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This is a€?The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?a€?, chapter 7 from the book English for Business Success (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. If you think that a blank sheet of paper or a blinking cursor on the computer screen is a scary sight, you are not alone. Just as you need a recipe, ingredients, and proper tools to cook a delicious meal, you also need a plan, resources, and adequate time to create a good written composition. Effective writing can be simply described as good ideas that are expressed well and arranged in the proper order. Prewriting is the stage of the writing process during which you transfer your abstract thoughts into more concrete ideas in ink on paper (or in type on a computer screen). In addition to understanding that writing is a process, writers also understand that choosing a good general topic for an assignment is an essential step.
When selecting a topic, you may also want to consider something that interests you or something based on your own life and personal experiences. Reading plays a vital role in all the stages of the writing process, but it first figures in the development of ideas and topics. The steps in the writing process may seem time consuming at first, but following these steps will save you time in the future.
FreewritingA prewriting strategy in which writers write freely about any topic for a set amount of time (usually three to five minutes). Writing often comes easier when you have a personal connection with the topic you have chosen. Quickly recording your thoughts on paper will help you discover what you have to say about a topic.
You seek the answers to these questions to gain knowledge, to better understand your daily experiences, and to plan for the future. When Mariah reread her freewriting notes, she found she had rambled and her thoughts were disjointed. Now that you have completed some of the prewriting exercises, you may feel less anxious about starting a paper from scratch.
Write your general topic on your own sheet of paper, under where you recorded your purpose and audience. You may find that you need to adjust your topic as you move through the writing stages (and as you complete the exercises in this chapter).
After rereading her syllabus, Mariah realized her general topic, mass media, is too broad for her classa€™s short paper requirement. From this list, Mariah could narrow her focus to a particular technology under the broad category of mass media. Imagine you have to write an e-mail to your current boss explaining your prior work experience, but you do not know where to start. Idea mappingA prewriting strategy in which writers cluster ideas on paper using circles, lines, and arrows. To create an idea map, start with your general topic in a circle in the center of a blank sheet of paper.
From this idea map, Mariah saw she could consider narrowing the focus of her mass media topic to the more specific topic of music piracy. Using search engines on the Internet is a good way to see what kinds of websites are available on your topic.
When you search the Internet, type some key words from your broad topic or words from your narrowed focus into your browsera€™s search engine (many good general and specialized search engines are available for you to try).
If the search engine results are not what you are looking for, revise your key words and search again.
The results from Mariaha€™s search included websites from university publications, personal blogs, online news sources, and lots of legal cases sponsored by the recording industry. In Note 7.12 "Exercise 2", you chose a possible topic and explored it by answering questions about it using the 5WH questions.
The following checklist can help you decide if your narrowed topic is a good topic for your assignment. With your narrowed focus in mind, answer the bulleted questions in the checklist for developing a good topic.
The steps in the writing process are prewriting, outlining, writing a rough draft, revising, and editing. Prewriting is the transfer of ideas from abstract thoughts into words, phrases, and sentences on paper.
A good topic interests the writer, appeals to the audience, and fits the purpose of the assignment. Writers often choose a general topic first and then narrow the focus to a more specific topic. Your prewriting activities and readings have helped you gather information for your assignment. Order refers to your choice of what to present first, second, third, and so on in your writing.
In longer pieces of writing, you may organize different parts in different ways so that your purpose stands out clearly and all parts of the paper work together to consistently develop your main point.
When you write, your goal is not only to complete an assignment but also to write for a specific purposea€”perhaps to inform, to explain, to persuade, or for a combination of these purposes.
One legitimate question readers always ask about a piece of writing is a€?What is the big idea?a€? (You may even ask this question when you are the reader, critically reading an assignment or another document.) Every nonfiction writing taska€”from the short essay to the ten-page term paper to the lengthy senior thesisa€”needs a big idea, or a controlling idea, as the spine for the work. For a longer piece of writing, the main idea should be broader than the main idea for a shorter piece of writing. The big idea, or controlling idea, you want to present in an essay is expressed in a thesis statementA sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay. The recording industry fears that so-called music piracy will diminish profits and destroy markets, but it cannot be more wrong. Everyone wants the newest and the best digital technology, but the choices are extensive, and the specifications are often confusing.
The first thesis statement you write will be a preliminary thesis statement, or a working thesis statementThe first thesis statement writers use while outlining an assignment. Using the topic you selected in Section 7.1 "Apply Prewriting Models", develop a working thesis statement that states your controlling idea for the piece of writing you are doing. You will make several attempts before you devise a working thesis statement that you think is effective.
For an essay question on a test or a brief oral presentation in class, all you may need to prepare is a short, informal outline in which you jot down key ideas in the order you will present them. For a longer assignment, like an essay or a research paper, many college instructors require students to submit a formal outlineA detailed guide that shows how all the supporting ideas in an essay are related to one other.
Instructors may also require you to submit an outline with your final draft to check the direction of the assignment and the logic of your final draft.
Use roman numerals (II, III, IV, V, etc.) to identify main points that develop the thesis statement. Use arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.) if you need to subdivide any As, Bs, or Cs into smaller parts.
A topic outline is the same as a sentence outline except you use words or phrases instead of complete sentences. Is my outline in the best ordera€”chronological order, spatial order, or order of importancea€”for me to present my main points? Do I need to make any adjustments in my working thesis statement before I consider it the final version?
Word processing programs generally have an automatic numbering feature that can be used to prepare outlines.
A sentence outline is the same as a topic outline except you use complete sentences instead of words or phrases.
The information compiled under each roman numeral will become a paragraph in your final paper. PowerPoint presentations, used both in schools and in the workplace, are organized in a way very similar to formal outlines.
Expand the topic outline you prepared in Note 7.41 "Exercise 2" to make it a sentence outline. After gathering and evaluating the information you found for your essay, the next step is to write a working, or preliminary, thesis statement. The working thesis statement expresses the main idea that you want to develop in the entire piece of writing. Effective writers prepare a formal outline to organize their main ideas and supporting details in the order they will be presented. The writera€™s thesis statement begins the outline, and the outline ends with suggestions for the concluding paragraph.
DraftingThe stage of the writing process in which the writer develops a complete first version of a piece of writing.
Even professional writers admit that an empty page scares them because they feel they need to come up with something fresh and original every time they open a blank document on their computers. Your objective for this portion of Chapter 7 "The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?" is to draft the body paragraphs of a standard five-paragraph essay. What makes the writing process so beneficial to writers is that it encourages alternatives to standard practices while motivating you to develop your best ideas. Of all of these considerations, keeping your purpose and your audience at the front of your mind is the most important key to writing success.
You may want to identify your purpose and audience on an index card that you clip to your paper (or keep next to your computer). Many of the documents you produce at work target a particular audience for a particular purpose. Using the topic for the essay that you outlined in Section 7.2 "Outlining", describe your purpose and your audience as specifically as you can. Workplace writing in certain environments is done by teams of writers who collaborate on the planning, writing, and revising of documents, such as long reports, technical manuals, and the results of scientific research.
The collaborative software, or document management systems, that groups use to work on common projects is sometimes called groupware or workgroup support systems.
The reviewing tool on some word-processing programs also gives you access to a collaborative tool that many smaller workgroups use when they exchange documents. If you invest some time now to investigate how the reviewing tool in your word processor works, you will be able to use it with confidence during the revision stage of the writing process.
If you have been using the information in this chapter step by step to help you develop an assignment, you already have both a formal topic outline and a formal sentence outline to direct your writing. An introductionThe opening paragraph of an essay that piques the audiencea€™s interest, tells what the essay is about, and motivates the audience to keep reading.
A thesis statement that presents the main point, or controlling idea, of the entire piece of writing. Supporting sentencesA sentence in the middle part of the paragraph that helps explain, enhance, or prove the topic sentence. A conclusionThe closing paragraph of an essay that reinforces the thesis statement and leaves the audience with a feeling of completion. These elements follow the standard five-paragraph essay format, which you probably first encountered in high school. Topic sentences make the structure of a text and the writera€™s basic arguments easy to locate and comprehend. Choosing where to position the topic sentence depends not only on your audience and purpose but also on the essaya€™s arrangement, or order. When you organize information according to spatial order, a topic sentence may appear as the middle sentence in a paragraph.
Developing topic sentences and thinking about their placement in a paragraph will prepare you to write the rest of the paragraph. The paragraph is the main structural component of an essay as well as other forms of writing. One answer to this important question may be a€?long enougha€?a€”long enough for you to address your points and explain your main idea.
Journalistic style often calls for brief two- or three-sentence paragraphs because of how people read the news, both online and in print. You may find that a particular paragraph you write may be longer than one that will hold your audiencea€™s interest.
In all cases, however, be guided by what you instructor wants and expects to find in your draft. To build your sense of appropriate paragraph length, use the Internet to find examples of the following items. A long paragraph from a scholarly work that you identify through an academic search engine. Now we are finally ready to look over Mariaha€™s shoulder as she begins to write her essay about digital technology and the confusing choices that consumers face. You will learn more about writing attention-getting introductions and effective conclusions in Chapter 8 "Writing Essays: From Start to Finish".
With her thesis statement and her purpose and audience notes in front of her, Mariah then looked at her sentence outline. If you write your first draft on the computer, consider creating a new file folder for each course with a set of subfolders inside the course folders for each assignment you are given.
In your documents, observe any formatting requirementsa€”for margins, headers, placement of page numbers, and other layout mattersa€”that your instructor requires. If you decide to take a break between finishing your first body paragraph and starting the next one, do not start writing immediately when you return to your work. Preceding each body paragraph that Mariah wrote is the appropriate section of her sentence outline. Mariah then began her third and final body paragraph using roman numeral IV from her outline.
How Herbalists can Integrate with Integrity - Herbalists are one of the last health care modalities that remains unlicensed. Plant Walk -On this walk we would meet local plants and discuss the importance of botanical characteristics (an examination of their individual parts), the plantsa€™ relationships with other plants, ethical and practical ways of wildcrafting species we see, plants from other areas that have similar uses, and real-life clinical applications.
GI Tract Protocol - The GI tract protocol can be used for normalizing varied types of chronic digestive problems. Hispanic Herbalism - The Hispanic healing traditions of California, incorporating the herbal use of other cultures within the Latino experience. Guerilla Herbalism - Street herbalism through helping the homeless, impoverished, and under insured, often under dangerous conditions. Giving Back - Rosemary Gladstar, renowned herbalist and founder of United Plant Savers, talks at length about the importance of giving back to the natural world that provides the plants we use for medicine, and that imparts the wisdom needed now more than ever in these trying times. An Ecology of Healing: Health as Wholeness and Balance - Taught by Kiva Rose and Jesse Wolf Hardin, this class will be an in-depth exploration of healing as the bodya€™s natural effort to be whole and in balance. Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Kiva Rose) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating. Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Jim McDonald) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating. Clinical Skills - Learn to evaluate energetic conditions (hot, cold, damp, dry, tense, relaxed etc.,) by complexion, tongue and pulse examination and simple questions. Herbs for the Muscular & Skeletal Systems - Herbal treatment of locomotor injuries, problems of aging, arthritis, gout, lyme disease and more.
I am so excited to be registered for the following course and thought I would share the information with readers. Join Herbalist, Nutritionist, and food lover, Darcey Blue French of Brighid’s Well Herbs for a 6 week online intensive course on the energetics of food, true nourishment, nutrition, relationship with place and food, nutritional healing and more. May 3, 2010 - June 21, 2010*Learn about the ways traditional healing systems such as Ayurveda and Chinese Medicine see food energetics, and use food as healing tools on a day to day basis. Darcey Blue French is an herbalist and food lover, who has over the years explored various ways of eating, interacting with food and preparing food.
Due to the fact that I am working on my last three weeks of the semester while my husband is on a business trip,A  I have decided to re-post articles worthy of being passed along. For those who are not familiar with the name,A  Paul Bergner is the director of the North American Institute of Medical Herbalism in Boulder, Colorado whichA  offers introductory, advanced, and clinical training in medical herbalism and clinical nutrition in the vitalist tradition. For those interested in more information,A  please check out the websites above you will find a wealth of information.
The process for making HFCS is to chemically strip the sugars off of the starch in corn, freeing them up.A The process of making of agave nectar is similar (this is not agave sap), but the sugars are chemically stripped off of inulin starch, inulin being a fructo-oligosaccharide, having fructose as the dominant sugar in the chain, so the agave nectar might be 80-90% free fructose instead of 55% like the HFCS in soft drinks. I like to think that my childhood was unique but honestly there are a great number of folk out there who grew up in a very similar manner to me. There is a point to all of this.A  Herbalism is newer to me than the natural family living. I honestly am not sure of the answers but I thought I would throw the question out there as it is rumbling around in the back of my brain.A  What have you been thinking about today?
Nutrition plays a vital role in a healthy nervous system but before you even think about what foods to eat, you should look at your eating patterns.A A  Are you skipping meals while taking in large amounts of stimulants or sugars? B Vitamins are also important to a healthy nervous system but it is important to note that there is too much of a good thing.A  Taking large doses of B vitamins (specifically B12)A  can lead to anxiety attacks and panic disorders. As I examined the packets, I continued to like what I was reading and is there ever there a lot to read.A  These might be the most informative seed packets I have ever run across!
All-in-all it seems like a good company and I plan on spending a good share of my gardening budget at their website.
A lot of herbalists talk of using herbal infusions to support your body during and illness or perhaps as an alternative to a nutritional supplement in the form of a nourishing infusion. They are quite useful; I have been making herbal preparations, for years now,A  with good results. You don’t hear many of them mentioningA  spaghetti sauce as an decoction although the acidic base of tomato sauce is wonderful for drawing minerals out of foods. Keep in mind I am not talking about the watered-down, additive-laden prepared foodstuff you buy at the the megamarket.A A  I am talking of preparations you make yourself. I don’t remember exactly when it occurred to me that soups and broths are really just giant pots of herbal goodness.
I realized that I don’t know that I ever have put our spaghetti sauce recipe on the blog, so I though I would use it here as an example of the herb to food ratio that is health-producing.
Beverages don’t have to be the boring preparations many people think of as medicinal infusions, either. There is an added benefit of incorporating these beverages into your daily diet.A  I have experimented with many different ways to get little ones to eat their herbs. I also dona€™t like using them from a sustainability standpoint.A  I dona€™t want my well-being to be dependent on any industry and it would be rather hypocritical of me to talk a good game about local sustainable food systems when half my nutrients are arriving on a boat from China. For the next couple of weeks, I am going to post about different ways eating and cooking with herbs can help to improve your health.
In this web page we provide detailed (e,2e) studies of electron impact ionization of noble gases including helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon from near threshold to intermediate energies, where the outgoing electrons carry equal energy from the interaction. The experiments were conducted in the perpendicular plane, where the outgoing electrons are detected orthogonal to the incident electron beam. The data show the cross sections undergo complex variations as a function of incident energy, and in particular ionization of the heaviest target is at variance to all others that have been studied here. The (e,2e) process provides the most precise experimental data for the study of the ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact.
By determining the momenta of the scattered and ejected electrons in a time correlated coincidence measurement, the differential ionization cross section (DCS) is derived for comparison with theoretical models. Since the scattered and ejected electrons may emerge over a wide range of different angles, experiments usually define a specific scattering geometry in which to carry out the measurements.
In the present work, we have constrained the spectrometer to measure the DCS only in the perpendicular geometry, where psi = 90A°. For both electrons to emerge in this geometry it is necessary for an interaction with the target nucleus to occur, and this provides a stringent test of current ionization models. We have taken measurements with the incident electron energy E0 ranging from near the ionization threshold of the selected target, through to energies up to 80eV above the ionization potential (IP). Understanding these processes is hence important in areas ranging from the production of plasmas in stellar and planetary atmospheres, through to electron impact ionization in lasers and in nuclear reactors. In all cases results are presented for the outgoing electrons having equal energies at the analysers. The apparatus can measure the DCS from the coplanar to the perpendicular plane geometry by moving the electron gun, gas jet and Faraday cup together around the interaction region (figure 2).
The electron analysers consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens that focuses electrons from the interaction region into a hemispherical energy selector. The data were taken over a period of several months, and the electron gun current was varied for each of the data sets so as to ensure linearity of the detection system.
The energy of the incident electron beam was determined by observing the negative ion elastic scattering resonance in helium at ~19eV, so as to determine the offset in the gun due to contact potentials. The energies of the outgoing electrons were determined by observing inelastic scattering from the excited targets, and by considering the location of Fano resonances in the ionization continuum.
The experimental data for helium are taken from previous work carried out in Manchester re-presented here normalised to unity at the peak of the DCS to allow comparison with other noble gases. The ground state of helium is 1S0, with an electronic configuration 1s2, and so both bound electrons occupy s-shell orbitals prior to the interaction. For helium, neon and argon targets, the bound electrons occupy either s-orbitals or p-orbitals in their ground state. It was not possible to resolve these individual channels in our experiment (due to the limited energy resolution of the spectrometer) apart from for xenon, where results were taken for production of the different ion states at incident electron energies from 10eV to 30eV above the IP. Figure 3 presents results for ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane for ten different incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the IP. As the incident electron energy increases, additional peaks are seen at angles around 90A° & 270A°. By 20eV above the IP three distinct peaks are clearly visible, the relative strength of the central peak to outer lobes decreasing monotonically as the energy increases.
The physical reasons behind these structures has been described by several models, ranging from DWBA calculations through to TDCC models.
There is only one process that can produce a peak at 180A? in the perpendicular plane without interaction with the target nucleus.
The peaks at around 90A° & 270A° are found to result from elastic scattering of the incident electron from the core, followed by a single binary collision between the incident electron and a bound electron. It should be noted that although agreement between theory and experiment in the perpendicular plane has proven to be very good, the results in a coplanar geometry are not as satisfactory, particularly for non-equal outgoing electron energies. The results at the lowest energy are similar in shape to that for helium, with a single broad peak observed centred around 180A°. As the incident energy increases, the DCS for neon shows a very different character to that for helium. The mechanisms that produce these structures in neon must be quite different to that proposed for helium, apart from at the lowest energy where PCI is expected to dominate for all targets.
Al-Hagan and co-workers recently considered the low energy regime for both He and H2 from threshold to ~10eV above threshold, and concluded that for these targets PCI dominates at energies <2eV, which is also consistent with the observations for neon presented here. The results in figure 4 indicate that the interaction is clearly more complex, and may be due to the momentum distribution of the ionized p-electron and polarizability of the atom (which is 1.9 times greater for neon than for helium). A similar study was carried out for argon, whose outer electronic structure ([Ne]3s23p6) is similar to neon ([He]2s22p6).
In the frozen-core approximation as used in many theories, the inner electrons are considered as spectators during the interaction, and so in this approximation the structure of the DCS should be similar for neon and argon.
For argon, nine separate energies were chosen for study, so as to reveal the complex variation in the DCS as a function of energy.
Once again the results for argon are not consistent with the simple models found successful for helium.

Figure 6 shows the results for krypton, which unlike helium, argon and neon also has bound electrons occupying the 3d-shell. Once again results were taken for a lowest energy 2eV above the IP, with the data having much better statistical significance compared to those for argon at the same energy.
As the energy increases, the results for krypton show a similar trend to that for argon, with the central minimum deepening until around 10eV above the IP where a central peak starts to emerge. The similarity between argon and krypton data tends to indicate that the d-shell electrons in the heavier target are not playing a significant role in the ionization process. As the heaviest isotopically stable noble gas target, xenon has the largest calculated size (108 pm) due to full occupation of the 4d, 5s and 5p shells. The ionic ground states of Xe+ are sufficiently separated that it was possible to resolve ionization to individual states during the experiments, for energies up to 30eV above the IP.
The data are particularly surprising since they do not follow the general trend seen for all other noble gas targets at higher energies.
The minimum at 180A° is significantly deeper than for krypton under the same outgoing energy conditions, and unlike krypton this minimum then becomes shallower as the incident energy increases.
These results show that the mechanism for ionization of xenon must once again be different to all other targets that have been studied.
As far as we are aware this phenomenon has never been observed for any other target, and it remains to be seen why this should occur for xenon. Only three energies were selected for these experiments, due to the difficulty of obtaining good statistical data. The set of data presented here for isotopically stable noble gases shows there is a large variation in the probability of ionization in the perpendicular plane. The perpendicular plane is particularly poignant for testing the most sophisticated electron impact ionization models, since multiple scattering must occur for electrons to emerge in this plane. The perpendicular plane has proven to be a fertile ground to test recent theoretical models, which have found success for simple targets such as helium and molecular hydrogen. It appears that PCI plays a role at the lowest measured energy for each target, although the significance of this process reduces as the target weight increases.
The most surprising result is for the heaviest target xenon, since the relative magnitude of the central peak continues to increase as the incident energy increases, and the side lobes reduce to insignificance. It is worth noting that the resolved data for ionization to the different Xe+ states indicate there is little variation to the measured cross section due to fine structure effects.
KLN thanks the Royal Society for an International Newton Research Fellowship held at the University of Manchester. Wednesday, April 13Richard Dean and Luke Markve will report on the Prairie Star District Annual Conference held April 8 to 10 in Des Moines, Iowa. If you have additional business to bring to the BUUF, please contact Richard Dean, President or Louise Markve, Secretary. The BUUF highway litter cleanup is due again, especially since the snow came and stopped us from doing our fall cleanup. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates there were 38 million food-related illnesses in the USA last year, resulting in 3,000 deaths. There are about 7 billion people in the world today; by the year 2050, there will be 9 billion people to feed. The Steering Committee has designated a special fund in memory of LaGretta Dean to be set aside for our building fund. On Dec 17, 2010, fruit vendor Mohammed Bouaziz, 26 years old, set himself on fire in Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia. It was a usual pattern in Tunisia: In arrogance the police stole his fruit and his scales, pushed him around, and humiliated him by slapping him in the face in front of friends and 50 witnesses.
The burning of a Koran in Florida set off rage in Afghanistan that is hard for us to understand. Jeffrey Hatcher, playwright and member of UUCM in Wayzata, has written a play entitled a€?Three Viewings,a€? which will be presented at the Illusion Theater on Hennepin Ave. In the March 29 Star Tribune was an excellent article about the Dakota Unitarian Church in Burnsville, the only UU church in Dakota County. Like most Unitarians, church members hold a variety of beliefs about what constitutes truth, God and religion.
We welcome everyone to our group, whatever your race, ethnic origin, religious perspective, sexual orientation, political philosophy, or economic condition. The purpose of this Fellowship is to provide opportunities for persons to come together for the study and exploration of religions, philosophies, ethics and the inspirational and provide an atmosphere where one can develop and revise onea€™s own philosophy and beliefs. This Fellowship supports the statement of principles of the Unitarian Universalist Association and the principle of separation of church and state.
Any person who has reached the age of majority (18) and is in sympathy with the Fellowshipa€™s purposes may become a member by signing the membership book and making a minimal contribution as established by the Steering Committee each year.
The regular meetings of the Fellowship shall be determined by the Fellowship itself or by any person or persons designated by it. The Fellowship will work toward affiliation with the Prairie Star District and the Unitarian Universalist Association. The Steering Committee shall consist of the officers and the chairs of the permanent committees, and it shall consist of not less than four (4) persons and not more than sixteen (16) persons.
The officers will be chosen by ballot of the membership for the following positions: president, vice-president, secretary, and treasurer.
The immediate past president shall also serve on this committee for a two-year period following his or her last term. The Steering Committee may call an Executive Session at its discretion; only members of the Steering Committee may attend these meetings. The Steering Committee shall have general charge of the property of the Fellowship and the conduct of all its business affairs and the control of its administration, including the appointment of such committees as it may deem necessary.
The nominating committee shall consist of three (3) members, at least two of whom are not members of the Steering Committee. The fiscal year shall begin on January 1 of each year except for Fiscal Year 2011, which will begin on July 1, 2010 and end on December 31, 2011.
In the event of the dissolution of this Fellowship, all of its net assets shall be distributed to the Unitarian Universalist Association. Roberta€™s Rules of Order Revised shall govern the proceedings of all the meetings of the members and the Steering Committee. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
In other words, writing is a process that requires following steps and using strategies to accomplish your goals.
Sometimes your instructor will give you an idea to begin an assignment, and other times your instructor will ask you to come up with a topic on your own. While reading almost any document, you evaluate the authora€™s point of view by thinking about his main idea and his support. The more you plan in the beginning by reading and using prewriting strategies, the less time you may spend writing and editing later because your ideas will develop more swiftly.
Reading prewriting exercises (and outlines and drafts later in the writing process) will further develop your topic and ideas. Remember, to generate ideas in your freewriting, you may also think about readings that you have enjoyed or that have challenged your thinking.
The instructor allowed the members of the class to choose their own topics, and Mariah thought about her experiences as a communications major. For example, you could use experience and observations to come up with a topic related to your course studies.
She realized that the topic that interested her most was the one she started with, the media. The purpose of prewriting is to find and explore ideas so that you will be prepared to write. With some ideas down on paper (or saved on a computer), writers are often more comfortable continuing the writing process. Choose it from among the topics you listed or explored during the prewriting you have done so far. If the topic you have chosen is not working, you can repeat the prewriting activities until you find a better one. Generating lots of subtopics will help you eventually select the ones that fit the assignment and appeal to you and your audience. Then, the general topic branches into two subtopics written in two smaller circles: television and radio. Writers use search engines not only to understand more about the topica€™s specific issues but also to get better acquainted with their audience. Some search engines also offer suggestions for related searches that may give you better results. Give careful consideration to the reliability of an online source before selecting a topic based on it.
Reading legal jargon made Mariah uncomfortable with the results, so she decided to look further. First, they help you first choose a broad topic and then they help you narrow the focus of the topic to a more specific idea.
The more you sort through the pieces of information you found, the more you will begin to see the connections between them. Most writers discover that the more they know about a topic, the more they can write about it with intelligence and interest. The writing you complete in all your courses exposes how analytically and critically your mind works. Your purpose for writing should always be in the back of your mind, because it will help you decide which pieces of information belong together and how you will order them. Each draft of the thesis statement will bring you closer to the wording that expresses your meaning exactly. This kind of outline reminds you to stay focused in a stressful situation and to include all the good ideas that help you explain or prove your point.
If you are required to submit an outline with the final draft of a paper, remember to revise the outline to reflect any changes you made while writing the paper. Her purpose is to inform, and her audience is a general audience of her fellow college students. This feature automatically sets indents and lets you use the tab key to arrange information just as you would in an outline. Be sure to observe correct outline form, including correct indentions and the use of Roman and arabic numerals and capital letters.
Point out areas of interest from their outline and what you would like to learn more about. Complete sentences create clarity and can advance you one step closer to a draft in the writing process. In the previous example, the outline follows the standard five-paragraph essay arrangement, but longer essays will require more paragraphs and thus more roman numerals. PowerPoint presentations often contain information in the form of talking points that the presenter develops with more details and examples than are contained on the PowerPoint slide.
In this outline, be sure to include multiple supporting points for your main topic even if your topic outline does not contain them. Because you have completed the first two steps in the writing process, you have already recovered from empty page syndrome. As long as you complete the assignment on time, you may choose how many paragraphs you complete in one sitting. These aspects of writing are just as important when you are writing a single paragraph for your essay as when you are considering the direction of the entire essay.
If your purpose is to persuade, for example, you will present your facts and details in the most logical and convincing way you can. On that card, you may want to write notes to yourselfa€”perhaps about what that audience might not know or what it needs to knowa€”so that you will be sure to address those issues when you write. You may find that it is highly advantageous to know as much as you can about your target audience and to prepare your message to reach that audience, even if the audience is a coworker or your boss.
Collaborators do not need to be in the same room, the same building, or even the same city. Strong communication skills, in addition to strong writing skills, are important in this kind of writing situation because disagreements over style, content, process, emphasis, and other issues may arise.
Then, when you start to revise, set your reviewing tool to track any changes you make, so you will be able to tinker with text and commit only those final changes you want to keep. Knowing what a first draft looks like will help you make the creative leap from the outline to the first draft. A topic sentence is most often located at the beginning of a paragraph, and it makes the structure of a text and the writera€™s basic arguments easy to locate and comprehend. This basic format is valid for most essays you will write in college, even much longer ones.
In college writing, using a topic sentence in each paragraph of the essay is the standard rule. The assignmenta€™s audience and purpose will often determine where a topic sentence belongs. When you organize information according to order of importance, the topic sentence may be the final sentence in a paragraph. You may discover topic sentences that are not always located at the beginning of a paragraph.
Each paragraph of an essay adds another related main idea to support the writera€™s thesis, or controlling idea. To grab attention or to present succinct supporting ideas, a paragraph can be fairly short and consist of two to three sentences. In such cases, you should divide the paragraph into two or more shorter paragraphs, adding a topic statement or some kind of transitional word or phrase at the start of the new paragraph.
Many instructors will expect you to develop a mature college-level style as you progress through the semestera€™s assignments. Copy them into a file, identify your sources, and present them to your instructor with your annotations, or notes.
Take notes on, or annotate, your selection with your observations about the effect of combining paragraphs that develop the same topic idea.
As she does, you should have in front of you your outline, with its thesis statement and topic sentences, and the notes you wrote earlier in this lesson on your purpose and audience. Notice how the outline helped her guarantee that all her sentences in the body of the paragraph develop the topic sentence.
Label the folders clearly with the course names, and label each assignment folder and word processing document with a title that you will easily recognize. She had supporting details but no numbered subpoints in her outline, so she had to consult her prewriting notes for specific information to include. Notice how she expanded roman numeral III from her outline into a first draft of the second body paragraph.
Using your powers of concentration, visualize a white light flowing from the palms of your hands and from your heart center, which is situated just in front of your breastbone. When you start to feel this power flowing in you, then say out loud the girls’ names. This will be a combination storytelling class as well as practicalities of gathering plants.
This will lead into Skullcap’s specific indications and contra-indications illustrated with colorful case histories, as well as the ecology and specifics of a number of western Scutellaria spp.
Many clients have compromised GI tracts from a fast food vegan or other extended elimination diets, protein deficiencies, or multiple nutritional deficiencies. California Hispanic herbalism differs from the Mexican or Tejano, or Southwest traditions due to the various native and foreign cultures which helped form it.
Special focus will be placed on of the body as a dynamic ecosystem instead of a battlefield. Jim and Kiva will explore the underlying elements of traditional western herbalism, including sense-based herbal energetics, primary herbal actions and ways of integrating these essential components into an effective healing practice. Join Jim McDonald in an exploration of the fundamental role of diaphoretics in immunity, and how they can be used to support and enhance the body’s vital response to infections from influenza to the common cold.
Although Mercola is a little distasteful in his sensationalism, what he says in this case is true. Even though digestion of the disaccharide to the monosaccharides take some time and acts as a partial brake, because the extracted sugar is very concentrated, compared to eating a naturally sugary food, the glucose and fructose surge in the system.
A  So it is with a little bit of bemusement that I watch the latest explosion of the back-to-the land movement because I really never left it. A A  I giggle when we make homemade macaroni & cheese to take someplace and it is viewed as some sort of accomplishment because in my family that is pretty standard fare. A  IA  suppose I started the path about fifteen years ago although I have only been studying seriously about six years (around the same time I started blogging).
A  How do we keep the message of the websites of today from being lost in a internet archive in the same way the poster above was lost in a file cabinet? Bring to a boil; then lower heat and simmer for about 30 minutes, until the broth is thick.
A  I thought I might offer a bit of advice as to how to eat your way to a healthier nervous system.
The fun doesn’t stop on the outside though, so be quite careful when opening your first Botanical Interests seed packet. A  My Trionfo Violetto Pole Beans outgrew and outproduced my Kentucky Wonder Beans.A A  I think my Dwarf Blue KaleA  might still be alive out there under the piles of snow.
You also don’t hear hot sauceA  tossed around as an herbal preparation but these are both excellent examples of ways you can incorporate more herbs into your diet. A A  It was probablyA  have been shortly after Darian became a vegetarian and I made my first batch of homemade vegetable broth.A  I know I definitely had a handle on it by the time I was making garlic broth to use in soups.
While I am sure that in cases where a blood test has shown there to be a deficiency, supplements can be useful to catch the body up.A A  I prefer to avoid the deficiency in the first place. A This is one of the reasons that I tend to focus on using herbs and foods that I can grow or wild-craft in my area. A When you dona€™t eat properly, your body does not find the nutrition in the food you eat, it will find the nutrients someplace in your body such as your bones, muscles or brain matter.A  A This is especially true of protein which your body will leach from your muscles or brain matter and vitamins and calcium which your body will take from your bones. For electrons to emerge in this geometry they must undergo multiple scattering including scattering from the nucleus of the target, and so this provides a highly sensitive test for scattering theories. In these experiments a single electron of well defined momentum impacts with a target in the interaction region, resulting in target ionization and a scattered and ejected electron which emerge after the interaction has taken place. Our (e,2e) apparatus can access a wide range of geometries from a coplanar geometry, where the incident, scattered and ejected electrons all occupy the same plane, through to the perpendicular geometry, where the scattered and ejected electrons emerge in a plane orthogonal to the incident electron trajectory (figure 1). In this regime the probability of single ionization is a maximum, and so it is here that most ionizing collisions with electrons occur in nature. Low energy electron ionization has also been attributed to the production of DNA damage in biological tissue, and so it is important to understand these collisions at a fundamental level to describe the physics of these processes. The helium results are reproduced from previous studies carried out in Manchester, re-presented here for completeness. By choosing the analyser residual energy to pass electrons around the selector, a channel electron multiplier detects electrons of the specified energy for subsequent amplification and counting.
In the perpendicular plane, only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant, where xi1, xi2 are as shown in figure 1. The orbital angular momentum of each electron is hence zero, with a momentum distribution that peaks around zero a.u. The configuration of the 10 electrons in neon is 1s22s22p6, whereas argon has 18 electrons occupying a configuration [Ne]3s23p6. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Helium.txt.
Experimental results for the ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the ionization potential for this target.
This is considered to be due to the dominance of post-collisional interactions (PCI) between the outgoing electrons, which drives electrons emerging with equal energies from the interaction region asymptotically towards opposite directions. At ~50eV excess energy the three lobes have equal amplitudes, whereas at higher energies the outer lobes dominate. The DWBA theory most easily allows the different processes involved in the interaction to be switched on and off, and this has explained the origin of these lobes. This process requires the momentum of the incident electron to be exactly matched by the momentum of the bound electron, with both electrons moving in opposite directions prior to the interaction. In this case, since the particles have equal mass and energy, they emerge from the interaction region at a mutual angle of 90A° & 270A° as observed.
It is therefore clear that further work is needed to fully describe the ionization reaction, even for a simple target like helium. The lowest energy studied was 5eV above the IP, with six measurements being taken up to 50eV above the IP as shown. Experimental results for the ionization of neon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 5eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target.
The width for this peak in neon is ~120A°, which is broader than ~80A° for the same outgoing electron energy in helium.
As the energy is raised to 10eV above the IP, the broad single peak seen at the lowest energy increases in width, and develops a flat structure at the peak.
However, at higher energies the mechanisms proposed for helium ionization described above would be expected to produce similar structures in all targets that have a central ionic core. The calculated atomic radius of argon (71pm) is however significantly larger than that for helium (31pm) or neon (38pm) due to the n=3 shell being occupied. Experimental results for the ionization of argon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The lowest energy studied was 2eV above the IP, the data at this energy having poor statistics due to experimental difficulties working with argon at this energy. This minimum flattens at 10eV above the IP and rapidly evolves into a clear peak 15eV above the IP.
The results further indicate that the use of a A”frozen-coreA• approximation is unlikely to be accurate in any theory attempting to emulate these data. The physical size of krypton (88pm) is slightly larger than argon due to occupation of this shell, and due to closed occupation of the 4s and 4p shells. Experimental results for the ionization of krypton in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. Ionization of krypton no longer shows the dominance of PCI as predicted by Wannier, since there is now a central minimum at 180A°. This central peak is not as significant in krypton compared to the side lobes, and by 30eV above the IP is once again diminishing. It also appears that the variation in cross section as a function of energy follows a similar pattern for each of these targets. A coincidence energy loss spectrum is shown in figure 7 to illustrate this separation at an incident electron energy 10eV above the IP for this target. The results were taken from 2eV above the IP to 70eV above the IP for this target, so as to establish the variation in the cross section that is observed.
At the lowest energy 2eV above the IP, a clear two-peak structure is observed which is similar to that observed from krypton.
The results at higher energies are surprising, as the mechanism that produces the central peak with the electrons moving opposite each other is clearly dominating all other scattering processes.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon2.txt. These data indicate that fine structure in the final ion state does not play a significant role in the ionization process, since the comparison between this data and that reproduced from figure 8 shows that the shapes of the cross section for each energy are very similar.
This contrasts to the coplanar geometry most often adopted, where the dominant scattering mechanism is usually a single binary scattering between electrons, resulting in a high probability that forward scattering occurs.
The results presented here will hence further test these models for heavier targets, so as to elucidate the scattering mechanisms that result in the observations.
Argon, krypton and xenon also all evolve a central peak as the incident electron energy increases from near threshold, which cannot be due to PCI. The side lobes observed previously in the perpendicular plane have been attributed to a binary collision between the incident electron elastically scattered into this plane and a bound electron.

It is hence likely that the results for neon, argon and krypton are also not significantly altered by these effects, even though the spectrometer was not capable of resolving their individual ion states. CK would like to thank the University of Manchester for providing a PhD scholarship while carrying out this work. Sperber began his presentation by asking us, a€?Who is responsible for food safety?a€? Is it the producer (food business), the farmer, or the consumer?
Sperber also addressed the question, a€?Is capitalism ruining the environment?a€? In some ways, yes.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (33 MB) or just this chapter (9 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). When faced with a blank page, however, experienced writers remind themselves that writing, like other everyday activities, is a process. Although many more prewriting strategies exist, this chapter covers six: using experience and observations, freewriting, asking questions, brainstorming, mapping, and searching the Internet. A good topic not only covers what an assignment will be about but also fits the assignmenta€™s purposeThe reason(s) why a writer creates a document. The first important step is for you to tell yourself why you are writing (to inform, to explain, or some other purpose) and for whom you are writing.
After writers think about their experiences and observations, they often take notes on paper to better develop their thoughts.
For example, a magazine advertising the latest research on the threat of global warming may catch your eye in the supermarket. When you judge the authora€™s argument, you discover more about not only the authora€™s opinion but also your own.
As you continue to follow the writing process, you will see how Mariah uses critical reading skills to assess her own prewriting exercises.
She used this freewriting exercise to help her generate more concrete ideas from her own experience. Then you could use freewriting to describe your topic in more detail and figure out what you have to say about it.
As you choose your topic, answering these questions can help you revisit the ideas you already have and generate new ways to think about your topic.
A prewriting technique like asking questions can help you both find a topic and explore it.
As with Mariah when she explored her writing topic for more detail, it is OK if you do not know all the answers.
Mariah also realized that although her readers are other communications majors who are interested in the topic, they may want to read a paper about a particular issue in mass media. This technique is also known as clustering because ideas are broken down and clustered, or grouped together.
Searching the Internet may help you find answers to your questions and confirm your guesses. Remember that factual information can be verified in other sources, both online and in print. Reviewing her map, she realized that she was more interested in consumer aspects of mass media, so she refocused her search to media technology and the sometimes confusing array of expensive products that fill electronics stores. Here, in Note 7.21 "Exercise 3", choose and complete one of the prewriting strategies to narrow the focus. If you answer a€?noa€? to any of the questions, think about another topic or adjust the one you have and try the prewriting strategies again. In some courses, the only direct contact you may have with your instructor is through the assignments you write for the course. For example, when telling a story, it may be important to first describe the background for the action. In other words, choose the order that will most effectively fit your purpose and support your main point. Ask yourself, a€?How many pages will it take for me to explain and explore this main idea in detail?a€? Be reasonable with your estimate. A formal outline is a detailed guide that shows how all your supporting ideas relate to each other.
Although in business this style might be acceptable, in college your instructor might have different requirements. If you think that a paragraph might become too long or stringy, add an additional paragraph to your outline, renumbering the main points appropriately. If you are more comfortable starting on paper than on the computer, you can start on paper and then type it before you revise. Are you writing for experts, for a general audience, for other college students, or for people who know very little about your topic?
It may be a good idea to also state exactly what you want to explain to that audience, or to inform them of, or to persuade them about. During revising, you will have the opportunity to make changes to your first draft before you put the finishing touches on it during the editing and proofreading stage. These can be specific facts, examples, anecdotes, or other details that elaborate on the topic sentence. However, the topic sentence does not always have to be the first sentence in your paragraph even if it the first item in your formal outline. However, as you begin to express your ideas in complete sentences, it might strike you that the topic sentence might work better at the end of the paragraph or in the middle.
When the purpose of the assignment is to persuade, for example, the topic sentence should be the first sentence in a paragraph. A reader may first need a visual in his or her mind before understanding the development of the paragraph. For example, fiction writers customarily use topic ideas, either expressed or implied, to move readers through their texts. Each related main idea is supported and developed with facts, examples, and other details that explain it.
A paragraph in a complex essay about some abstract point in philosophy or archaeology can be three-quarters of a page or more in length. Readers often skim the first paragraphs of a great many articles before settling on the handful of stories they want to read in detail. As you read, ask yourself how closely she stayed on purpose and how well she paid attention to the needs of her audience. This class explores some of our options as herbalists to bring our unique set of skills and medicines to a wider audience.
Symptom pictures range from full-blown chronic fatigue symptoms to multiple food sensitivities and brain fog. Included are foundational elements of working with the whole person and the whole plant rather than isolating or compartmentalizing either human or herb. Special attention will be paid to the differentiation and use of diaphoretics that stimulate, relax or do both at once.
The four pillars of evaluation and treatment - 1) energetics, 2) organ systems, 3) action and 4) specific indications.
In nature typically in a piece of fruit, the sugar is a mixture of sucrose (glucose bound to fructose), free glucose, and free fructose. The glucose enters the controlled glycolysis pathway, but the fructose bypasses it, and floods the Krebs cycle and the related fat-building pathway in large amounts, symbolically like a -flood- into those pathways below the control point in glycolysis.
A  You need to eat enough to provide your body with the foods you need.A  It is almost impossible to do this with two meals a day so your body begins to crave foods that will give it that quick energy fix. There is nothing quite so satisfying as a healing soup simmering away slowly on the stovetop, while the flavors and properties of the herbs flow gently into the food.
A Dona€™t fight with yourself (or your family) to entirely give up a questionable food substance, just dona€™t abuse your body with it and use the healthiest form of the substance possible. A A vast majority of health complaints in this country; fatigue, mental fogginess, depression, etca€¦ are caused by your bodies natural response to incomplete nutrition.
Hence it is possible to accumulate a full range of DCS measurements over all scattering angles using this spectrometer.
The incident electron can move from the coplanar geometry (psi = 0A°) to the perpendicular plane (psi = 90A°), the outgoing electrons being measured in the detection plane. The shape of the DCS for a given energy and target is then of importance, for comparison with theory. This contrasts with the other noble gas targets whose levels are 1S0, but whose valence electrons occupy closed p-orbitals.
By contrast, the bound electrons in both of the heavier targets also occupy d-orbitals, with a correspondingly more complex momentum distribution.
As the outgoing electron energy is lowered, the post collisional interaction time increases, resulting in an increased flux in the 180A° direction. At excess energies over 80eV above the IP the central lobe has virtually disappeared, leaving only the two outer lobes in the DCS.
In this case, momentum conservation requires the outgoing electrons to move in opposite directions (180A°) in the perpendicular plane.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Neon.txt.
At 15eV above the IP this flat structure has evolved into two peaks with 180A° now being a local minimum. The static polarization of argon is eight times larger than for helium, so scattering effects due to polarization of the target are expected to be significantly larger than for neon or helium.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Argon.txt.
This central peak is visible for incident energies up to 40eV above the IP, until at the highest energy (50eV above the IP) this has once again disappeared, the side peaks having also moved outwards compared to at the lower energies. The relative magnitude of this minimum compared to the peaks around 110A° & 250A° is however larger than for higher incident energies, so there is probably a contribution to the cross section at this angle due to PCI. This central peak has virtually disappeared 40eV above the IP and there is no evidence of a peak 50eV above the IP. It might hence be expected that the cross section for the heaviest target (xenon) would follow a similar trend to that of argon and krypton.
The data are fitted to two Gaussians, showing that contamination from each ionic state is <10% when the spectrometer is set to each peak in the cross section. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon1.txt.
This indicates that PCI is once again not the dominant mechanism producing the cross section at this energy.
The relative magnitude of this peak compared to the lobes at 110A° and 250A° then increases in magnitude as the energy increases, as with krypton and argon. This result indicates that fine structure does not appear to play a significant role in electron collision processes at these energies.
The marked contrast between results for helium and all other noble gas targets demand that these models carefully consider the intricacies of the interaction, since a simple extension of the basic physical ideas presented for helium cannot explain the experimental data.
For argon and krypton the relative magnitude of this peak increases with respect to the side lobes until it reaches a maximum, then decreases to become insignificant at the highest energies measured.
This process has always been considered as the dominant mechanism at higher incident energies, yet the new results presented here indicate these ideas need to be revisited for this heavy target. Every process, from writing to cooking, bike riding, and learning to use a new cell phone, will get significantly easier with practice. Using the strategies in this chapter can help you overcome the fear of the blank page and confidently begin the writing process.
Write your purpose and your audience on your own sheet of paper, and keep the paper close by as you read and complete exercises in this chapter. If this step already seems daunting, remember that even the best writers need to use prewriting strategies to generate ideas. Once you start writing with few limitations, you may find you have more to say than you first realized. You may also discover aspects of the topic that are unfamiliar to you and that you would like to learn more about. The key to effective prewriting is to use the techniques that work best for your thinking process. Many writers like this method because the shapes show how the ideas relate or connect, and writers can find a focused topic from the connections mapped. From there, Mariah drew more circles and wrote more specific ideas: high definition and digital recording from cable and Blu-ray from DVDs.
If you have doubts about any information you find, either do not use it or identify it as potentially unreliable. Now, Mariah considers a paper topic on the products that have fed the mass media boom in everyday lives. But only when you start to organize your ideas will you be able to translate your raw insights into a form that will communicate meaning to your audience. Or you may need to first describe a 3-D movie projector or a television studio to help readers visualize the setting and scene.
Later, when you draft paragraphs in the next stage of the writing process, you will add support to create a€?flesha€? and a€?musclea€? for your assignment. The thesis statement is not the topic of the piece of writing but rather what you have to say about that topic and what is important to tell readers. As you continue to develop the arrangement, you can limit your working thesis statement if it is too broad or expand it if it proves too narrow for what you want to say. It helps you distinguish between ideas that are of equal importance and ones that are of lesser importance.
She then arranges her main points and supporting details in outline form using short phrases in parallel grammatical structure. Teach yourself how to customize the levels of outline numbering in your word-processing program to fit your instructora€™s preferences. You can also use a voice recorder to get yourself started, dictating a paragraph or two to get you thinking. Although paragraphs may vary in length, keep in mind that short paragraphs may contain insufficient support. Keep asking yourself what your readers, with their background and experience, need to be told in order to understand your ideas. Descriptions like a€?organic romainea€? and a€?free-range chickena€? are intended to appeal to a certain type of customer though perhaps not to the same customer who craves a thick steak. In a persuasive essay, the writera€™s point of view should be clearly expressed at the beginning of each paragraph. Chronological order may also position the topic sentence as the final sentence because the controlling idea of the paragraph may make the most sense at the end of a sequence. When the topic sentence is in the middle, it unites the details that come before it with the ones that come after it. In nonfiction writing, such as popular magazines, topic sentences are often used when the author thinks it is appropriate (based on the audience and the purpose, of course). By exploring and refining one main idea at a time, writers build a strong case for their thesis. As long as the writer maintains close focus on the topic and does not ramble, a long paragraph is acceptable in college-level writing. You will read her introduction again in Section 7.4 "Revising and Editing" when she revises it. The roman numeral II identifies the topic sentence for the paragraph, capital letters indicate supporting details, and arabic numerals label subpoints. Then copy sentences from Mariaha€™s paragraph to align each sentence with its corresponding entry in her outline.
If she had stopped writing in the middle of writing the paragraph, she could have jotted down some quick notes to herself about what she would write next. It will draw heavily from my 5 years working at a mixed modality (conventional and holistic) free clinic in my hometown as well as other places I have volunteered. Humans have no natural mechanism to deal with this, so the liver does 3 things, start making a lot of of fat and, if chronic, increasing the enzymes that manufacture fat, reduce the production of ATP via the Krebs cycle, and become resistant to the effects of insulin which would otherwise tell the liver to stop releasing glucose into the system. A A  EvenA  though that changed a bit when my parents moved us to town, my family hung on to a great deal of that lifestyle.
Unfortunately in our society,A  candy bars and coffee are far more available than a leafy green salad or a whole-grain snack.A  You have to plan a bit more to provide yourself with healthy alternative but it is completely worth the effort. For the data presented here, the perpendicular plane was chosen, so only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant. The combined coincidence energy resolution of the unselected energy electron gun and the two analysers is ~1eV. Krypton has 36 electrons and has a ground state configuration [Ar]3d104s24p6, while xenon has 54 electrons with a ground state configuration [Kr]4d105s25p6. This type of threshold behaviour was first predicted by Wannier and was later considered by Peterkop, Rau and others to explain results in this regime. This mechanism was considered as being the main reason for the peak at 180A° until the work of Madison and co-workers in 2009 showed the probability of this occurring was low.
As the energy increases further, the peaks separate in angle, and the minimum at 180A° deepens. This angular shift of the side lobes is consistent with PCI playing a continuing role in the interaction, since as the energy increases the effects of PCI diminish, and the electrons move away from 180A° as is observed. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Krypton.txt.
However, unlike krypton and argon whose central peak reaches a maximum and then decreases, the central peak in xenon continues to dominate the cross section as the energy rises.
Further, the frozen core approximation often adopted in these models which treat all non-ionized electrons as spectators does not appear valid for the heavier targets when compared to neon, even thought the outer valence electrons have the same p-type character. Or maybe a novela€™s courtroom drama sparks your curiosity of a particular lawsuit or legal controversy. To see how asking questions can help you choose a topic, take a look at the following chart that Mariah completed to record her questions and answers.
You may also use factual information from books or articles you previously read on your topic.
Start with a blank sheet of paper (or a blank computer document) and write your general topic across the top.
Using idea mapping, you might discover interesting connections between topics that you had not thought of before.
The radio topic led Mariah to draw connections between music, downloads versus CDs, and, finally, piracy. You may want to group your support effectively to convince readers that your point of view on an issue is well reasoned and worthy of belief. In this lesson, Mariah does all her work on the computer, but you may use pen and paper or the computer to write a rough draft. How can you best express your ideas so they are totally clear and your communication is effective?
Similarly, mail-order companies research the demographics of the people who buy their merchandise.
In general, try to keep the paragraphs longer than one sentence but shorter than one full page of double-spaced text. A large piece of this class will be devoted to answering attendeea€™s practical questions about their personal situations and how they can bring their skills forward.
If we would fill our bellies with fruit we would still only get a relatively small amount of free fructose.
Current scientific A thinking on the adverse metabolic effects of sugar, the cluster of diseases that appear when the sugar trade emerges in a region, is that the overfeeding of the fructose pathway and the resulting consequences are responsible for the insulin resistance and obesity.
Most of it seems much like sucrose, 45 percent glucose and 55 percent fructose, not all that different. A  Once you address your eating patterns, you can begin to look at the nutrients your body needs to properly support your nervous system.
Bee pollen is an amazing nutrient which I should devote a whole blog entry to, but I do worry about our dwindling bee population and the availability of this nutrient.A A  Consequently,A  I use it sparingly and with a great deal of respect for the creatures who created it in mind. They proposed a triple scattering mechanism to describe this peak, where the incident electron first scatters elastically from the nucleus so as to enter the detection plane, followed by a binary inelastic collision with a bound electron, followed by elastic scattering of one of the electrons back from the nucleus.
This trend continues up to the highest energy which was possible to measure (70eV above the IP), where the central peak is seen to be broad with a width ~100A°. It is hence likely that these assumptions will need to be relaxed to accurately model the data.
If you get stuck, just copy the same word or phrase over and over until you come up with a new thought. She asked herself the questions that reporters and journalists use to gather information for their stories. Later in the chapter, you will read about additional ways (like searching the Internet) to answer your questions and explore your guesses. Successful vendors customize product descriptions in catalogs to appeal to their buyersa€™ tastes. For more information on topic sentences, please see Chapter 5 "Writing Paragraphs: Separating Ideas and Shaping Content".
Instead, save the draft with a new tag after the titlea€”draft 1, draft 2, and so ona€”so that you will have a complete history of drafts in case your instructor wishes you to submit them. If we digest starch that has fructose in the chain of sugars in the starch, that is really slow. The problem is that in HFCS, the fructose is -free- it does not have to be split from sucrose, and is not bound to fiber. This complex mechanism was found to emulate the cross section more closely compared to the single scattering process originally envisaged.
As for all measurements in this study, the DCS must be zero for the electrons emerging at the same angle (0A°, 360A°), due to post collisional interactions between outgoing electrons of equal energy. At all energies greater than 40eV above the IP, the outer peaks seen in all other targets have disappeared. The questions are often called the 5WH questionsThe questions that reporters and journalists use to gather information for their stories and that writers use in the writing process: Who? Think of your general topic as a broad category and the list items as things that fit in that category. As a guideline, try to write paragraphs longer than one sentence but shorter than the length of an entire double-spaced page. Try setting an alarm to limit your break, and when the time is up, return to your desk to write.
For example, the product descriptions in a skateboarder catalog will differ from the descriptions in a clothing catalog for mature adults. The result is that in the Krebs Cycle, the entrance of glucose into the cycle is highly regulated by enzymes, when ATP is adequate to high, if forms a brake on the glycolysis pathway, but fructose, on the one hand, enters the cycle one step below the control point. Recovery garments recover in comfort - low pricesmanufacturers, suppliers crime times louisville ky.Crime Times Louisville Ky Reduce symptoms and prevent.
Often you will find that one item can lead to the next, creating a flow of ideas that can help you narrow your focus to a more specific paper topic. Historically, anthropologically, evolutionarily, we didn’t need to evolve a control on the fructose metabolic pathway.
A few years ago, the lead article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition proposed the introduction of unbound liquid fructose into the food supply as -the- cause of the epidemic of obesity and diabetes that began to manifest around 1980 and continues to expand today.A Free liquid fructose appears to be benign or even beneficial because there is no spike of glucose, or even of insulin after ingesting it.
If the natural pathway for glycolysis is like water rushing down a white water canyon, with a dam at the bottom to prevent flooding, the natural fructose pathway is like a small stream that enters -below- the dam with no control on it.
There is instead a spike of fat in the form of triglycerides, but no one notices that (only fasting TG are even measured in routine lab tests). And as the liver adapts to habitual use of sugar or fructose, -then- insulin resistance is increased and insulin and glucose rise to higher levels than before and the individual becomes pre- or full blown diabetic.

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