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Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide [1] and the fourth most common female malignancy in Korea [2, 3].
Patient selectionWe analyzed 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infection confirmed by HPV DNA genotyping at Seoul St.
ImmunocytochemistryThe immunocytochemical reaction for HPV L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology was performed using the Cytoactiv® HPV L1 screening set (Cytoimmun Diagnostics GmbH, Pirmasens, Germany) according to the manufacturer's protocols. Statistical analysisWe investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology and compared it with that of cervical histopathology.
The immunocytochemical expression of the HPV L1 capsid protein was observed mainly in the nuclei of cervical cells (Fig.1).
The immunocytochemical expression of HPV L1 capsid protein in the nuclei of cervical cells. Clinicopathological parameters and HPV L1 protein expression of HPV 16-positive abnormal cervical cytology (N =475). The association between multiplicity of HPV 16 infection in abnormal cervical cytology and HPV L1 capsid protein expression. Association of HPV L1 capsid protein expression in HPV16-positive cytology and cervical histopathology (N = 475). Association of HPV L1 capsid protein expression with underlying histopathology according to multiplicity of HPV infection in HPV16-positive abnormal cervical cytology (N = 475).
Our immunocytochemistry study showed that the expression of the HPV L1 capsid protein was higher in LSIL than ASCUS, HSIL, and cancer. The comparison of HPV L1 capsid protein expression between low-grade and high-grade severity of cervical epithelium. This work was supported by Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Hospital Pathology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea. Like thousands of men, Michael Douglas contracted the cancer-causing HPV virus through oral sex. For gay or bisexual men who had three or more male partners, the risk was 2.6 times higher than those with none.
That's not all: oral cancer - a tumour which is frequently caused by HPV - has risen by 50% among UK men since 1989 and now accounts for almost 2,000 deaths per year.
Infant boys are routinely circumcised, risking death, infection and a latter sense of violation, without a single eyebrow being raised.
The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Cervical cancer is a fact that every female must know in terms of its types, causes, symptoms and risk factors as it is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide.
About 529,409 cases of cervical cancer and 274,883 deaths from cervical cancer were reported in 2008 by World Health Organization (WHO). Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow uncontrollably on the surface of the cervix forming a mass called a tumor, in which the tumor can either be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous, spreading to other parts of the body).
The celvix, occasionally called celvix uteri is conical or cylindrical in shape and protrudes into the upper anterior vaginal wall, which is a lower part of the uterus that forms part of a woman’s reproductive system. The cervical canal is actually a passageway in which blood is flowing from the uterus via the canal into the vaginal during a woman’s menstrual period.
The first most common type of cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas which appear in the flattened (or squamous) epithelial cells lining the cervix, and they account for approximately 80-90% of all types of cervical cancers.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a type of virus which is always sexually transmitted and is capable of infecting humans. HPV infection is not always common by the onset of sexual intercourse as about 50 percent females acquired an HPV infection within 4-5 years of the first sexual intercourse and most HPV infections may be temporary.
Even though doctors are unable to explain why some females develop cervical cancer while others not, there are however, risk factors that may increase the chances of certain females to get cervical cancer. Untailored Social Lifestyle: Women who have sexual intercourse with a partner who has multiple sexual partners or those who own multiple male sexual partners are at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. Sexual Intercourse at an Early Age: Females who tend to be sexually active at an earlier age have higher risk of getting this disease. Had Been Given Diethylstilbestrol: According to National Cancer Institute, women who were given a drug called Diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy to prevent miscarriage may be at a higher risk of cervical cancer. It is of course, not to say that females who fall in these risk factors will develop cervical cancer. Often, cervical cancer takes time to develop, and later the cells within the cervix undergo changes which is medically termed as dysplasia or pre-cancerous changes. You should take note that any physical pain in the pelvic area can be an indication of a very late symptom of cervical cancer but it is not an early symptom. If you are experiencing any of the above mentioned symptoms or signs, you must arrange an appointment with a doctor for a check-up.
If you are in doubt or are concerned about getting this disease or about any symptoms you are experiencing, please pay a visit to the doctor.
Clinicopathological Implications of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) L1 Capsid Protein Immunoreactivity in HPV16-Positive Cervical Cytology. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a well-known prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer.
Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea, from January 2007 to December 2012. In brief, the coverslip and mounting medium of Papanicolaou-stained cervical smear slides in xylene were separated, and the slides were washed using absolute alcohol to eliminate the remaining xylene. Analysis of variance, Pearson's χ2, and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine the associations between the immunocytochemical expression of HPV L1 capsid and other variables.

The productive cycle is observed in low-grade lesion and abortive cycle of HPV can be seen in high-grade pathology.
Because ASCUS has shown a wide spectrum of histopathology from reactive change to carcinoma, it was also very difficult to understand the characteristics of ASCUS. Mary's Hospital, 62 Yeouido-dong Yongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea (Postal code: 150-010). However, in the same breath that Angelina Jolie has been lionised for her public honesty, Douglas has been criticised for it.
Meanwhile, female genital mutilation is the current hot topic in mainstream feminism.So while the world is busy demanding a female quota for street names (no, seriously! The scary fact is that the abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix may turn into malignant or cancerous cells causing uncontrolled growth of tumor that can be fatal. These appalling figures translate to over 750 females who succumbed to cervical cancer daily and to over 1,400 women who were diagnosed with cervical cancer. It connects the hollow, pear-shaped organ called the uterus which is located in the lower abdomen to the vaginal (birth canal) which leads to the external part of the body. The mucus which is produced from the cervix helps sperm move from the vaginal into the uterus. The second one is adenocarcinoma and accounts for 10-20% of all cervical cancers which arises in the glandular epithelial cells.
Nevertheless, persistent HPV infections in which the body defense system cannot get rid of the HPV infections causing normal cells to change into cancerous cells over time. In conclusion, females who smoke are two times more likely to get cervical cancer than non-smokers.
However, it is always wiser to go for regular screenings or discuss with your doctor if you have any concern on this disease as this will help to detect cervical cancer at its earliest stage.
Unusual cells will then start to grow onto the surface of the cervix before they begin spreading deep into the cervix itself and other neighboring areas.
Therefore, females must not wait until they have pain before getting examined by a gynecologist or a family doctor. An important note to know is that some health problems or much less serious infections may cause the similar symptoms. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Republic of Korea2.
Moreover, the integration of high-risk HPV is a key step in cervical neoplastic progression [4]. The cervical cytology samples were gently scraped from the exocervix and endocervix with a cervical brush.
HPV L1 capsid protein is more frequently produced in the superficial epithelium of LSIL than HSIL. HPV infections also remain common in men as they get older, whereas it tends to become less prevalent in their female counterparts.
This was trending on Twitter yesterday), the world is allowing our young men to suffer because it's politically incorrect to intervene.
You know, the cancers which affect both genders.A Even now, the UK's biggest cancer fundraiser - Cancer Research UK's Race for Life - bans men and boys from participating. WHAT IS HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS?Human papilloma virus (HPV) is spread through sexual contact and is more usually associated with cervical cancer in women.
Some of these abnormal cells may go away without treatment but some can really become cancerous. But, the cervix is tightly closed during pregnancy to help keep the baby inside the uterus.
Definitely, cervical cancer progresses slowly over time and usually takes years for the cancerous cells to grow onto the surface of the cervix and other surrounding parts. Hence, you are advised to see a doctor to have your symptom(s) diagnosed correctly and cured as soon as possible. Department of Hospital Pathology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea3. HPV type 16 (HPV16) is regarded as the most oncogenic in cervical carcinogenesis and is detectable in more than 50% of cervical cancers [5, 6]. Cytological diagnosis was carried out according to the 2001 Bethesda reporting system [13], and HPV type was determined by a DNA genotyping polymerase chain reaction-based DNA microarray system (Mygene, Seoul, Korea) that detected 16 types of high-risk HPV (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68) and 8 types of low-risk HPV (6, 11, 34, 40, 42, 43, 44, and 70) [14]. The productive cycle is composed of HPV infection of the basement membrane and transcription, translation, and assembly of the L1 capsomere in the epithelium [16].
Although HPV L1-negative cases tend to correlate with the cytology grade, a relatively low HPV L1 expression rate was observed in cases of ASCUS.
A son who, like every boy in this country, will be ignored when it comes to HPV.Currently, girls aged 12 and 13 are routinely vaccinated against the virus because of its link to cervical cancer.
In other words, we've taken the women-and-children-first philosophy of Titantic-era Britain and transplanted it into the NHS.
Then, the cervix dilates to allow the baby to pass through a woman’s vaginal canal during childbirth. Often, early pre-cancer changes return to normal by themselves but severe pre-cancer changes may become cancer if left untreated or ignored. Of all, both HPV-16 and HPV-18 contribute 70 percent of the cervical cancer while HPV-45 has been implicated in adenocarcinoma. HPV testing in addition to a Papanicolaou smear has helped reduce the development of grade 2 and 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer [7]. The results of tissue diagnosis were obtained from records of patients who underwent colposcopic biopsy, loop electrosurgical excision procedures, or total hysterectomy.

Afterwards, one droplet of HPV L1 capsid antibody was applied to the cervical smear slides, and the slides were incubated for 1 hour at room temperature.
Interestingly, all 23 cases with ≥CIN2 histopathology were HPV L1-negative on immunocytochemical analysis. HPV is a deadly virus that can infect the mucosal epithelium or the skin of the anus, genitals, airway or mouth in addition to other body surface. Furthermore, the epidemiological and biological effects of multiple-type HPV infections in the presence of high-risk HPV infections have been documented with the increasing administration of HPV vaccines [8].HPV L1 capsid protein comprises 90% of HPV viral surface proteins and is typically expressed during the late phase of viral replication [9]. Although the expression of L1 tended to be negatively associated with the cytology grades, a high percentage (78.2%) of samples without L1 were observed in cases of ASCUS (Table 1). On the other hand, in cases with high-grade pathology such as CIN2 and CIN3, the E2 open reading frame of HPV DNA is frequently disrupted and integrated into the human genome [19, 20]. It is believed to have caused warts or papillomas which are normally benign tumors but certain types of HPV can in fact cause cancer of the cervix.
Thus far, most immunocytochemical studies on the HPV L1 capsid protein have investigated the predictive role of the protein in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) [10-12]. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of The Catholic University of Korea. Next, a drop of chromogen solution (3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole, ready to use) was applied to the slide for 5 minutes. The loss of E2 inhibitory function on the E6 and E7 open reading frames selectively produces E6 and E7 oncoproteins and interrupts normal cell cycles by suppression of the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and Rb. Unfortunately, few comprehensive studies have investigated HPV L1 protein immunoreactivity in abnormal cytology, including high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancer according to the multiplicity of HPV infections in the presence of HPV16.This study investigated the expression of HPV L1 in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyzed its association with HPV multiplicity and cervical histopathology diagnoses in Korean women. In abortive HPV cycles of high-grade lesions, HPV L1 cannot be immunocytochemically detected at the superficial epithelium [21] (Fig. In HSIL, HPV L1 expression was not associated with a tendency of progression to high-grade pathology. HPV L1 negativity is associated with low amounts of HPV L1 production, which could imply 2 different conditions of HPV infection in ASCUS. Regarding the patterns of HPV L1 capsid immunocytochemistry, HPV L1 expression tended to decrease with higher cytological grade even though the positive rates were variable [19, 22-24]. We postulated that these conditions could be observed during (1) viral entry or persistence before viral synthesis in the HPV life cycle and (2) HPV DNA integration in the human genome [24]. 2).Table 3 illustrates the relationship between HPV L1 expression and histopathology according to the multiplicity of HPV16 infections. For HPV L1 immunocytochemistry, we showed that HPV L1-negative LSILs exhibited a higher prevalence of ≥CIN2 pathology than did HPV L1-positive LSIL cases. The characteristics of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS may be slightly different from that of LSIL, although ASCUS and LSIL have been generally regarded as minor abnormalities in the Bethesda cytology system.
Further translational research will be necessary to identify the nature of HPV L1 negativity more clearly in ASCUS.In the natural history of cervical cytology, 80% of LSIL cases spontaneously regress within 24 months [25]. On the other hand, regarding HSILs and cancer cytology, the correlation between cytology and histopathology results were not significantly different with respect to HPV L1 immunocytochemical reactivity.
Accordingly, we collected samples with abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and investigated their histopathology results according to HPV L1 immunocytochemistry reactivity. These results suggested that HPV L1 positivity in LSILs with HPV16 infection might be attributable to the effect of the L1 protein on keratinocytes infected with other high-risk HPV types [23, 29].HPV16 is a member of the human alphapapillomavirus-9 group [30] and has shown to confer a significantly higher risk of developing high-grade CIN lesions or invasive cancers in combination with other HPV types [31]. However, cases that were HPV L1-positive with multiple-type HPV infections were significantly associated with high-grade histopathology (≥CIN3) results.
Multiple-type HPV infections seemed to play an important role in progression to high-grade cervical lesions in HPV L1-positive cases.From an immunological perspective, HPV L1 is immunogenic to CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, which play important roles in cellular immunity [32]. HPV L1-negative LSIL is reportedly more likely to demonstrate disease progression than L1-positive cases are; this suggests that HPV L1 has a beneficial immunological role in the prevention of disease progression [33]. Therefore, the absence of HPV L1 after HPV integration into the host genome could be associated with immunologic evasion in higher-grade lesions [32, 34]. Cervical cytology usually performed on the superficial layer of the cervix in a cancer screening test has shown high rates of false negativity and requires an adjuvant test for an accurate result. Therefore, HPV L1 tests that reflect the HPV productive cycle and the relationship between HPV integration and host genome in cervical epithelium will be more informative to understand cervical immunology.The present study had some limitations. First, this was a retrospective cross-sectional study; therefore, the relationship between the HPV lifecycle and cervical neoplasia could not be fully understood solely on the basis of HPV L1 expression in the superficial layer.
Second, this study did not include the effect of low-risk HPV on HPV L1 immunocytochemistry; future studies on low-risk HPV might be necessary.
Third, in cases of low-grade cervical cytology with high-grade histopathology results, misclassification or sampling error of cytology specimens might be a cause for misinterpretation of immunocytochemistry results.
Despite these limitations, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the immunocytochemistry of HPV L1 according to HPV16-positive cytology, as well as the association between cervical cytology and histopathology according to the multiplicity of HPV16 infections.In summary, our study demonstrated that the expression of HPV L1 was low in cases of advanced dysplasia. This trend was not significantly different between the HPV16 single infection group and the multiple-type HPV infection group. On the other hand, multiple-type HPV infections were significantly associated with ≥CIN3 histopathology in HPV L1-positive patients.
In future translational research, investigation of the association between HPV L1 and HPV integration according to the severity of cervical pathology and the multiplicity of HPV infection might be useful to understand clearly the mechanism of HPV productive and abortive cycles in cervical epithelium.

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