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According to wave theory, light travels in the form of waves and radiant energy is emitted by fluctuation of electric charge and magnetic field.
Infra-red spectroscopy is an important spectroscopy which gives almost complete information about the structure of a compound.
The absorption of infrared radiations can be expresses either in terms of wavelength or wave number.
Because of absorption of infra-red radiation, molecules become excited and move to lower to higher vibrational level.
If a molecule has a center of symmetry, then the vibrations are Centro symmetric and are inactive in the infra-red region but active in Raman, known as active vibrations. The vibrations which are not Centro symmetric are active in infra-red region but inactive in Raman, called as forbidden vibrations. Since the absorption of infra-red region is quantized, a molecule of the organic compound will show a number of peaks in the infrared region. Where h = Plank's constantIf the falling radiations are belong to mid-infrared region than the energy would be just equivalent to the molecular vibration energy level.
The absorption of radiation can be possible only when the dipole moment of the whole molecule changes due to certain molecular vibrations. IR spectrum is a record of intensity of the bands as a linear function of T against the corresponding wave number. The Infra-red spectroscopy can be employed to establish the identity of two compounds or to determine the structure of a new compound.
The identity of an organic compound can be established by using its finger print region (1400-1900 cm-1). The identity of an organic compound is confirmed of its finger print region exactly matches with the known spectrum of that compound.
As compounds contain same functional group may have similar absorptions above 1500 cm-1 but they differ considerably in finger print region.
Each functional group absorbs a certain frequency of radiation and show corresponding peak. All functional groups present in molecule absorbed at their characteristic wave number and the shift due to environment effect can be easily observed in spectrum.
If the IR spectrum of two compounds is exactly same, it shows that they are identical compounds. Infra red spectroscopy is quite useful for studying the rate and progress of a chemical reaction.
With the progress of reaction the band of >C=O group diminished and band of -O-H group at 3300 cm-1 appears.
The progress of reaction can be determined by using the rate of disappearance of a certain absorption band of the reactant molecule and the rate of appearance of the absorption band of the product group. Infra red spectroscopy is also useful in the detection of the impurity in a compound by comparing its spectrum with the spectrum of the authentic sample of the compound. A pure sample always consists of sharp peaks and bands while the impure sample will have poor bands with some additional bands.
Quantitative analysisThe quantitative analysis of an organic mixture can be done by measuring the intensities of the absorption bands of each component and by knowing the optical density of the absorption bands for the pure substance. The presence of certain bands decide the isomer of Xylene and the optical density values gives information about the percentage composition of each isomer in given sample. Distinction between two type of hydrogen bondingInfra red spectroscopy can be detect the presence of H-bonding as well as the type of hydrogen bonding; Intermolecular or Intramolecular.
Study of complex formation Infra redInfra red spectroscopy is useful in prediction of structure of complex molecules like penicillin . Infrared spectroscopy is useful in prediction of unknown compound and presence of certain functional groups. Conformation analysis IR technique is useful in determination of relative stability of various conformations of cyclic compounds. Geometrical IsomerismOnly those vibrations are IR active which involves the change in dipole moment of the molecule and the intensity of absorption bands depends upon the change in dipole moment of molecule. The main difference in the highlighted carbon atom of both molecule  and carbocation is the hybridization. The great Danish physicist Niels Bohr (1885–1962) made immediate use of Rutherford’s planetary model of the atom. In some cases, it had been possible to devise formulas that described the emission spectra. For an Integrated Concept problem, we must first identify the physical principles involved. This is indeed the experimentally observed wavelength, corresponding to the second (blue-green) line in the Balmer series. This number is similar to those used in the interference examples of Introduction to Quantum Physics (and is close to the spacing between slits in commonly used diffraction glasses). Bohr was able to derive the formula for the hydrogen spectrum using basic physics, the planetary model of the atom, and some very important new proposals. Bohr was clever enough to find a way to calculate the electron orbital energies in hydrogen. From Bohr’s assumptions, we will now derive a number of important properties of the hydrogen atom from the classical physics we have covered in the text. These last two equations can be used to calculate the radii of the allowed (quantized) electron orbits in any hydrogen-like atom. Electron total energies are negative, since the electron is bound to the nucleus, analogous to being in a hole without enough kinetic energy to escape. We see that Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom answers the question as to why this previously known formula describes the hydrogen spectrum. The planetary model of the atom pictures electrons orbiting the nucleus in the way that planets orbit the sun.
The Bohr Theory gives accurate values for the energy levels in hydrogen-like atoms, but it has been improved upon in several respects. How do the allowed orbits for electrons in atoms differ from the allowed orbits for planets around the sun? Explain how Bohr’s rule for the quantization of electron orbital angular momentum differs from the actual rule. What is a hydrogen-like atom, and how are the energies and radii of its electron orbits related to those in hydrogen? By calculating its wavelength, show that the first line in the Lyman series is UV radiation. Find the wavelength of the third line in the Lyman series, and identify the type of EM radiation.
A hydrogen atom in an excited state can be ionized with less energy than when it is in its ground state.
Atoms can be ionized by thermal collisions, such as at the high temperatures found in the solar corona. LE-JIT KDKA PITTBIRD LE JIT LA GIT LA-GIT LE-GIT LA-JIT 412-313-3080 PIRATES STEELERS PENGUINS BIRDKITE BIRD-KITE BIRD KITE Katherine B. On behalf of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, I welcome you to the Washington County Court of Common Pleas website.
Our biggest design enhancement is the addition of four (4) web portal pages which are geared towards the concentration of content related to our most prolific user populations of the Courts.
The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions.
This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee.
The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history.
In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary.
The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings.
The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation. The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v.
Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v.
The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism.
The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish.
Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States.
When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized.
21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J.


In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. 3.1 Students learn to explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function. It follows that a fixed concentration of substrate and enzymes is necessary for reactions to proceed at an ideal rate.
3.2 Students learn to explain why the removal of wastes is essential for continued metabolic activity.
3.3 Students learn to identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals. 3.4 Students perform a first-hand investigation of the structure of a mammalian kidney by dissection, use of a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products.
Renal dialysis is similar to kidney function except that essential substances passively filtered from the blood are replaced by adding them to the blood. Active animals produce considerable quantities of nitrogenous wastes that must be removed quickly.
3.7 Students learn to distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these to processes occurring in the mammalian kidney.
In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubule (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule. The way the kidney filters the blood is analogous to a student tidying his desk by throwing everything onto the floor, then replacing only the materials he needs on the desk. 3.8 Students learn to explain how the processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition.
The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.
The filtrate then passes down and up the loop of Henle in the medulla (inner) part of the kidney. The distal (distant from the glomerulus) convoluted tubule is mainly responsible for the regulation of potassium, pH (acidity) and calcium concentration in the body. From the distal tubule, the filtrate passes to the collecting tubule which joins other tubules, connects to the ureter and transports the urine to the bladder.
3.9 Students learn to outline the role of the hormones, aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) in the regulation of water and salt levels in blood. You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics. Sense organs in the pituitary gland detect falls in osmotic pressure caused by a reduction of blood volume. A range of other sensors (including stretch receptors in the atria of the heart) detect falls in blood pressure due to dehydration and loss of salts from the blood. Aldosterone and ADH are both hormones that increase the reabsorption of water and sodium ions from the filtrate in the tubules of the nephron.
3.11 Students learn to define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations. Work extra hard and reduce your social activities so that you can maintain your standard and avoid getting into trouble with parents or teachers? Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get? Estuaries are places where the salinity of water changes during the day as the tides move in or out. If you can handle these concepts, it would be in your interest to find out the meaning of the words a€?osmoregulatorsa€? and a€?osmoconformersa€? so that you can improve the quality of your answers to questions on this dot point. 3.12 Students analyse information from secondary sources to compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals, marine fish and freshwater fish. Marine fish have no trouble getting enough minerals - the oceana€™s water is full of minerals. Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out.
3.14 Students process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments.
3.15 Students perform a first-hand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water. 3.16 Students learn to describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss.
In the photograph of an Acacia sp seedling below, you can see that the first leaf to form was a bipinnate (compound) leaf. In the next photograph, the leaves of a Casuarina sp (She-Oak) are shown to be reduced to tiny brown scales - the stems are acting as leaves. The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs. 3.A A  Plants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, water and waste products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid.
Osmosis and diffusion are passive - no energy is required from the organism.A  Active transport requires the expenditure of energy.
In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubuleA  (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule.A  This process requires energy because the materials must pass against a diffusion gradient.
The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.A A  Most of the mineral ions and water are also reabsorbed here. It is important to keep the volume and salt concentration of blood at a constant level.A  The hormones aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) control blood volume and salt concentration. You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics.A  ADH and aldosterone do the opposite - they reduce the volume of urine produced by the kidney. 2.Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get?
Organisms that live in aquatic environments have the same a€?choicea€?.A A  If the water becomes more or less salty than usual, they can either work hard to maintain homeostasis or they can tolerate the change (and compensate in some way - just like you might keep a low profile). Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out.A  As a result, to help overcome these problems, freshwater fish produce large volumes of very dilute urine. This dot point will be (has been) covered in practical lessons.A A  Refer to your Practical Record Book.
The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.A A  The hairs slow the movement of air and hence reduce the rate of water loss from the pits and hence from the stomates. The infra-red spectrum is containing a large number of absorption bands which provides much information about the molecule's structure.
Hence molecules in the ground state of vibration absorb this radiation and transit to the first excitation state of vibration. The most common source of IR spectrometer is Nernst glower which consists of a rod of a sintered mixture of the oxides of Zirconium, Ytterbium and Erbium.
Instead of thermopile detector, other detectors are also available, like Pyroelectric detectors which are made from a single crystalline wafer of a pyroelectric material like triglycerine sulphate. The region from 1450 to 600 cm-1 is called as fingerprint region and the absorption bands in the 4000 to 1450 cm-1 region are usually because of stretching vibrations of diatomic units, and known as the group frequency region. This technique is quite useful to predict the presence of certain functional groups which absorb at definite frequencies. Hence the position of peak gives the information regarding the presence of certain functional group. Ur technique plays an important role in crime investigation by locating the criminal offenders.
Like both conformations of 1, 2-Dichloroethane show two bands at 1235 cm-1 and 1291 cm-1 in IR spectrum.
Since there is a change in dipole moment in case of cis-isomer whereas trans-isomers are non-polar in nature, therefore both geometrical isomers show different bands in IR spectrum.
Atomic and molecular emission and absorption spectra have been known for over a century to be discrete (or quantized). As you might expect, the simplest atom—hydrogen, with its single electron—has a relatively simple spectrum. In this example, we need to know (a) the wavelength of light as well as (b) conditions for an interference maximum for the pattern from a double slit.
More impressive is the fact that the same simple recipe predicts all of the hydrogen spectrum lines, including new ones observed in subsequent experiments.
To obtain constructive interference for a double slit, the path length difference from two slits must be an integral multiple of the wavelength. His first proposal is that only certain orbits are allowed: we say that the orbits of electrons in atoms are quantized.
This was an important first step that has been improved upon, but it is well worth repeating here, because it does correctly describe many characteristics of hydrogen.
At the time, Bohr himself did not know why angular momentum should be quantized, but using this assumption he was able to calculate the energies in the hydrogen spectrum, something no one else had done at the time. We start by noting the centripetal force causing the electron to follow a circular path is supplied by the Coulomb force. It is impressive that the formula gives the correct size of hydrogen, which is measured experimentally to be very close to the Bohr radius. Thus, we have used Bohr’s assumptions to derive the formula first proposed by Balmer years earlier as a recipe to fit experimental data. What was once a recipe is now based in physics, and something new is emerging—angular momentum is quantized. Not only did he explain the spectrum of hydrogen, he correctly calculated the size of the atom from basic physics. It cannot be applied to multielectron atoms, even one as simple as a two-electron helium atom.
Bohr used the planetary model to develop the first reasonable theory of hydrogen, the simplest atom.
To answer this, calculate the shortest-wavelength Balmer line and the longest-wavelength Lyman line. That is, equate the Coulomb and centripetal forces and then insert an expression for velocity from the condition for angular momentum quantization.
As President Judge, I have long held a belief in the value of technology to not only increase the efficiency of the Court but also realize its ability to make the Court system more accessible to the citizens of the Twenty-Seventh Judicial District. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms".
Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism.
In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional.
These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know?
Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage.
Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012.
The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts.


Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220.
Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. These are radiations produced by the oscillation of electric charge and magnetic field residing on the atom. Hence the absorption of infra-red caused to effect vibrational as well as rotational level and also called as vibrational- rotational spectra. However, it is not necessary that absorption takes place with the given energy of mid-infra red region. When an electric field is applied across detector, electric polarization occurs which persist after removing the field also.
There are 18 infra-red active C-C and CH2 rocking and twisting vibrations for boat conformation while chair conformation show only 5 absorption bands in the region of 1350-700 cm-1.
Due to more stability, the staggered form predominant at lower temperature whereas gauche form dominates at high temperature.
The hydrogen spectrum had been observed in the infrared (IR), visible, and ultraviolet (UV), and several series of spectral lines had been observed. Part (a) deals with a topic of the present chapter, while part (b) considers the wave interference material of Wave Optics. Each orbit has a different energy, and electrons can move to a higher orbit by absorbing energy and drop to a lower orbit by emitting energy. Energy is plotted vertically with the lowest or ground state at the bottom and with excited states above. Washington County Courthouse 1 South Main Street Suite 2002 Washington, PA 15301 Primary Phone: 724-228-6823 Judge Katherine B. We have redesigned the website to include more content as well as enhancing its design and organization to make it more user friendly. The Juror Portal is dedicated to assisting individuals who are serving the Court of Common Pleas of Washington County as a Juror. I thank you for your interest in the Court of Common Pleas of Washington County, Pennsylvania. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education.
Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules.
Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American.
Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft.
United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching.
The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case.
Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought.
Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent.
Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch.
The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh.
In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
The absorption of infrared radiations is possible by only those bonds of molecule which can show a change in dipole moment by the absorption of radiations. For example, when hydroxy groups get associate like in solid or liquid state, the absorption band shifted towards lower frequency. In 1913, after returning to Copenhagen, he began publishing his theory of the simplest atom, hydrogen, based on the planetary model of the atom. Experimentally, the spectra were well established, an equation was found to fit the experimental data, but the theoretical foundation was missing. If the orbits are quantized, the amount of energy absorbed or emitted is also quantized, producing discrete spectra. Given the energies of the lines in an atomic spectrum, it is possible (although sometimes very difficult) to determine the energy levels of an atom. The orbits are quantized (nonclassical) but are assumed to be simple circular paths (classical). The Law Enforcement Portal contains content to aid our law enforcement community in the commission of their duties of protecting the public.
This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead.
Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975.
He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. Such types of vibrational transitions which involve the change in dipole moment are known as infra-red transitions.However those vibrational transitions which are not accompanied by the change in dipole moment are not directly observed and called as infra-red inactive transition.
Another type of detectors is Photoelectric detectors like mercury cadmium telluride detector which consist a film of semiconducting material deposited on a glass surface, sealed in an evacuated envelope.
Photon absorption and emission are among the primary methods of transferring energy into and out of atoms. As quantum mechanics was developed, it became clear that there are no well-defined orbits; rather, there are clouds of probability. Lastly, the Research Portal contains content related to those individuals researching Court related Recording office records which date back to the 1700’s.
Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture.
While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization.
Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G.
Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts.
White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks.
This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. 449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships.
At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982. The sequence of all types of electromagnetic radiations in order of their increasing wavelength or decreasing frequencies is known as complete electromagnetic spectrum.The interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation is defined as spectroscopy. The lowering in the absorption band of >C=O (straching) in the enolic form is because of intra-molecular hydrogen bonding which established by resonance. From their sizes to their spectra, much was known about atoms, but little had been explained in terms of the laws of physics. The energies of the photons are quantized, and their energy is explained as being equal to the change in energy of the electron when it moves from one orbit to another. A theory of the atom or any other system must predict its energies based on the physics of the system.
The electrons do not spiral into the nucleus, as expected classically (accelerated charges radiate, so that the electron orbits classically would decay quickly, and the electrons would sit on the nucleus—matter would collapse).
Bohr’s theory also did not explain that some spectral lines are doublets (split into two) when examined closely.
The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. When a light radiation passed through a sample of organic compound, some of the wavelengths are absorbed. Bohr’s theory explained the atomic spectrum of hydrogen and established new and broadly applicable principles in quantum mechanics. We shall examine many of these aspects of quantum mechanics in more detail, but it should be kept in mind that Bohr did not fail.
Rather, he made very important steps along the path to greater knowledge and laid the foundation for all of atomic physics that has since evolved. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. The absorption of energy changes the vibration, rotational and electronic levels of molecule.



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