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A world map charts the classification of herpes simplex virus type-1 genomes into different genetic groups, or clades. To confirm the theory that humans spread out from Africa tens of thousands of years ago, all you have to do is follow the cold sores.
That's what researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison did: In the journal PLOS ONE, they describe how they sequenced the genomes of 31 samples of herpes simplex virus type-1 to reconstruct how it hitchhiked on humans as they dispersed around the world.
The results match the pattern proposed by the "Out of Africa" theory, which has become the most widely accepted scenario for ancient human migration. The findings reflect the view that a small human population passed through a "bottleneck" to get from Africa to the Middle East, then went their separate ways to Europe and Asia, and eventually to the Americas. Almost all of the samples from the United States were linked to European strains, but one sample from Texas was more closely linked to Asia. The researchers said HSV-1 strains are ideal for tracking long-term migration patterns because they're easy to collect, usually not lethal, and capable of forming lifelong latent infections. Lice genes may shed light on human migrationRat DNA helps trace migration across PacificWas ancient human migration a two-way street? In addition to Brandt, the authors of "Using HSV-1 Genome Phylogenetics to Track Past Human Migrations" include Aaron Kolb and Cecile Ane. Durante cientos de millones de anos, los virus de la familia Herpesviridae (del griego ??????, *herpein, arrastrar, en alusion a su facil contagio) han divergido a la par que los vertebrados que les hospedan.
Utilizamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar la experiencia de navegacion y ofrecer contenidos de interes. Background: Mucocutaneous diseases are among the first-recognized clinical manifestations of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
Or, to be more precise, follow the mutation patterns encoded in the genome of the virus that causes those cold sores. The analysis showed that African strains of the virus contained the most genetic diversity — suggesting that they had the oldest roots. We found that all of the African isolates cluster together, all the virus from the Far East, Korea, Japan, China clustered together, all the viruses in Europe and America, with one exception, clustered together,” senior author Curtis Brandt, a professor of medical microbiology and opthalmology, said in a UW-Madison news release. Brandt and his colleagues said that particular sample may have come from someone who picked up the virus during a trip to the Far East, or perhaps from someone with Native American heritage whose ancestors passed over a "land bridge" between Asia and North America. Because the virus is spread by close contact, through kissing or exposure to saliva, it tends to run in families.
Un ejemplo de esto es la codivergencia que existe entre los primates del virus de herpes simple, que se hipotetiza debio infectar al ancestro de los primates y simios. Actualmente estudia su doctorado en Ciencias de la Tierra en University College London (UCL), Londres (Reino Unido), donde realiza investigaciones sobre dinosaurios.
They function as visual markers in assessing the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in North India. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. Decline of infectious skin manifestations in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Herpes zoster as an immune reconstitution disease after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. Skin diseases in HIV-infected patients: Impact of immune status and histological correlation. Rising incidence of genital herpes over two decades in a sexually transmitted disease clinic in north India. And because the viral genome is so much simpler than the human genome, it's cheaper to sequence. Los virus de herpes simple (HSV) se encuentran de uno por especie, pero solamente en los humanos existen dos virus de herpes simple diferentes: el HSV-1 y el HSV-2. Tiene una pasion muy fuerte por la divulgacion de la ciencia, tanto para informar a la poblacion en general, como para motivar a mas jovenes a perseguir una carrera en ciencias. Given the relative ease of examination of skin, its evaluation remains an important tool in the diagnosis of HIV infection.


You can also check out "The Case for Pluto," my book about the controversial dwarf planet and the search for new worlds. Objective: To determine the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV-positive patients and to correlate their presence with CD4 counts.
Entonces, tenemos que uno de los virus tuvo su herencia a traves de la diversificacion de los primates, mientras que el otro provino de alguna otra parte. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 352 HIV-infected patients seen at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India, over a period of 1 year. Alarmingly, the states of Chandigarh and Jammu and Kashmir are showing rising trends in adult HIV prevalence in the last 4 years.
Para ello, un equipo de la Universidad de California se dispuso a secuenciar el material genetico de ambos virus para determinar el tiempo de divergencia de ambos virus. In spite of low prevalence of HIV in Punjab and Haryana, they have a large number of people living with HIV infection due to the large population size. Se descubrio que el HSV-1 coincidentemente lleva mas tiempo entre los seres humanos que el HSV-2. The patients were classified into different stages according to the World Health Organization clinical and immunological staging system. Por lo que prosiguieron a analizar el HSV-2 y lo compararon con virus de herpes simplex de otros primates. In developed countries, CD4 lymphocyte count, detection of viral load and viral culture are being used for the assessment of HIV disease. Prevalence of candidiasis, dermatophytosis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, molluscum contagiosum (MC), seborrheic dermatitis, adverse drug reaction, nail pigmentation, xerosis and diffuse hair loss differed statistically according to the clinical stages of HIV infection. Lack of these facilities in developing countries necessitates dependence on clinical markers. Esto implica que los humanos adquirimos el virus HSV-2 de un ancestro de los chimpances hace cerca de 1.6 millones de anos, mas o menos cuando nuestro linaje estaba a la altura del Homo erectus, o bien, a otro Homo precursor.
There was a statistically significant association between immunological stages of HIV infection and dermatophytosis. Given the relative ease of examination of skin, and because most skin disease are amenable to diagnosis by inspection and biopsy, evaluation of skin remains an important tool in the diagnosis of HIV infection. Conclusion: Results of our study suggest that mucocutaneous findings occur throughout the course of HIV infection.
Dermatoses like MC and dermatophytosis show an inverse relation with CD4 cell count, and these dermatoses can be used as a proxy indicator of advanced immunosuppression to start highly active anti-retroviral therapy in the absence of facilities to carry out CD4 cell count.
Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV-positive patients and to correlate their presence with CD4 counts. Patients were classified into different stages according to the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical and immunological staging system, [2] and were also grouped into those who had and who had not initiated highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).All the patients were screened for mucocutaneous disorders by an experienced dermatologist.
The clinical diagnosis was confirmed with laboratory procedures like microscopy (KOH preparations, Tzanck smear) and histopathological evaluation whenever necessary. CD4 counts were recorded in all the patients.Statistical methodsPrevalence of each diagnosis during our study was calculated.
The prevalence of candidiasis, dermatophytosis, HS, HZ and MC differed statistically according to clinical stages of HIV infection [Table 3]. There was a statistically significant association between immunological stages of HIV infection and dermatophytosis (P = 0.008) [Table 3].
When the mean CD4 counts of each mucocutaneous manifestation was compared with the mean CD4 counts of patients not having similar manifestation, significant difference was seen in only four of the infectious dermatoses; dermatophytosis, MC, HPV infection and pyodermas [Table 4].
There was no significant difference in the mean number of diagnoses in those who had and those who had not initiated HAART (1.4 vs.
Tuberculids, atypical mycobacterial infections and leprosy can occur as a manifestation of immune restoration disease (IRD).
There was a statistically significant difference between prevalence of SD, adverse drug reaction, nail pigmentation, xerosis and patients with diffuse hair loss according to the WHO clinical stage of HIV infection [Table 5]. Prevalence of noninfectious manifestation did not differ statistically according to immunological stages of HIV infection. When mean CD4 counts of each mucocutaneous manifestation was compared with the mean CD4 counts of patients not having similar manifestation, significant difference was not seen in any of the dermatoses.


Recurrent herpes genitalis was seen in eight patients in spite of adequate antiviral therapy. Overall, candidiasis was the most prevalent dermatological disorder, seen in 57 patients (16.2%). There was a statistically significant lower prevalence of candidiasis in patients who were on HAART. Prevalence of dermatophytosis (42, 11.9%) in our study was similar to that reported previously. The prevalence of dermatophytosis correlated inversely with the CD4 cell count, and was significantly more common in patients with severe immunosuppression. Like candidiasis, there was a statistically significant lower prevalence of dermatophytosis in patients on HAART. HIV in our subjects was commonly transmitted through sexual activity; therefore, it is not surprising that genital herpes was one of the most prevalent disorders identified. Interestingly, we found HZ to be less frequent among those patients who had initiated HAART. This is in contrast with other reports, where an increasing prevalence of HZ with HAART has been reported due to immune reconstitution. Hence, presence of dermatophytosis and MC in asymptomatic patients not on HAART can be considered as a proxy indicator for initiating HAART when facilities for CD4 count are not available.SD has been described as the most common skin condition affecting HIV-infected patients, being observed in 85% of patients during their lifetime.
In contrast to the previous reports, [10] the incidence of SD was higher in patients who were on HAART; few of them may be explained by IRD.
However, such pigmentation was noticed in many HIV-positive patients who had never been given zidovudine. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested that there is stimulation of increased pigment production in melanocytes, and other studies have shown increased levels of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in HIV-positive patients. The most common pattern of discoloration was longitudinal melanonychia, followed by diffuse nail involvement. None of the patients had straightening of hairs, curly hairs, elongation of eyelashes and hypertrichosis of body hairs. These are mainly side-effects of zidovudine, and majority of our patients were taking stavudine as first choice among nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.
There was a positive correlation between the stage of HIV and prevalence of xerosis, nail pigmentation, graying of hairs and diffuse hair loss. This may be due to malnutrition and cachexia that is associated with late stages of HIV infection. Sarna et al.[14] in their study of 200 HIV patients found an evidence of genital herpes in 18% of the study subjects. Interestingly, in an earlier study on non-HIV patients from Chandigarh, herpes genitalis was the most common STI observed.
The patients were divided in both clinical and recently introduced immunological classification by the WHO, and we tried to stratify the patients according to staging of HIV disease.
As half of patients were on HAART, we could analyze the data regarding dermatoses in patients who were on HAART and those who were not on anti-retroviral therapy. A higher proportion of patients taking HAART also explains the lower incidence of infective and malignant disorder in our patients compared with previously reported studies from India.
Some of the infectious dermatoses like candidiasis, MC and dermatophytosis are useful clinical predictors for advanced immunosuppression. Dermatoses like MC and dermatophytosis show an inverse relation with CD4 cell count, and these dermatoses can be used as a proxy indicator of advanced immunosuppression to start HAART in the absence of facilities to carry out CD4 cell count. The presentations of mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV patients may be atypical and less responsive to treatment.



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