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admin 09.10.2013

Thank you again for the opportunity to give evidence to the Energy and Climate Change Select Committee hearing on 30 January 2013. The submission below expands on the questions that I was asked at the committee and also reflects on some of the new information which has now been made public by Hafren Power. Firstly I would like to reiterate, as I said in my evidence to the committee, that the position of Regen SW and the South West MEP is not a€?anti-barragea€? in principle.
We do however have serious concerns about the practical viability and wider impacts of a barrage solution and, while we have come to the conclusion that a Severn Barrage is extremely unlikely to be built, we are also concerned that the focus on a barrage proposal will reduce the likelihood that other more realistic schemes will come forward. While the debate around the barrage continues, there is a clear consensus that the Severn Estuary and wider Bristol Channel offers the UK a massive energy potential. Since the publication of our discussion paper (Bristol Tidal Energy: A Balanced Technology Approach), we have received a huge amount of positive interest from the industry and from other key stakeholders. This is a theme which the tidal industry will explore further at the 4th Bristol Tidal Energy Forum on 8th March at the National Composites Centre, and with wider stakeholders at the Sustainable Severn event on 27th Aprila€”both events to which you and your committee members would be very welcome to attend. So there is clearly a huge amount of goodwill and support from the industry, environmental groups and wider public to the idea of developing renewable projects in the Severn estuary and Bristol Channel.
We believe that a multi-technology approach, as outlined in our discussion paper and described in more detail below, can provide the basis for a new strategy. To enable this to happen however we need support from the ECC Select Committee and from UK Government. Reinforce the UK Governmenta€™s commitment to the development of marine technologies and the development of tidal energy projects, not only in the Bristol Channel, but around the UK. Establish a proper process and governance structure to lead and evaluate options for energy development in the Bristol Channel.
Support a twin track approach of using existing technology solutions such as smaller scale tidal range lagoons to achieve short term delivery whilst developing more innovative tidal technologies for subsequent deployment in the UK and overseas. Create a collaborative technology development programme to both develop and evaluate new tidal range technology, and to understand its economic and environmental impacts. I was asked by the committee to give an overview of the a€?Balanced Technology Approacha€?, which was the title of a paper published by Regen SW and Marine Energy Matters in November 2012. In my response, I described the overall approach we took which was to look holistically at the range of energy resources in the channela€”tidal range, tidal stream, wind and wave energy. The advantage of this approach is that we can develop and adopt new technologies as they become cost effective. In my evidence to the committee I briefly mentioned the approach which was been taken in Korea.
The major difference in approach is the size of the projectsa€”the first Shiwa barrage which has been built is only 250 MW. The Balanced Technology approach suggests that we look at all forms of renewable energy generation in the Bristol Channel including Offshore Wind, Floating Wind and Wave Energy. It is also important that we continue to support projects such as the Atlantic Array Offshore Wind Farm which will be the first mega project in the Bristol Channel, and as such can play a key role to kick start investment in the supply chain and port infrastructure that we will need to support future energy projects. In total our high level analysis suggested that a multi technology approach could provide 5 to 14 GW of renewable energy capacity using wind, wave and tidal technology. Our balanced technology approach uses both tidal range and tidal stream technologies but recognises the environmental and regional economic impacts of tidal range and the cost and development timeframes of tidal stream. From an engineering perspective, the technology to develop tidal range options exists and, as is evident from La Rance, whilst it is expensive to construct and finance, it can become one of the least expensive forms of generation and also one of the most reliable. The advantage of tidal range technology is its predictability and the potential for long term cost reduction. In our view the development of a number of Tidal Lagoons could be a better alternative to realise these advantages without the inherent disadvantages of a barrage blocking the entire estuary.
Critically Tidal Lagoons offer the potential to start relatively smalla€”200a€“300 MWa€”and then to increase scale as technology costs are reduced and impacts fully understood.
The 2010 DECC study showed that land connected tidal lagoons performed more strongly than had been previously recognised, providing the appropriate location was selected. Since that study was completed, a number of options for smaller land connected lagoons have also been developed including the Swansea Bay Lagoon and the Stepping Stones Lagoon (a larger option developed by the lead consultants on the DECC Feasibility Study). The EIS Scoping Report for this project has now been submitted to the IPC and can be found on their website. It is worth noting their comments that a levelised cost will be higher than the equivalent strike price due to the effects of inflationa€”the strike price is inflated whilst levelised costs are nota€”as capital cost intensive projects incur most of their costs in the construction years, the effect of future inflation is to increase revenues through an indexed strike price but not the costs. As with other long life projects, the Stepping Stones costs reduce after the financing period to [email protected]%, less than the wholesale cost of electricity.
Successful deployment of smaller land connected tidal lagoons will increase interest in larger options whilst the time taken for consenting and construction will see other technologies such as tidal stream become more mature and commercially proven. In their submission to the barrage enquiry the original Severn Tidal Power Group, while not ruling out a future barrage, have suggested that a Tidal Lagoon options would be a good first step towards harnessing tidal energy in the Bristol Channel.
The a€?Stepping Stonesa€? lagoon concept developed by Parsons Brinckerhoff and Black & Veatch seems to meet the requirements of a first step on the pathway.
Lessons learned from the construction and operation of such a scheme, including environmental impacts, would provide valuable for evidence-based evaluation of a CardiffWeston barrage later along the pathway. We therefore consider that the merits of developing such a scheme should be carefully considered by the Select Committee.
The STPG includes major industrial companies including Sir Robert McAlpine, Balfour Beatty, Alstom and Taylor Woodrow. This is why we are seeing technologies using new concepts such as cross flow, hydrofoil, multi turbine foundations and tidal fences now coming forward. The Bristol Channel combines good tidal velocities with comparatively shallow water 20a€“30m. The unique characteristics of the Severn are ideal for this and a number of proposals have been developed to pursue this. Tidal fence technologiesa€”such as the design from Keplera€”could increase energy output by combining the both tidal velocity (stream) and tidal head (range) energy sources. The Severn Tidal Fence Proposal by IT Power between Aberthaw and Minehead which was reviewed by the STEa€™s study could have a potential capacity of 400a€“600 MW.
We have been asked by the committee and by others in the industry to provide more detail on the potential projects with some idea of the possible deployment timescales. The table below however gives an overview of the possible projects which could be brought forward, with a potential upside estimate of over 7 GW of capacity, without compromising the ports, with reduced environmental impact and providing a platform for a sustainable and developing export market in tidal energy.
We did not have time at the committee hearing to discuss the potential economic benefits from marine energy development.
Regen SW has estimated that in the south west there are currently over 500 people employed in the marine energy sector. For more information about the growth of the marine energy sector in the south west of England please download the South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus and the South West Marine Energy Supply Chain Directory. Scotlanda€”especially around the Pentland Firth and Orkney Watersa€”but also opportunities for Tidal Lagoons in the western Isles. The sector has now begun to attract investment from a number of major multinational companies. The UK marine energy sector will play a small but important role in meeting the UKa€™s 2020 renewables target but it will be an increasingly important contributor to decarbonising the electricity sector in 2030 and meeting the Climate Change Acta€™s 2050 target.
It will also play a significant role in meeting other countries decarbonisation targets, particularly if it is supported in developing a sustainable pathway that embraces both tidal range and emerging tidal stream advances and has the widespread support of stakeholders. Significant concerns have been raised that a barrage on the Severn estuary will impact on strategically important ports and legally protected environment. We are further concerned that proposals for a barrage, that involve turbine technology that has not yet been developed let alone prototyped or tested, can make substantiated claims regarding its impact on fish or its ability to replicate the existing tidal sinusoidal shape.
It was these concerns relating to the barrage options, whether they be tidal reefs, bars or ebb and flood or ebb only barragesa€”and the associated evidence from DECCa€™s 2010a€”that we decided to look at what alternatives were possible for utilisation of the huge energy potential of the Severn. From the evidence presented to date we have concluded that the Severn Barrage faces 5 fundamental challenges which have not yet been addressed. There is no doubt that the development of a new concept, low head, multi-directional turbine (which is low cost, highly energy efficient and environmentally friendly) would be of significant benefit. However, even if the physical technology development could be accelerated, the commercialisation of the technology would still require several years of demonstration and deployment to reach the stage where the turbine can be a€?bankablea€?a€”ie backed by a manufacturing capability, performance guarantee and warranty (as well as environmentally proven) which investors will require before investing in large scale projects. Our approach would be to first fund a collaborative low head turbine development programme with the industry and then to deploy the technology firstly at a demonstration site and then as a small lagoon project. There is a huge amount that has been said about the environmental impact of the Severn Barrage. Added to the loss of inter-tidal habitat, the issue of fish mortality and fish migration is however critical.
Hafren Power have claimed that the new concept turbine would be designed to ensure very low (approaching zero?) fish mortality.
We do know however that development of a fish friendly turbine, which is also power efficient, is a difficult engineering challenge. The biggest step forward was to reduce the blade velocity to approximately 20a€“30% of a traditional bulb turbine.
The Rolls Royce turbine also introduced additional design features which may potentially increase fish harm. The number of blades in the Rolls Royce turbine has also significantly increased from three to 13. The key message here is not that the Rolls Royce turbine design is or isna€™t fish friendlya€”it is that all turbine designs will need to be properly modelled, prototyped and field tested to understand their full impacta€”which in fairness is exactly what Rolls Royce have said. The challenge for the Severn Barrage is however more complex than just fish turbine mortality.
In this respect the Hafren Power proposal may in fact have a bigger impact on fish migration than the original Severn Barrage project which was reviewed in 2010. Of course there are mitigation measures that can be adopted but the problem is to know how effective these will be in advance of the barrage construction. I do not have any evidence to comment on the 20,000 direct jobs or 50,000 total jobs it has been claimed the Severn Barrage would create. In part this is because Hafren Power have not included the potential job losses at Bristol Port and other ports impacted by the barrage. The economic impact on upstream ports including Cardiff and Bristol has been highlighted to the committee, and it is clear that the delays and congestion for shipping passing through lock gates, combined with the loss of tidal head and issues of siltation, are expected to have a serious detrimental impact on upstream ports. Bristol Port have made their own position clear throughout these hearings, and have drawn on the evidence which was previously gathered by DECC to highlight that the net loss of jobs at the port and from surrounding businesses would offset the jobs created by the barrage itself. What has not been highlighted to the committee is the potential knock-on impact for UK manufacturing and other businesses in the Midlands, South West and South Wales.
If the port expansion were to be curtailed, or the port itself decline, because of the barrage this would have a significant economic impact far beyond the direct port employees. However even if the bulk of container traffic went to other UK container ports, the additional mileage from the South West, South Wales and Midlands to, for example, Southampton, Liverpool, Felixstowe or Teeside would have a substantial impact of freight costs (approx A?2 per mile according to the Haulage Association) as well as increasing road traffic and carbon emissions. It is inconceivable that the Severn Barrage will proceed if the scheme is deemed to have a detrimental impact on one of Britaina€™s key trade ports. I was asked by the committee about the costs of alternative technologies and about whether these technologies would ever be cost effective. This support is however limited both in terms of timea€”to April 2017a€”and the size of the projecta€”up to 30MW. The 5 ROC marine scheme is intended to jump start the industry and enable it to get to a scale where it can prove the technology and begin to reduce costs.
Understanding the cost curve for new technologya€”how and when cost reduction will be achieveda€”is fundamental to enable government and other agencies to put in place an appropriate support mechanism which will nurture the industry, creating jobs and export opportunities, while ensuring value for money for consumers and taxpayers. In the case of the Severn Barrage there is much less opportunity for incremental cost reduction and technology innovation over time. We do not know what strike price Hafren Power is discussing with government and we have not seen any details of their cost of energy estimates. Changing the discount rate will of course have a significant impact on the LCOE calculation. If Hafren Power are using an intermediate rate (say 7.5%) then of course the LCOE will be lowera€”as it will be for any energy project. If Hafren Power are using a lower discount rate then there is an inherent gamble about the future cost of finance.
It is true however that barrages, lagoons and some other energy projects can generate lower cost energy when this is considered over their much longer operating period. In the case of the Haffron Power proposal it is clear that operating costs will drop very substantially once the initial financing period (25a€“30 years) has passed. The committee should also note that a fall in operating costs after the finance period does not necessarily translate into lower energy bills for the energy consumer but could in fact lead to super-normal profits for the operating company and its investors. One model to use for long term energy projects such as tidal range (Lagoons or Barrages) is a DBFOT finance model (Design Build Finance Operate Transfer).
After the concession period the Government then owns an asset that is operating, de-risked and generates significant revenue at a much lower operating cost. The key message here is that long term energy projects need to be evaluated over the project generating lifetime.
The same arguments apply in terms of a high initial capital cost v a much lower long term cost of energy.
The opportunity cost in terms of subsidy Control Framework Agreement caps and also the energy resource is much less. There is the potential to develop new technology and drive down installation costs which could then be used to generate export opportunities and generate cost saving for future projects.

As the a€?Bristol Channel Energy: A Balanced Technology Approacha€? document highlightsa€”it will be essential for a large scale project to succeed to secure support from a wide range of stakeholders (industry, environmental, political) on both sides of the Bristol Channel.
Unfortunately the Hafren Power Severn Barrage proposal has become extremely divisive and, as the Select Committee noted, is faced with a high degree of mistrust and opposition.
It is vitally important now that the UK Government (and other key stakeholders such as the Welsh Assembly, Bristol City Council, MMO and Crown Estate) steps in to establish a clear governance and process to determine the future strategy for the Bristol Channel, and that sustainable energy and economic development is put at the forefront. Lightning’s fourth-generation hydraulic hybrid system has fewer parts and saves weight by using more aluminum. Lightning Hybrids said last year that it was aiming its hydraulic hybrid drivelines at heavier vehicles (F&F, April 27, 2014).
The emphasis for generation four was system efficiency, said co-founder and CTO Dan Johnson, who co-invented the new patented system with senior controls engineer Jonathan Reynolds. Johnson said that a primary goal was making the system lighter by using more aluminum and by having fewer parts. Reynolds said too that new manufacturing processes were instrumental in achieving Lightning Hybrids’ patent goal. The Lightning Hybrids system is said to provide reductions of 50% to 90% in harmful emissions, as well as fuel efficiency gains by regenerating braking energy. No matter what industry your AC drive and motor support, Bonitron has the solution to enhance your process and increase uptime.
While the images to the left reflect completed app notes, the items below are a sampling of additional industries Bonitron serves. In the first part of the 19th century, as the country grew, the tension over slavery increased. Furthermore, with the addition of each new territory or state, there were heated and sometime bloody debates over the question - free or slave? The Underground Railroad encompassed an area generally above the Ohio River in the Midwest, along the state line of Pennsylvania in the East, and stretching into Canada. The second factor for favored sites on the railroad was the availability of Underground Railroad workers in an area.
Abolitionists and members of various religious groups, including Mennonites, Baptists, Presbyterians, Methodists, and others participated in the Underground Railroad.
First, there was a visit by other Quakers to persuade them nicely to set their slaves free. If this friendly, private visit failed, they took it public, testifying against slave-holding Quakers in open meetings. Then, if they remained unconvinced, the slave-owners were partially excluded from the society. The third decisive factor in determining the routes of the Underground Railroad was the political climate in North America. The anti-slavery climate in Canada, in contrast to the pro-slavery attitudes in the United States, made Canada, hundreds of miles from the slave states, a haven for fugitive slaves.
Communication was key to the successful operation of the Underground Railroad Secrecy was vital. There were no telephones and no access to telegraphs, so messages were sent by softly tapping stones together, by imitating the shrill call of the hoot owl, or by signaling with lights. Others took a more hands-on approach, like the elegant lady who reportedly clipped one slave catcher in the head with a well-aimed stone. Or picture Harriet Tubman, guiding fugitives on yet another journey on the Underground Railroad. Meanwhile, little Eva, the daughter of a wealthy Louisiana planter, is saved from drowning by Tom.
The scene of Eliza crossing the ice floes of the half-frozen Ohio River, a baby in her arms, was based on a real incident.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin brought the plight of fugitive slaves to the attention of the public with a bang.
Practically overnight, the Underground Railroad had more respectability, more money, more supplies, and more volunteers. Various newspaper articles from the collection of the Tippecanoe County Historical Association. Deadpool is a mercenary and this "merc with a mouth" is an expert in weapons and martial arts - he uses guns, grenades, a teleportation device, and his distinctive twin katanas, as well as hand-to-hand combat. He can also break the fourth wall, so he knows that he's a comics or in this case a videogame.
When Wade Wilson was dignnosed with cancer, he allowed the scientist, of Weapon X to try to cure him by attempting to recrate Wolverine' s healing ability.
In an attempt to capitalize on the SRA, Deadpool has taken to hunting unregistered superhumans for bounty money.
Finding the Anti-Reg forces to be vastly more amusing than their Pro-Reg counterparts, Deadpool has joined Captain America's resistance movement. Cadillac's ELR allows a driver to send more energy back to the battery with the tap of a paddle shifter. Paddle shifters have become increasingly commonplace in recent years, a way for motorists to get a more sporty feel from vehicles equipped with an automatic gearbox – but Cadillac has taken an alternative approach with its new ELR plug-in hybrid which uses its paddle shifters to increase the amount of energy that can be regenerated and stored in its battery pack.
Dubbed Regen on Demand, the new system was honored as “Green Car Technology of the Year” during a ceremony at the 2014 Washington Auto Show, beating out nine other environmentally friendly technology including a new Audi turbodiesel, a super-light carbon fiber body from BMW and Hyundai’s new hydrogen fuel-cell system.
Hyundai’s hydrogen fuel-cell system which will go into production on a special version of the Tucson crossover vehicle later this year. Launched in 2013, the first Green Car Technology of the Year award went to Mazda’s light and fuel-efficient SkyActiv system.
The use of the Washington Auto Show to hand out the award seems appropriate considering about a third of the vehicles on display this year utilize battery, clean diesel, hydrogen or other more environmentally friendly powertrain technologies.
Tags: Washington Auto Show, alternative power, auto news, cadillac elr, cadillac news, cadillac regen on demand, car news, elr regen, gm news, green car technology, green car technology of the year, paul a. As you indicated at the end of the session, the time available for questions in the second session was very limited and so I would like to take up your kind offer to submit additional written evidence. I would also like to acknowledge the contributions made by the members of the South West Marine Energy Park and in particular Parsons Brinckerhoff, whose detailed knowledge of the tidal power challenges and opportunities in the Severn has been particularly helpful. In fact, as organisations, we spend most of our working day supporting and winning approval for large scale renewable projects, which will be essential to meet the challenge of climate change. We believe that this energy potential could be harnessed using a range of technologies in a way which would balance the objective of securing large amounts of low carbon energy with the impacts such schemes will have on the environment and other marine interests. No one, on either side of the barrage debate, seems to disagree with the proposition that we ought to explore ways to harness the energy potential of the estuary, and indeed many of the protagonists against the barrage are actively engaged in looking for alternative solutions. The challenge for the industry is to come up with a strategy which will enable the UK to generate significant energy capacity, using both established and new technology, at a cost which is acceptable to the UK energy consumer.
The issue of climate change and energy security is immediate and so we fully support the ethos of getting projects into production as quickly as the technology costs and risks will allow. Our next step will be to work with industry partners to develop the Balanced Technology approach and to bring forward specific energy project and technology development proposals.
This commitment is especially important at a time when Government is setting investment priorities through the EMR process.
This needs to bring together industry and stakeholders on both Welsh and English sides of the Bristol Channel together with national bodies such as the MMO and Crown Estate.
This paper has had significant review and input from industry both through the Bristol Tidal Energy Forum and the South West Marine Energy Park. Using multi technology approach our analysis suggests could deliver up to 14 GW on renewable energy capacity.
By focusing on technology that can be deployed incrementally we also have the opportunity to drive down costs and understand their environmental and other impacts before deploying large scale projects. Tidal Lagoons could also be built using existing technology or used to develop a new generation of Low Head Bi-directional turbines.
We have taken this holistic approach because from the point of view of cumulative environmental impacts, grid, supply chain development, economic development, port infrastructure, skills etca€”all these technologies are linked. For the purpose of this submission to the committee I will however focus on Tidal Energy so that a direct comparison can be drawn with the Severn Barrage proposals. As the committee heard from Vincent de Laleu of EDF, after 40 years La Rance is now one of the cheapest forms of energy generation in France and technically has been viewed as a success with its original bulb turbines still in operation. Tidal Lagoons could be developed today, using existing turbine technology or used in part to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low head bi-directional turbines. The construction of the Lagoon walla€”using pre-fabricated caissonsa€”could also be streamlined and cost engineered. They have also established that a tidal lagoon could be consented within five years and, because of its relatively small size relative to the estuary, could be helpful in developing the evidence base on the Severn whilst minimising adverse impacts relative to other larger options. Although the Stepping Stones Lagoon uses existing mature technology (which is why it can be consented and constructed reasonably quickly subject to it being embraced by future marine energy policy), it could also be used to test new, more innovative turbines in addition, again informing future energy options.
Collectively this builds the position of the UK as a leader in marine technology both in terms of generation capacity and supply chain capability. It has little impact on protected environmental areas, is of a size that can be developed by the private sector (given planning consent), and uses proven technology.
Indeed two of the leading companiesa€”Tidal Generation Limited (Owned by Alstom) and Marine Current Turbines (Owned by Siemens) are based in Bristol.
It is therefore essential that the UK continues to support tidal stream technology development and research and open up new sites for deployment to maintain its leadership position. The leading turbine technology developers are also looking ahead to see how the next generation of tidal turbines could be adapted for shallower waters exactly like the Bristol Channel. This is difficult to do precisely since in many cases these projects and their supporting technologies are at an early stage of development.
I would however like to take this opportunity to emphasise again that the UK is a leading centre for the development of wave and tidal technologies. A key to this sector growth has been the engagement through the universities and supply chain companies in the regions. A barrage operating in ebb and flood mode would truncate the tide at the top and bottom of its cycle reducing high water levels that are problematic to the passage of large ships and increasing low water levels that result in still significant inter-tidal habitat loss (albeit less than a barrage operating in ebb only mode) and compromising the free discharge of land drainage outfalls. Such a turbine could be applied across a range of projects in the UK and abroad including Tidal Lagoons to which it is perhaps best suited. We have seen the same in offshore wind, wave and tidal energya€”and this is why it is almost impossible to imagine a scenario whereby a credible new turbine technology would first be deployed as a critical component in a A?25 billion project.
Ideally it should be possible to test two or three designsa€”a good example of this is the approach currently being taken by the ETI to support floating wind technologies. The committee has already heard evidence about the loss of inter-tidal habitat and the difficulty of mitigation through the provision of sufficient compensatory habitat. This claim is however very difficult to evaluatea€”not least since we do not have clarity on the turbine design or any field data.
The concept design developed by Rolls Royce and Atkins for the SETS study in 2010, approached the problem by focusing on a number of design parameters which were agreed by academics and environmentalists to be of key importance for fish mortality including a) the blade velocity b) rapid pressure transients c) blade separation d) exposure to hydraulic shear forces and e) entrapment in hub and tip gaps. Measured against these specific parameters the Rolls Royce turbine should, at least in concept, be more fish friendly than a traditional bulb turbine. Put simplistically this means that although slower and with larger gaps, the number of blade edge revolutions has actually increased (three blades x 60 RPM = 180 blade revolutions compared to 13 x 15 rpm = 195 blade revolutions). The simplest way to reduce fish mortality is to discourage fish from swimming into the turbinesa€”as can be done for a Tidal Lagoon for instance using acoustic and other devices. The Hafren Power barrage would operate on both the Ebb and Flood tidesa€”so fish are impacted on both tidal cycles.
Given the risk to spawning fish, potentially destroying internationally protected species in Welsh and English rivers, it is very difficult to see how a barrage proposal can be fast-tracked through. These numbers do not correspond with the analysis which was completed as part of the Severn Tidal Feasibility Study. At the committee hearing 30th January, Hafren Power said that they did not accept the numbers produced by the Bristol Port company in their evidencea€”in fact the numbers submitted by Bristol Port are taken directly from the DECC Severn Tidal Power Feasibility study. This was the conclusion of the 2010 Severn Estuary Tidal Study, and has not been changed by the new proposals brought forward by Hafren Power. Allowing the barrage not to operate when large boat movements are required would seriously damage its business case (and the UKa€™s energy supply) particularly when the volume of future shipping movements cannot be accurately predicted.
This is why the Severn Tidal Feasibility Study showed a comparatively low GVA and net job creation from the Severn Barrage. Bristol Port is a key gateway port for both imports and exports to the heartland of the UKa€™s manufacturing industry. The committee has heard that container traffic is very likely to go elsewhere if Bristol Port is not able to handle the largest container ships.
The expectation is that probably less than 150 MW will be deployed in that timeframe and so the exposure of the market incentive scheme and impact on energy consumers will be extremely limited. The intention then is that costs will continue to reduce over time through economies of scale, innovation and learninga€”as we have seen happen with other technologies including onshore wind and PV. The Hafren Power proposal is for a one off large scale project that will generate up to 5% of the UKa€™s energy demand and utilise a significant portion of the UKa€™s subsidy support within the Levy Control Framework.
At the Select Committee evidence session it was suggested by Hafren Power that the subsidy required would be at, or less than, the support given to Offshore Wind. The actual cost of capital will vary between projectsa€”and this is one of the key areas where Government intervention such as co-investment by the GIB can reduce energy finance costs for Offshore Winda€”but it is completely wrong to use different discount rates when making comparative policy decisions where all options need to be considered using the same assumptions. Given that the project will most likely be financed and re-financed several times over during the planning and construction period there is therefore a risk that the project will incur higher finance costs than expected and may require future Government support.

One of the drawbacks of the LCOE analysis under Green Book rules is the limited timeframe in which projects are considered.
How these future profits are handled should be part of the negotiation with governmenta€”for example, one option would be to claw back the initial financing subsidy, another would be to take the asset into state ownership and allow the operating company to manage the asset as a concession. This works on the basis that the Government owns the asset and invite tenders for a 30 year concession to design, build, finance, operate the asset over 30 years before it is handed back to the public sector at the end of the concession perioda€”the highways sector uses this model, for example on the Second Severn Crossing. The Government then have a number of choicesa€”they can operate directly (in which case they can reduce the wholesale electricity price by selling their energy for less), or they can award another concession (in which case the premium they receive could be offset against the initial investment made during the DBFOT perioda€”ie the gap between the CfD and wholesale price) or a hybrid approach based on the latter where there are conditions to ensure there is a price cap on the second and subsequent concessions to achieve a balance between return and impact on wholesale price. It is then a policy judgement whether the long term benefits of lower operating costs outweigh the shorter term subsidy that is required to finance the project.
A Lagoon project would also be more financially viable because it would be smaller (easier to raise finance) and arguably of much lower risk. It is also clear that in order to secure support, renewable energy projects need to deliver long term economic benefits to both English and Welsh sides of the Bristol Channel. Feel free to contact us to discuss your application as we continue to build application notes for additional processes and industries. They have more than 27 years of experience and core competencies with food processing, pulp and paper, energy and power, water and wastewater, pharmaceutical, medical, petrochemical, process control, ship building, heavy industrial and many other industries. The Quakers (the Society of Friends), however, played the biggest role throughout the United States, and a significant role locally. In 1787, a Quaker teenager named Isaac Hopper organized a system for hiding and aiding fugitive slaves in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, a precursor to the Underground Railroad. As late as 1857, the Dred Scott Decision by the Supreme Court ruled that a person descended from slaves, whether free or slave, had no rights as a U.S. A quilt hanging on a clothesline with a house and a smoking chimney among its designs indicated a safe house.
A successful disguise was the inconspicuous clothes of the Quakers: a light gray dress and a bonnet with a heavy veil. To pay his debts, Shelby had to sell his faithful slave, Tom, and a child, Harry, who was the son of Eliza, another slave.
A slave named Eliza Harris and her baby, wet and numb with the cold, made the precarious crossing. Her publisher had to run the printing presses day and night to try to keep up with the demand. It is important that we remember the heroic efforts to help the runaways and the amazing courage it took to ride the railroad. There was such a glory over everything, the sun came like gold through the trees, and over the field, and I felt like I was in heaven." Why did so many risk so much? Despite his questionable sanity and off-beat sense of humor, Deadpool is one of the world's deadliest assassins, and one of Marvel's most unforgettable characters. The cure worked, but Wilson' s skin was left a mangled mess, and Weapon X, placed him in a prison lab as a failure. The new Honda Accord Hybrid was named “Green Car of the Year” at the Los Angeles Auto Show last November.  The Green Car Technology award focuses on all-new technologies that can improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions or in some other way make vehicles more environmentally friendly. Our approach would also provide a springboard to support the development of new technology and enhance the UKa€™s leadership position in the growing global marine energy sector thereby creating further jobs and export opportunities. Our perspective on the Severn is not different to that of the Governmenta€™s in 2008 when it published the terms of reference for the Severn Tidal Power Feasibility Studya€”a€?generate electricity from the renewable tidal range resource of the Severn Estuary in ways that will have an acceptable overall impact on the environment and economy both locally and nationallya€?. We can also use this approach as a catalyst to support supply chain development and technology export around the world.
Floating wind, tidal stream and tidal fences will take longer but already the leading companies are moving forward with commercial projects.
We would describe these as Tidal Lagoon projects since they impound a body of water, using islands and headlands to create tidal lagoons, without blocking main channels or estuaries. Our wider vision is to turn the region into an energy cluster bringing benefits to both Welsh and English sides of the channel. A series of individual Lagoons could be tailored and compartmentalised to provide more flexible energy generation over a longer tidal cycle. While Lagoons would also have environmental impactsa€”and loss of intertidal habitata€”their location could be carefully chosen to limit these impacts and given the smaller size of the schemes mitigation in the form of compensatory habitat put in place. The above referenced tidal lagoons are located downstream of the protected areas under the Habitats and Wild Birds Directives and thus present a less resistant route to development than other options further upstream.
Also, it does not interfere with the development of larger barrage proposals, nor the operation of the existing ports. If the UK is to be successful in marine energy on a global basis, it is important that we develop a marine energy sector that is able to demonstrate how it can exploit energy without compromising important economic activity and with broad stakeholder support. As the committee heard from my evidence, and from Vincent de Laleu of EDF, this is a very significant factor which means that the Severn Barrage could not be built within the timetable suggested by Hafren Power.
Development of a new low head concept turbine is however a significant engineering challenge.
However it is important to note that this turbine has not been prototyped and no field data exists to show how fish friendly the new turbine would be in practice. So we would need to consider the closing speeds between the two sets of blades as well as absolute blade velocity.
The fundamental issue for the barrage is that it cuts across an important channel for fish migrationa€”including Spawning Salmon, juvenile Salmon and European Eelsa€”making their way to and from Welsh and English rivers. The number of turbines has also significantly increased (over 1,000 compared to over 200) and the turbines are now spread across the length of the barrage rather than clustered in the middle. Indeed an Ebb and Flood barrage can overall be expected to have a higher impact on upstream ports due to the increased loss of high water tidal range which would be reduced by at least 2m. Ita€™s proximity to the Midlands and links to both road and rail transport networks, make the survival and future expansion of the port a critical element of the UKa€™s prosperity. It is quite possible that some of this traffic will go to other European ports (to be transhipped back to the UK) which would have a direct cost to the UK economy in terms of transhipment freight.
Getting the level of subsidy right is therefore of critical importance for the UK consumer and the rest of the renewable energy sector.
It was not clear however whether this is the subsidy given to Offshore Wind projects today (equivalent of 2 ROCS) or the much lower subsidy expected in 2025, or later, when the barrage would be commissioned.
Without further evidence it is not clear how the Hafren Power proposal would be significantly cheapera€”although intuitively moving from 216 bulb turbines in the original ebb only scheme to over 1,000 bi-direction turbines would normally be expected to increase costs. The proper analysis should be done by extending the LCOE calculation period which discounts future costs and revenues or by presenting the LCOE within a time bound (for example during or after the financing period).
The assessment of the Severn Tidal Feasibility Study in 2010 was that this was not the case for a barrage project of this scale, level of finance and risk. The beautiful old church was lit softly by candlelight that evening, evoking a sense of days gone by. Members of the Underground Railroad adopted railroad _ terminology to describe the secret roles they assumed. Of necessity, both fugitive slaves and members of the Underground Railroad learned to code and decode hidden messages, to disguise signs and themselves to avoid capture or worse.
Most slaves could not read and their masters had purposely kept them ignorant of geography. For the old man is awaiting for to carry you to freedom Iffreedom if you follow the drinking gourd. Harriet Tubman, a former fugitive slave herself living in Pennsylvania, gave no heed to the danger, returning again and again to the South.
A woman in Ohio was carrying fugitives in her cart, hidden under a quilt, when the cart became stuck in the mud. When Eliza heard Harry was to be sold, she embarked on a desperate flight with him across the frozen Ohio River, where she was rescued by Quakers with the Underground Railroad.
They were greeted by Reverend John Ripley at Ripley’s Crossing on the free side of the Ohio River. They became outraged at the treatment of the fugitives and sympathetic to the abolitionist cause. Now, even those who had been born free in the North might be taken and sold in the South just on the word of another person. After escaping, Deadpool began his career as a mercanary, battleling Cable and X-Force among others. Wave energy is the furthest behind, but once developed at large scalea€”probably in the mid 2020a€™sa€”wave energy has the potential to become a truly global low cost energy resource. This approach means that the Koreans have a succession of projects to develop and prove technologya€”and understand risksa€”before moving to larger schemes.
Lagoons would have to be designed to be fish friendlya€”but would not have the same impacts on fish migration. Their downstream locations also mean that they should not compromise the development of other tidal power options. With the right priority support from Government and the industry, the technical challenges could be overcome in an accelerated timeframe but this would still represent several years of technology development. There is also a question about what will happen to fish who have made it through one set of blades but are now in the inner turbine chamber between the bladesa€”as far as we know this has not been modelled for fish passage. This introduces a far wider environmental impact, for example, one can envisage increased bird predation on young smolts caught in ebb tide shallows waiting to pass through the barrage. This means that it will be more difficult to create clear channels for fish passages and more difficult to use acoustic and other methods to dissuade fish from entering turbines.
This is one reason why Bristol Port has now received planning for a new A?600 million deep water container terminal which will be able to handle 1m container annually. It brought to mind a comment I’d heard about the part the church had played long ago in the Underground Railroad. Even William Henry Harrison, territorial governor of the state in 1813, was said to harbor pro-slavery opinions.
A law passed in 1807 prohibited importing slaves from Africa and the Caribbean to the United States. Others reportedly were the homes at Seventh and Main streets (the Linn house) and Fifth and South streets (the Falley house), and St. There were fake closets, trapdoors, hidden tunnels, church belfries, and empty schoolhouses. She eventually brought 300 slaves to freedom during her time with the Underground Railroad.
So it is not just a question of turbine mortality but the overall impact the barrage will have on fish migration which needs to be considered. In fact, Indiana is said to have barely entered the Union as a free state and remained generally unsympathetic to the abolitionist movement. With this law, slaves in the United States no longer could readily be replaced, in spite of the fact that the invention of the cotton gin 14 years earlier meant demand for slave labor had never been greater. In 1850, The Lafayette Daily Journal published a strong editorial against slavery, even though a mob had rioted against African- Americans in the Lafayette community just four years earlier. For the old man is awaiting for to carry you to freedom -Peg Leg Joe, waiting to help them at the Ohio River and into Canada.
He was a slave who originally escaped from the South by wandering through the wildernesses of Indiana and Ohio. To our knowledge there has not yet been a study of tidal lagoon potential in the UK but the sites identified on the Severn are indicative of their potential. So why did many in the state act in apparent opposition to common beliefs of their time and place? He became known as the President of the Underground Railroad because of his extraordinary contributions to rescuing fugitive slaves.
Frederick Douglass, leading spokesman for American blacks in the 1800s, was a stationmaster in the Underground Railroad and a former fugitive slave himself. Chased by wolves, nearing starvation, he was found by Native Americans and eventually led to Canada by the Underground Railroad.
Was it simply a remnant of unfounded rumor from the past or was it a reminder of a proud moment in Lafayette’s history? Why did many, including citizens in and around Lafayette, risk their lives to help transport fugitive slaves on the Underground Railroad?
The same year, 1850, the Indiana constitution made it illegal for blacks to settle in the state.
The characters of Simeon and Rachel Halliday, who operated an Underground Railroad station in Indiana, were based on the Quaker storekeepers Levi and Catherine Coffin, whom I mentioned earlier. He quickly organized law- abiding citizens into a militia of armed men called the Lafayette Blues to protect the abolitionists.
Falley’s house hell-bent on destruction, but was stopped by the men of the Lafayette Blues. Some later regrouped, however, and proceeded to riot for three days and three nights, harassing the African-Americans in Lafayette and burning several houses down, until the militia was able to restore order.

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