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Electromagnetic radiation is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields emitted by vibrating charged particles. Define Electromagnetic Radiation"It is the movement of the energy through space as a combination of electric and magnetic field. Electromagnetic radiation consists of electric and magnetic field that oscillates in the direction perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction in which the wave is traveling.
The electromagnetic radiation spectrum describes all the various forms of radiation virtually all of them emitted by the sum that exist. The electromagnetic radiation spectrum is a continuum and the energy emitted by the radiation gradually diminishes from gamma rays to radio waves. The electromagnetic spectrum is usually represented as a list or diagram showing the types of waves and their frequency. The types s waves in the electromagnetic spectrum currently used for communication systems are visible light, infra-red, microwaves and radio waves which include: TV, FM radio and AM radio. The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation ranges continuously from low energy radio waves to very high energy gamma rays. The types of electromagnetic radiation and the effects of electromagnetic radiation and electromagnetic radiation protection are listed below in the table. 5 Gamma rays Mostly go straight through the skin and soft tissues, but some absorbed by cells. In addition to having wave properties electromagnetic radiation also behaves like discrete packets of energy called photons. The speed of visible light is depicted below in terms of wavelength and corresponding frequency. The general properties of electromagnetic radiation are listed below.They have no mass or weight. In a sample of molecules, the total energy possessed by a single molecule is distributed amongst a number of different types.
TranslationMovement of the molecule as a whole.Translational energy levels are so close together that they appear to be continuous and can be treated as such. The diagram below represents quite simply the quantised energy levels, whether they are translation, rotational, vibrational or electronic. However, different amounts of energy are associated with the energetic behaviours of molecules, so the gaps between the horizontal lines will be different in order to reflect this.


In the hydrogen chloride molecule, the gaps between successive vibrational energy states correspond to the energy contained by a photon of infrared radiation, or to infrared radiation of a particular frequency or wavelength. What is the wavelength, in metres, of the radiation needed to bring about this energy change? All the electrons in a molecule such as Cl2 occupy energy levels; this includes the bonding electrons as well as non-bonding electrons. IonisationThe absorption of a very high energy photon may cause the molecule to gain so much energy that it loses an electron to become ionised.
PhotodissociationSo much energy is absorbed that the bonding electrons can no longer hold the atoms and the bond breaks. ExcitationElectrons are promoted to higher energy levels but fall back to lower energy levels.
The absorption of a photon of visible or ultraviolet light may do more than raise the electronic energy of the molecule. It transport energy and travels through empty space with a constant velocity c, where c equals the product of wavelength and frequency. This phenomenon is called electromagnetic radiation because a charged particle has an electric field associated with it."Light is a result of an accelerating charged particle and because accelerating charged particles have both electric and magnetic fields associated with them, light is called electromagnetic radiation. The Electromagnetic Radiation Formula is expressed by the equation.$M_{\lambda} = \frac{2\pi hc^{2}h\lambda^{-5}}{e^{\frac{ch}{\lambda k t}}-1}$Where $\lambda$ is the radiation wavelength.
Visible light is just a small portion of the spectrum and the only thing unique to this portion is our ability to directly sense these wavelengths.
Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light and each type has its own unique frequency and wavelength.
For example, the highest energy microwave photons merge into the lowest energy infrared photons. The similarity of these radiations lies in the fact that all transport energy and travel with the same speed. Since they all move at the same speed the frequency of oscillation is related to the wavelength is vice versa. Numerous instrumental techniques used in chemical analysis take advantage of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
The energy types are associated with several different aspects of the behaviour of molecules.


For example, to raise the vibrational energy state of a molecule generally requires the absorption of a more energetic photon (higher frequency electromagnetic radiation) than to raise its rotational energy.
When the molecule absorbs a photon of ultraviolet radiation, for example, both the electronic energy state and the vibrational energy state of the molecule may be raised. The electromagnetic spectrum comprises cosmic rays to long wavelength electrical oscillations.With the exception of objects at absolute zero all objects emit electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation may appear in the form of visible light, x-rays, infrared or radio waves depending on its energy. All electromagnetic radiations pass through space at the speed of light (300 million meters per second) in the form of sinusoidal waves. For example, infrared spectroscopy gives information about the kinds of chemical bonds in molecules. The energy gaps between electronic energy levels are about 100 times bigger than those between vibrational energy levels.
The molecule remains in an excited state only for a short time and re-emits the energy it has absorbed.
The light we see with our eyes is only a small fraction of what electromagnetic radiation actually is. Frequency is used to describe the part of the electromagnetic spectrum including radio frequency, microwaves and extremely low frequency. The most familiar form of electromagnetic radiation is visible light, which forms only a small portion of the full electromagnetic spectrum.Electromagnetic energy is generated by several mechanisms, including changes in the energy levels of electrons, acceleration of electrical charges, decay of radioactive substances and the thermal motion of atoms and molecules.
During collisions relatively smaller quanta of energy are emitted and the molecule enters into a lower vibrational energy level but within the same electronic energy state. The energy is converted into kinetic energy and the molecules move around more vigorously, evident by a rise in temperature.
The promoted electron may then 'drop' from the higher to the lower electronic energy level and the molecule emits a photon in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum.



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