (CASE), LSE.
This is particularly true for women, who experienced much lower earnings than previous cohorts.
The administrative data gives a much more accurate picture than existing surveys which tend to be based on much smaller samples self-reporting their earnings and are subject to biases.
Macular degeneration, which affects the retina and causes blindness among the elderly, is 200% to 500% more likely.
Babies of smoking mothers are, on average, half a kilo lighter, thus affecting their chances of survival.
The nicotine content in several major brands, according to Harvard University and the Massachusetts Health Department, is rising. The US brands Marlboro, Kool, Camel and Kent own roughly 70% of the global cigarette market. Cigarettes contain arsenic, formaldehyde, lead, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia and 43 known carcinogens.
Urea, a chemical compound that is a major component in urine, is used to add a€?flavoura€? to cigarettes. Cigarettes can contain more than 4,000 ingredients, which, when burned, can also produce over 200 a€?compounda€™ chemicals. Sugar approximates to roughly 20% of a cigarette, and many diabetics are unaware of this secret sugar intake.
Smokers draw on a€?lighta€™ and menthol cigarettes harder (on average) than regular cigarettes; causing the same overall levels of tar and nicotine to be consumed.
Most smokers take up the habit in their mid teens, well before the legal age for purchasing them, and is seen as a right of passage towards adulthood. Smoking tobacco is the ultimate gateway drug in that it is legally available, and involves mastering a unique method of intake.
Smokers generally report a variety of after-effects such as calmness, relaxation, alertness, stimulation, concentration and many others. Several active ingredients and special methods of production are involved in making sure the nicotine in a cigarette is many times more potent than that of a tobacco plant. Theoretical approximations accurate at high impact energies can no longer be applied, and so there are stringent demands on theory which must be satisfied for accurate comparison with data. The (e,2e) coincidence signal for molecules may then have a correspondingly lower yield compared to an atomic target where the ionization potential is well defined.
A pictorial representation of the water molecule in the 1b1 state is given in figure 1.1 below.
The spectrometer allows measurements to be conducted from a coplanar geometry through to the perpendicular plane, although in the present measurements only a coplanar geometry was used. The analyzer pass energy was then set to measure electrons so that the overall resolution of the coincidence signal (as measured using a helium atomic target) was 600meV. The pump removed background gas from the flask, and extracted dissolved gases held in the water. The flask was secured to the cold side of a 50mm x 50mm thermo-electric cooler (TEC) using a large aluminium block, and the assembly (flask + block) was insulated from the air using Styrofoam. The 1b1, 3a1 and 1b2 states are clearly resolved in this spectrum, which is fitted to three Gaussian peaks to ascertain the widths of the spectral profiles. These data were measured in a coplanar geometry with outgoing electron energies of 20eV detected at theta1 = theta2 = 55A°. Figure 1.5(a) shows the lowest energy results, with an incident energy 15eV above the ionization threshold. Molecular wave-functions are generally not spherical, the nuclei within the molecule providing multiple scattering centres.
This becomes a computationally intensive problem, and so approximations are usually made to allow these calculations to become tractable.
In this study the analyzers were always kept in a symmetric configuration with xi1 = xi2 = xi. A needle valve at the entrance to the scattering chamber controlled the flow of target H2O vapour into the interaction region.
This indicates that an H2O target molecular beam of high purity was created, as confirmed from binding energy spectral studies.
This increase in emission current was often more than a factor of 2 within a 24 hour period. The solid line shows results from the Molecular Distorted Wave Born Approximation (MDW) while the dashed line was generated from the Molecular 3-body Distorted Wave Approximation (M3DW). This trend is much clearer in the present data compared to that from the 1b1 state measured at higher energies. For the theoretical model, the coplanar TDCS has also been normalized to unity for both MDW and M3DW models.
These measurements were taken in a series of symmetric non-coplanar geometries with outgoing electron energies of 10eV. The M3DW model follows a trend that is closer to the experimental data, although neither model accurately predicts the results that have been obtained. The theoretical calculations are also shown, where once again the data and theory have been normalized to unity at the peak in the coplanar geometry. The minimum around 90A° in this geometry does not change substantially as the energy sharing changes.
But the overall public finance impact would depend on the economic effects of the UK leaving the EU.
Such claims also imply we would simply stop all existing EU subsidies to farming and poorer regions (such as Cornwall and west Wales). That is why nearly all estimates suggest leaving would reduce national income relative to what it would otherwise have been, both in the next few years, and in the longer term. Some of these differences are readily explained by other features of the schools, but many are not. A national funding formula would eradicate such differences and would therefore lead to substantial changes in spending per pupil within individual local authorities. It funds research and innovation in education and social policy and also works to build capacity in education, science and social science research. The data set includes cohorts of graduates who started university in the period 1998–2011 and whose earnings (or lack of earnings) are then observed over a number of tax years.
First, Scotland will only be allowed to borrow to cover forecast falls in its revenues when Scottish GDP growth is less than 1% and at least 1 percentage point lower than UK growth – this could be constraining, as Scottish revenues may be temporarily depressed even if these conditions do not hold. The Scottish budget will be protected from the effects of UK-wide economic downturns and the Scottish Government will have some powers to borrow during short-term shocks that hit Scotland disproportionately.
Ultra-low inflation has also been key, boosting the value of workers’ pay and of benefits.
And that in itself is driven almost entirely by rising poverty among families with at least 3 children, who are hit relatively hard by benefit cuts.
But the prospects are not so good for others, including large families with low incomes, who will bear the brunt of planned benefit cuts”.
It follows official statistics in defining the absolute poverty line as 60% of inflation-adjusted 2010–11 median income and the relative poverty line as 60% of contemporaneous median income.
In addition apparently small differences in fees and charges can outweigh the effects of different tax treatments.
He also has some big promised tax cuts to finance, faces considerable uncertainty over key tax revenues, and may yet find the spending squeeze hard to maintain, even though it is less severe than previously expected. The faster debt falls, the more room for manoeuvre future governments might have in the face of another recession.
Even if the Chancellor gets to the March 2019 Budget with his plans intact, past errors in official forecasts suggest that there would be more than a one-in-four chance that he would need to implement in-year tax rises or spending cuts to deliver a budget surplus in 2019–20.
The biggest question facing Mr Osborne is how he will respond if forecasts change and he needs greater tax rises or spending cuts to make the books balance.
Last week’s Bank of England inflation report downgraded forecast average earnings by more than 1% just since November. Other things equal, delivering them will require equivalent tax rises or spending cuts elsewhere.
Similarly, current policy implies a 50% increase in the numbers losing some or all of their child benefit within five years, as the point at which this happens stays fixed in cash terms. However, significant tightening of fiscal policy and problems in the international environment will continue to hold growth back, even though UK exporters’ focus on other advanced economies will offer some insulation from problems in emerging economies. With public spending reaching historically low levels relative to national income, promises on tax cuts to keep and pay for, and pressure on revenues from a number of taxes, there may be more tough decisions to come. Getting the best outcomes for the public finances in challenging times, means being supported by modern financial management as well as having the full economic picture. PFI and PF2 should be brought on balance sheet to avoid decisions being driven by accounting rules. They provide qualifications and professional development, share their knowledge, insight and technical expertise, and protect the quality and integrity of the accountancy and finance profession. Together they contribute to the success of individuals, organisations, communities and economies around the world. But it will still do a lot to help make work pay for many of those who currently face the most severe disincentives. The analysis focuses on the long run impact of introducing UC: transitional measures mean that existing claimants will not see their entitlements cut at the point when they are moved onto UC. The 800,000 working individuals who would currently keep less than 20p of an additional pound earned (of whom 600,000 would keep less than 10p) would all keep at least 23p if the long run UC system applied now.
Early evidence suggests UC has had a positive impact on employment among the small group already affected, but it is not possible to draw firm conclusions from this about its impact when fully in place.
They provide qualifications and professional development and share their knowledge, insight and technical expertise, and protect the quality and integrity of the accountancy and finance profession. The final results will be distributed through the website, social media accounts and dedicated distribution email lists. The Smith Commission parked these issues to one side by committing to the current Barnett Formula. However, younger cohorts are on course to have less wealth at each point in life than earlier generations did at the same age – unless the rate at which they are accumulating wealth picks up.
The IFS Retirement Savings Consortium comprises Age UK, Department for Work and Pensions, Financial Conduct Authority, HM Treasury, Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, Investment Association, Just Retirement, and Money Advice Service. The data are collected by the Office for National Statistics, and the survey is funded by Office for National Statistics, Department for Work and Pensions, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, HM Revenue and Customs, Department for Communities and Local Government, Scottish Government and Financial Services Authority. Entitlement to housing benefit will typically be reduced pound-for-pound as their rent falls.
But lower rents also increase the financial incentive to seek access to social housing, and for existing tenants to remain there rather than, for example, exercising the Right to Buy their home. Choosing how gradually to increase rents involves delicate trade-offs over revenue, incentives and targeting of support. Future state pensions will be less generous on average, there has been an extraordinary fall in rates of home ownership, and, in the private sector, a collapse in membership of defined benefit occupational pension schemes. Those now in their 20s, 30s and 40s may well end up with lower incomes in retirement than their parents. This shows that disadvantaged pupils in London are not ahead at age 5, but instead make faster progress once they get to school compared to their peers outside the capital. Instead, most of the improvements reflect gradual increases in the quality of schools stretching back to the mid-1990s. By 2008, poorer pupils in inner London became 7 percentage points more likely to achieve this standard (75% for inner London compared with 68% for the rest of England). This advantage for graduates was maintained through the recent recession, although all groups saw significant falls in their earnings during this period. A recent European study of smokers over 65 years of age found evidence of damage to critical mental abilitiesa€”reasoning, comprehension and memorya€”when compared to non smokers of the same age group. The last date that cigarette ads were permitted on TV was extended by a day, from December 31, 1970 to January 1, 1971 to allow the television networks one last cash windfall from cigarette advertising in the New Yeara€™s Day football games.
As a result, a smokersa€™ blood will contain less antioxidants to protect the body from free radical destruction of cells. Smokers looking to get a€?higha€™ will very rarely do so from cigarettes after the initial stages of taking up the habit. In fact, smoking will produce a different effect in each individual depending on a€?what they expect to geta€™, making the cigarette the worlda€™s most popular placebo.
Dona€™t put it off: you know how things get busy, so you may not get back to it soon enough. The angles that could be accessed in this configuration ranged from thetaa = thetab = 25A° through to thetaa = thetab = 135A°. The acceptance angle of the analyzer lenses was A±3A°, as set by input apertures at the entrance to the electrostatic lenses. This de-gassing procedure was carried out for ~2 hours before the water sample was used in the experiment, to ensure that the proportion of dissolved gases in the water was minimized. The hot side of the TEC was attached using thermal conducting paste to an aluminium heatsink to which a 12VDC boxer fan was secured, so that heat from the TEC could be dissipated efficiently. If this ratio reduced, the experiment was halted and the water changed to a newly de-gassed sample. In this case, the 1b1 state was found to have a width of 620meV, which is comparable to that for an atomic target. The contrast between the maximum and minimum in the cross section increases as the energy increases. As the energy increases further to 95eV above threshold (figure 1.5(c)), the double peak in the forward direction is still visible but the magnitudes of the peaks are now different. The purity of this beam was monitored regularly using the mass spectrometer throughout this study. To ensure constant incident electron beam current throughout the measurements as required, the filament current was hence also placed under computer control. The experimental and theoretical data has been independently normalised to unity at each energy.
Dr Kate Nixon thanks the British Council for funding under the research exchange programme, and the Royal Society for a Newton International Fellowship. A fall in national income of 0.6%, relative to what it otherwise would have been, would be enough to offset this direct effect. This is one of the main findings from a new report written by IFS researchers and funded by the Nuffield Foundation on long-run changes to school spending in England since the late 1970s. That is why the government is currently consulting on radical plans for the gradual introduction of a national school funding formula in England from 2017–18 onwards.
It would also imply a loss of discretion for local authorities to respond to particular local circumstances.
The Nuffield Foundation has funded this project, but the views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Foundation. However, the figures calculated in the report differ from official statistics as they use the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) to adjust the absolute poverty line over time rather than the Retail Prices Index (RPI) used by official statistics. Meanwhile pension auto-enrolment arrangements, which compel matching contributions from employers, will make saving through pensions auto-enrolment much more attractive than almost any other option with the same underlying return.
A more broad-based sugar tax is an alternative but its effect on consumption of other nutrients, and hence overall diet, is uncertain. Moving towards monthly benefit payments to one member of the household and removing direct payments to landlords may be riskier. In particular, the act’s restrictions on hidden credit card fees were found to reduce borrowing costs (especially for consumers with low credit scores) without increasing interest charges and other fees and without reducing access to credit. Today’s report does not assess the extent to which people will respond to these incentives. Younger generations are also likely bearing some of the cost of these generous occupational pension schemes from which they themselves will never benefit.
The Treasury’s current consultation on tax creates even more uncertainty, but at least gives an opportunity to rationalise the system and put it on a long-term sustainable basis. This points to a very important role for improved performance by primary schools in London. Medical treatment is palliative at best: only a small minority of lung cancer patients are alive five years after their diagnosis.
TV ads portrayed sportsmen, outdoorsmen and popular personalities as proofA  ofA  how sophisticated it was.
For asymmetric geometries, thetaa is fixed at 22A° while analyzer 2 is swept around the scattering plane. A glass flask was used for this procedure as this allowed the process to be visually monitored. This indicates that the energetic effects of ro-vibrational transitions from the ground state to the ion state are negligible for this state.
Further checks were made regularly on the energy of the incident electron beam by monitoring the coincidence energy spectrum (figure 1.3), and regular monitoring of the partial pressures of the gases in the vacuum chamber. A second peak occurs in the backscatter region, however the maximum of this peak appears to occur at thetab < 225A°. For non-coplanar geometries the electron gun is lifted out of the plane, and is defined by the angle psi.
This would replace the 152 different funding formulae used by local authorities with one single, simple formula applying across all state-funded schools in England. This is because the RPI is known to significantly and systematically overstate inflation, meaning that using it to adjust incomes over time would understate growth in real incomes. If it wants to tackle harmful drinking, it would be better to sort out these anomalies in duty rates and to reverse the long-term trend to lower duties on spirits, which are disproportionately consumed by heavy drinkers.
Careful, evidence-based design and a clear understanding of its role alongside other initiatives are needed before any such policy is rolled out. ICAEW is a founder member of Chartered Accountants Worldwide and the Global Accounting Alliance.
The field work for the first wave covered 2006-08 and interviewed 71,268 individuals in 30,595 households. Its starting point ought to be that providing people with tax relief for pension saving when contributions are made, and charging tax (including National Insurance) on withdrawal, is the efficient, neutral basis for personal taxation.
This is then built on in London’s secondary schools so that children leave with strong GCSE results compared to other poor children outside of London. Many smokers have learned to cover these holes with their fingers or their lips to get a stronger hit.
There is an offset of 1eV in the position of the peaks which is due to contact potentials in the spectrometer. The full line represents a three-Gaussian fit, whereas the dotted lines show the individual Gaussians from this fit, illustrating the degree of separation measured with the current energy resolution. The results in the backward direction also have structure, with a minimum occurring when thetab ~ 250A°. As a result, schools in similar circumstances would, for the first time, receive similar levels of funding.
The table below shows the absolute and relative poverty lines in 2015–16 used in the report. Breathlessness, coughing, wheezing, bloody spit and exhaustion are common as the heart works overtime to pump blood through damaged lungs. Very little contamination is expected from neighbouring orbitals in the measured TDCS for the 3a1 state.
Although we cannot detail the precise effects of this reform as the government has not yet proposed an exact formula, our report published today seeks to set these reforms in a proper historical context. Breath is life; smoking cigarettes makes it tough to perform this most fundamental function of life.



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