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After transmitting the speed command of drive points to VFDs, visit location register to determine the node number of the sub-register. As shown in Figure 1, the first individual point of the paper machine is regarded as the main node of the speed chain, namely its speed determines the working speed of the whole paper machine, so regulation of its setting speed is to regulate the speed of the complete paper machine.
During normal production, if the ratio is suitable and it is required for paper tensioning or releasing for some reasons, press appropriate buttons of this individual, and then PLC will add one positive or negative offset to appropriate speed chain to realize such paper tensioning or releasing functions. Besides, GK 3000 variable frequency drive also has built-in process PID with complete functions, which is essential in close-loop tension control.
The input and feedback channels of PID have many categories for selection, and the feedback signals also can be set as many types of calculation results that are calculated from analog values. Note: in this diagram, D0 refers to the percentage of initial roll diameter, and the final roll diameter is regarded as 100%.
T0 refers to initial tension value, and the maximum tension of tension sensor is regarded as 100%. The analog operating frequency (representing production line speed) of master machine shall be input through AI1. Users need know three values: initial roll diameter, final roll diameter, and paper thickness. At this moment, the count value of counter (with setting count value as 100%) is equivalent to an output signal of a roll-diameter sensor, i.e. With the method of close-loop tension control, the setting value of PID shall be set as tension value required by users.
The automatic control of each individual of the paper machine utilizes joint control of PLC and variable speed drives, which is the development trend for design and transformation of paper-making drives. In control system, the speed sync of each individual is completed by PLC and VFDs together. The speed chain of VFDs is with binary tree data structure to carry out data transmission functions. A VFD (or VSD) can operate down to its minimum designed frequency, however the motor design and load characteristics determine the minimum PRACTICAL frequency.
Although VFDs can be used to limit inrush and act as a "starter", the true soft starter is often a much better choice when considering cost and robustness of the system.
Buy Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) online, direct sale by manufacturer with wholesale price. Active Front End (AFE) variable frequency drive has some harmonic filtering at the input to the VFD that is "programmable" on the fly. An inverter duty motor can deal with the higher voltage spikes produced by VFDs also can run at very slow speeds without overheating. In summary, when using a VFD there are many benefits and cost saving possibilities for pumping applications in the irrigation sector. PWM Variable Frequency Drive CharacteristicsPulse Width Modulation (PWM) voltage source variable frequency drives (VFD) presently comprehend the most used equipments to feed low voltage industrial motors in applications that involve speed variation. Variable frequency drive for water pumpsQuantifying the energy efficiency of pump units across markets is a tough task: These units mostly consist of rotodynamic pumps driven by motor systems either without or with variable frequency drives (VFD), the latter being called power drive systems (PDS). Variable Frequency Drive Basic Safety GuidelinesThis paper provides guidelines on functional safety considerations when selecting and integrating a variable frequency drive (VFD) system into the control system of a machine.
Select a right Variable Frequency DriveBefore selecting a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) for an existing electric motor, it's important to know the purpose and characteristics of the different components involved in the process. Variable Frequency Drive Working PrincipleThis guideline discusses variable frequency drive (VFD) basic working principle and how installing variable frequency drives in appropriate applications could save energy, cut costs and increase profit margins. In short VFD, is an energy saving device by converting fixed frequency to adjustable frequency to control AC induction motor in variable speed base on the load's changes, also know as variable speed drive, frequency inverter and adjustable frequency drives. Our variable frequency drives are widely used in China domestic companies, and have been export to India, Pakistan, Australia, South Africa, and much more countries. Compensatory externals to aid in starting torque generation for synchronous motors are also basically expense burdens that need not be borne.
Thirty years ago when we were first seeing 30 hp variable frequency drive (VFD) the size of a refrigerator (and now the size of a brief case), and there was no such thing as a severe duty motor, and it was an absolute TABOO to use a variable frequency drive (VFD) for variable speed.
General-purpose motors and vector variable frequency drive (VFD) dedicated motors are three-phase induction motors. 1) The leakage breaker or leakage relay may operate unintentionally due to the leakage current between grounds. Variable frequency drives convert incoming alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) and then invert the DC power into variable frequencies and voltage AC power. Among the most successful strategies managers have at their disposal for controlling electrical energy use and minimizing utility costs is the use of variable frequency drive (VFD). The energy saving of variable frequency drives (VFD) in industrial applications is well understood by engineers, but awareness is less widespread at cheque signing level - amongst financial teams, senior management and purchasing departments.


Applying a variable frequency drive (VFD) to the heating system (see Figure 2) and a temperature sensor, the hot water temperature to the building zones can be better maintained by varying the flow of water.Energy Savings result from reduced electrical costs by reducing the speed of the pump and by better temperature control - preventing temperature over-shoot (over heating) in the zones. A soft starter reduces voltage, not Hertz, and as such the starting torque at 2-3 Hz is next to nothing.
Although dampers are commonly used to control the output of fans, reducing the speed of the fan by variable frequency drive (VFD) is a much more energy efficient method of achieving the same effect.With damper control, the input power reduces as the flow rate decreases, however under variable frequency drive control the power reduction is far more dramatic.
Variable Frequency Drives control AC motor for energy savings by adjustable speed, for short VFD, also named variable speed drives and frequency inverter. Therefore, in the whole production line of the paper machine, the speed of each individual is different so as to keep tension for paper web.
If the node number is not "0", conduct corresponding processing for this node until the whole chain is processed completely. For example, in PLC, if speed regulation signal is detected, then change speed unit value; the speed at "1" point is just the operating speed setting value of the first VFD, which is sent to the first VFD for execution and to the second for calculation. In the figure, the "2" point includes speed values for commands for speed regulating and paper tensioning and releasing etc., which are send to the second VFD for execution and to the next step for calculation at the same time. If the paper machine has high production requirements for papers, the tension close-loop control can be added in the calendaring part.
The PID can be preset and has two sets of parameters that can be switched over during operation. The output signal from the tension sensor is used as PID feedback, and the PID setting is set as ideal tension value with numbers.
This compound control method integrating feedforward and feedback has a high control accuracy, and many variable frequency drives special for tension control use this method. AI1) through arithmetic unit 2, which is multiplied to the output of arithmetic unit 3 so as to get the value of F. The result of arithmetic unit 1 is just the real-time tension value required by users, and the setting channel of PID is set as the setting of arithmetic unit 1. Its practicability, reliability, economy and intelligent can provide a high cost performance for users.
First, perform mathematical abstract for all drive points to determine a number for each drive point in the speed chain, and the number shall be consistent with the internal address of the variable frequency drive.
There are many applications like textile, printing etc where multi motor operation is very common. PWM VFD works as an interface between the energy source (AC power line) and the induction motor. Functional safety is that aspect of safety that relies upon the correct functioning of a control system. This paper gives a list of the parameters that I looked at to make my selection about the needed VFD. VFD also works as a phase converter to convert single phase input to three phase output in small ratings. The cost of the synchronous motor itself over the asynchronous motor, with increased in frame size, added copper and other materials, is another base reason synch motors are seldom, if ever used in the overhead hoist and crane industry. In this system, if the voltage to be actually valid decreases due to a voltage drop in a wiring or the primary coil of a motor, enough amount of torque cannot be output (the slower the speed is, the more this phenomenon affects.).
These motors mainly consist of a rotary shaft, bearings, stator winding and connection terminals. The leakage current includes many high frequency components that have a relatively small influence on human body.2) The external thermal relay may operate unintentionally due to the leakage current between cables.
The systems thinking and good communication is the key to tackling this problem and improving everybody's bottom line.China industry and commerce can save 30% of its energy costs, which represents a significant 3% addition to the bottom line. In many applications the pumps are oversized (10 to 15%), so even in maximum heat load conditions, the maximum pump speed with the variable frequency drive is less than before the retrofit. The soft starter is essentially robbing the motor of voltage at all points between 0 and 59 Hz, peak (Line) voltage met at 60 Hz. Meantime, the speed of each individual of the paper machine shall be adjustable so as to avoid loose of paper web or breaking caused by tensioning, with speed regulating range of each individual: 10-15%. The speed value of the first individual is multiplied with the ratio of the second individual (b1?a) is the setting value of the second VFD.
Users can freely carry out programming for resources of GK3000 VFD, not only able to use its programmable functional modules to coordinate with special functional modules, but also able to use these two types of modules to realize special functions for various industries. The GK3000 VFD can realize this control through programming by programmable control modules, with convenient use and flexible methods.
The power-off memory of the counter realizes the power-off memory function for roll diameter, and its reset realizes the function that the roll diameter is reset to initial roll diameter.
At this moment, the result of arithmetic unit 2 is just the main setting frequency of the reeling machine, so the frequency setting channel for reeling machine is set as the setting of arithmetic unit 2.


After transformation, equipment has a higher automation degree, production process is more reliable and stable, and the energy saving of low-speed operation of VFDs can bring significant economic benefits for users. The VFDs carry out speed instructions from PLC and complete fine speed regulation (including cascade and complete-machine fine speed regulation) by themselves.
Then, determine the upper and lower as well as left or right numbers for each node point according to the binary tree data structure.
As far as precise travel and lifting speeds with cranes, variable frequency drives with the hardware and software fairly standard on most variable frequency drives (VFD) designed for the application, is more than adequate. Also, the components related to the voltage level are typically larger in the MV VFD, requiring more room to mount.MV VFDs are - almost exclusively - three phase connections both upstream and downstream from the variable frequency drive. You are just wasting money for the severe duty motor!When using single stage pumps, the pump speed is critical, and the pump curve should be verified. Therefore, the amount of voltage drop estimated in advance is set higher (torque boost) to cover the shortage of the torque at low speed.Vector controlDetect a motor speed with an encoder and calculate a motor slip to identify the load magnitude. These VFDs take advantage of the fact that torque, speed and horsepower of an AC electric motor are related to the frequency and voltage of the electrical power supply.For the VFD to be a sensible solution to your pumping application the system curve would have to fall on, or close to this best efficiency point line, or you will experience radial loads that will translate to shaft deflection. All it has to do is implement a single, simple energy saving measure - fitting VFDs to its electric motors. In overhead crane controls, setting a soft start to begin traversal motions with a capacity load on the crane or trolley can result in a 'jack rabbit' starting jump when the crane is unloaded. This is due to the losses in the variable frequency drive exceeding the savings from the speed reduction.
Thus, it is only required to initialize the location register to form any branch speed chain. If the speed of the second individual cannot meet operating requirements, this means the ratio of the second individual is not suitable. The programmable functional modules of the GK3000 VFD are like a group of jigsaw puzzles which can form numberless ideal patterns in users' hand. That is to say, the location of any drive point in the speed chain shall be decided by three data, and then fill the location in the location register. Although a LV VFD can be similarly connected to three phase, there are a large percentage of LV VFDs that are single phase devices (either upstream, downstream, or both). But when using submersible pumps, these are typically multi-stage (maybe 15+ stages) and can be reduced much lower in speed.
This control is a system which divides the variable frequency drive output current into an excitation current (a current necessary to generate a magnetic flux) and a torque current (a current proportional to the load torque) by vector calculation and controls a frequency and voltage optimally to flow a necessary current individually according to this load magnitude. These components must be inspected periodically to prevent any fault from occurring due to the adverse effects from the operating environment, such as temperature, humidity, dust, dirt and vibration, changes in the parts with time, service life, and other factors.A variable frequency drive (VFD) is a static unit mainly consisting of semiconductor devices. Most centrifugal pump companies want you to operate within 5% to 10% of the best efficiency point. However, I'm quite conscious that there are plenty of technologies out there claiming to be the panacea of all environmental ills. Or, setting it when unloaded can result in motor thermal trip and no motion achieved when the crane is then capacity loaded. You can regulate the ratio of the second individual (b1) to meet required operating requirements.
This makes it be able to provide solutions platform and integration solutions for various industry requirements and thus it is very valuable for reduction of system cost and increasing of system reliability. Daily inspection must be performed to prevent any fault from occurring due to the adverse effects from the operating environment, such as temperature, humidity, dust, dirt and vibration, changes in the parts with time, service life, and other factors.
But in the case of the variable frequency drive, there is a real, mathematically demonstrable, argument.
When compare with a variable frequency drive (VFD), the motor peak design ratio is basically preserved throughout the acceleration ramp.
This regulation is equivalent to be with a high-accuracy gear box in PLC so that any stepless speed regulation is available.
Changing one value in the Volts to Hertz ratio without changing the other results in significant motor torque loss. With constant-torque applications, it is not recommended to go below 30% even when using a severe duty motor.
Unlike a soft starter, it will provide the same balance ratio and control effect in a deceleration ramp as well.



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