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Therefore, the observed effects of temperature upon reaction rates must be due to changes in the value of the rate constant k.
Molecules of A will have to acquire enough energy to overcome Ea in order for the reaction to proceed. Acetonitrile is a lower energy structure than methyl isonitrile (the C-C bond is a lower energy bond than C-N).
What are the key properties of the above energy landscape for the conversion of methyl isonitrile to acetonitrile that determines the rate of the reaction? What fraction of molecules has enough kinetic energy to overcome the activation energy barrier, and how does temperature affect this? The reaction rate will be proportional to the number of molecules that have the minimum required activation energy (i.e. Although collisions with enough energy occur, why do only a small fraction of collisions result in a productive reaction? For example in the reaction Cl + NOCl -> NO + Cl2 the O-Cl bond is broken and a Cl-Cl bond is formed.


It is related to the frequency of collisions and the probability that the collisions are productive (i.e.
In chapter 2 we saw that if we had ?rA as a function of X, [?rA= f(X)] we could size many reactors and reactor sequences and systems. The larger the activation energy, the more temperature sensitive k and thus the reaction rate. In our development of collision theory we assumed all molecules had the same average energy.
By increasing the temperature we increase the kinetic energy of the reactant molecules which can in turn be transferred to internal energy to increase the stretching and bending of the bonds causing them to be in an activated state, vulnerable to bond breaking and reaction.
We see that as the temperature is increased we have greater number of molecules have energies E A or greater and hence the reaction rate will be greater.
The activation energy is a measure of the minimum energy a that the reacting molecules must have in order for the reaction to occur. However, all the molecules don?t have the same energy, rather there is distribution of energies where some molecules have more energy than others.


The formation of the C-C bond leading to the acetonitrile structure releases energy and thus the energy diagram decreases after the activation energy.
However, we have seen that entropic contributions can drive endothermic reactions in some cases. Thus, not only is the reverse reaction energetically unfavored, the rate of the reverse reaction is much slower due to the larger activation energy "barrier".
The distraction function f(E,T) describes this distribution of the energies of the molecules.




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