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The term “pyrotechnics” lends itself to meaning “the science of fire.” But for most people watching a fireworks display, there is not so much science, but the wonderful art of it all! What we think of as “light” are waves or packets of energy, part of the “electromagnetic spectrum” with specific wavelengths (distance from one wave’s crest to the next) that the human eye can pick up on. Both elements and molecules can be involved in an effect called “emission,” either atomic emission (for elements in their atomic form) or molecular emission (for molecules, whether in common stable forms or in fleeting unstable forms). There are certain elements and molecules that give off very useful wavelengths of light (colors) when they are heated. So how does the pyrotechnician, knowing that certain chemicals give off certain colors when burned, tailor this property to the colored fireworks shells that we see every midnight on New Year’s Eve around the world and every Fourth of July here in the United States? In this case, we have magnesium as our hot fuel that is oxidized during burning by the three other chemicals (all oxygen sources), propagating the burning reaction. In this case, we again have our fuels that burn (red gum and magnalium, an organic and a metal, respectively), an oxidizer to provide oxygen (potassium perchlorate), and also our strontium to emit the red. Pyrotechnicians have many tools at their disposal to help them design the best colors that they can for fireworks.
The pyrotechnician can also mix different colors to get nearly everything in the rainbow:  85% red and 15% blue to make maroon, 80% green and 20% blue to make aqua, or even 55% green and 45% orange to make yellow! Many tools are at the pyrotechnicians disposal to make colors for fireworks displays, for signals, and many other applications. Morecambe Bay is a declining basin and Centrica has been managing the dwindling reserves by producing from it mainly in winter when UK gas demand and prices are highest. The Chancellor pushed through an extra 12% in tax on North Sea oil and gas production, raising the rate to 32% from 20% in the March Budget, despite warnings from the industry this will limit exploration and make the UK more dependant on imports from Russia and other overseas sources. E.ON Energy raises business energy contract prices for non maximum demand  meters from Tuesday 3rd May.
We seem to be seeing weekly increases in business energy prices lately , and UK  businesses are beginning to feel the strain. Many independently owned pubs, restaurants and hotels are feeling the squeeze from a large increase in business energy costs this year. These increases in energy costs are being absorbed as much as possible but many in the hospitality industry are telling us that they will have to increase the costs of their food and drink menus in order to keep trading this year. With the news that Scottish Power has updated their business electricity and business gas tariffs , it is the ideal time to do a business energy comparison. The Square Kilometre Array telescope, a multi-million dollar project which could begin construction in 2016, requires an absence of radio interference, which the fracking may cause.Several government departments will lead the research into whether the semi-arid Karoo region could be damaged by fracking. The credit score of your business will affect the competitiveness of your renewal offer from your current supplier as well as any prospective supplier. Some customers may have been with a supplier for years and always paid by direct debit with no problem but on contract renewal the supplier suddenly wants a deposit or refuses to renew them, leaving them on very high out of contract rates. While we understand the commercial pressures on suppliers, we feel that a number of business energy suppliers are using this cynically as a way of renewing customers at higher prices.
The irony is that at least one of suppliers stating poor credit as an excuse for expensive unit rates has a credit score that they themselves would not take. Wholesale gas prices are set to increase today on news that liquefied natural gas destined for the UK market has been diverted to Japan. Prices surged the week after the quake and tsunami hit Japan on fears that large volumes of LNG would be diverted to Japan, it seems that these fears have been realised.
For further information on future business gas prices call our business gas team on 01202 682127. After the first comprehensive analysis of the green house footprint of shale gas by Cornell University in the US, it has been discovered that the environmental impact of shale gas is a minimum of 20% more that coal.


Some have argued that shale gas will provide energy security as well as a signpost to a reduced carbon future. The debate on shale gas is just beginning, and there are many vested interests from all sides. There was some volatility seen in power market on Wednesday, showing promise of some clawing back some of the previous sessions losses early on.
The afternoon period of trading saw a reversal of these gains, the whole of the power curve closing the day down.
Most of the losses were driven from the gas curve, which responded to a well supplied system and current demand levels being comfortably well supplied.
Another good day of renewable generation was seen on Wednesday, wind and hydro generation combining for an overall 8% contribution to the generation mix. All numbers are even, as there is space for two sets of electrons, paired according to opposite spins (as required by Pauli exclusion principle). Elements that have valence electrons in s orbitals constitute the s-block, of the periodictable. The question you normally get is, for instance, write the electronic configuration of aluminium. That shows also that the valence shell, n=3, has 3 electrons, 2 in a s type subshell and 1 ina p type subshell. If we consider the capacity of subshells s, p, d and f, t he diagram also shows us the capacities of the main shells. The fireworks division of pyrotechnics, aside from propellants (for rockets) and explosives (for mining and military uses), is almost entirely predicated on the show effect: the loud bang, the bright flash, the whistles and crackles, the blossoming shells, and, of course, the wonderful colors around everything! The human eye can perceive electromagnetic waves that are between approximately 380 and 740 nanometers (a nanometer, or nm, is .0000000001 meters, very small!). These elements combine to form what we know as molecules, such as carbon dioxide CO2, water H2O, as well as barium nitrate Ba(NO3)2.
When energy, in the form of heat or flame, is applied to these chemicals, the electrons in their atomic orbitals take on that energy and get “excited,” like getting a quick sugar-high. Barium and boron will give off green, strontium will give off red, calcium will give off orange, sodium will give off yellow, copper will give off blue, zinc will give of aquamarine, etc.
They have different compositions and recipes used to best emit these colors, in whatever colors they can make! The presence of strontium nitrate and strontium oxalate, as they are reacted in this hot plasma, will accept this hot burn as energy to excite their electrons, and then releasing electromagnetic radiation upon relaxation—it just so happens that they release this energy in the form of waves that we see as bright red! For instance, an emission spectrophotometer can measure the wavelengths that it records through an optical sensor and plot those on a graph versus intensity or counts. Remember: these are *emissive* colors, they don’t work like mixing paints, but like mixing colored “gels” for stage lights. From the science of light emission, color generation is a crucial part in the art of fireworks. Its reliance on imported LNG has increased since then, forcing British gas and other suppliers to compete with other buyers internationally to obtain it.
This increase follows the recent slight drop in prices for maximum demand meters offered by E.ON Energy. SME business customers who took a one year contract last year are seeing a unit rate increase of up to 50% on contract renewal this year. We have also seen in the last few months an increase in the amount of customers who are being asked for a security deposit before the commencement of a new contract. Qatar have agreed to sell 4 million tons of LNG to Japan , which means there will be less gas coming to Europe and the UK.


The number of LNG vessels headed for the UK has dropped drastically in the last week while deliveries to Japan have increased massively. Researchers from the United States discovered that shale gas wells emit large amounts of methane gas, a key contributor to Global Warming. This theory now seems to be completely wrong and in fact shale gas will prove an even bigger greenhouse polluter than coal and traditional natural gas. Methane is far worse than CO2 from a green house perspective, although it lingers for a far shorter time in the atmosphere. But how does a pyrotechnician, a scientist, translate chemicals into a fireworks art display for the viewer’s enjoyment? If you apply heat to water you may boil it and get steam, but if you apply enough heat to barium nitrate in the right conditions you get a very deep green flame. The electrons “jump” to what’s called a higher energy state, but they can only stay there for so long; the electrons will “relax” back down to their original states, but not without passing along that extra energy that they were given. In our example earlier, if the oxidizer (or oxygen source) barium nitrate Ba(NO3)2 is burned along with a fuel such as aluminum powder or an organic tree extract called “red gum,” the self-sustaining fire will be a green color from fleeting barium ions and short-lived chemicals in the flame.
The pyrotechnician can augment the oxygen found in air by adding a chemical oxidizer, such as potassium perchlorate KClO4 to give off its oxygens much more rapidly, aiding the fast burn.
A firework that you or I may see as a deep red may look “meh” to a spectrophotometer (and vice-versa: it could give you the clearest red spectrum, but we may not think it’s that great). Many pubs and restaurants are reporting reduced turnover while supermarkets are reporting record turn over and profits. One point I think all of us who are involved in the business gas sector will agree on is: anything that can help reduce the current gas prices can only be a good thing, as long as it is not at the expense of future generations.
These shapes are determined by solving the Schroedinger equation (gives quantum mechanical behaviour of electrons). The d block consists of transition metals, where the distribution of electrons in the 5 different orbitals are responsible for the varied colours and geometries of the complexes made using these elements. Wavelengths longer than that are “ultraviolet,” and shorter than that are “infrared,” which the human eye cannot see. For certain elements and chemicals in certain conditions, that energy is released in the form of light of a very specific wavelength (or energy) that our eye perceives as color: red, blue, green, yellow, etc.
If a chlorine-containing compound, such as Teflon® (C2F4 polymer), the barium and chlorine elements will combine and the resulting unstable BaCl- “free radical” will emit an even deeper and more lovely green color due to some “orbital effects” on the electrons.
The way that the human eye perceives color and wavelengths is “biased” in many ways in that we are more or less sensitive to different wavelengths, and therefore colors. John Conkling as an undergraduate research associate while pursuing his Bachelor’s degree in chemistry at Washington College in Chestertown, MD, with a focus on energetic materials and pyrotechnics. This tells me that confidence is still very low in the general population and the increase in energy costs for both businesses and domestic customers will only add to the feeling of less money in your pocket. The inside shells don't usually interact with the exterior (other atoms or molecules that approach). So, now we know what colors are to the eye and the brain, but how can the pyrotechnician “make” these fireworks colors? Chris continued working with the Summer Pyrotechnic Seminar series while attending the University of Virginia for graduate school in organometallic chemistry. The fact electron are distributed in shells is a consequence of quantization of energy, so that there is not an energy value smaller than that of the separation between shells what implies that no electron can be in between shells.



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