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Pseudoscience: means to search for knowledge which on the surface appears to be scientific, but in reality breaks some of the most fundamental concepts of the scientific method. Astrologers use a chart called a horoscope and claim to be able to predict and explain the course of life and to help people, companies, and governments with decisions of great importance. If the mother's womb can keep out astrological influences until birth, can we do the same with a cubicle of steak? If astrological influence is carried by an unknown force, why is it independent of distance? If astrological influences don't depend on distance, why is there no astrology of stars, galaxies, quasars, etc.?
Scientific investigations of horoscope predictions find them to be no better than random guessing.
Sun sign descriptions of personality are so general that any person can identify some of themselves in the description. Energy is defined as a quantity that measures the ability of a system to do work or cause motion.
E is a constant and so KE and PE can only change in such a way that as one becomes smaller the other becomes larger by the same amount. When you throw a ball up into the air, it initially has no Potential Energy, but has all Kinetic Energy. Imagine dividing up a substance until you reach the level beyond which if you divided it further it would cease to be that substance.
While atoms are the fundamental units of the chemical elements (and molecules-- combinations of atoms -- are the fundamental units of other chemical substances), they are not actually fundamental.
Atoms are made of Electrons (which buzz about in a cloud), Protons and Neutrons (huddled together in a nucleus).
The elementary particles are characterized by three basic properties: Mass, Charge, and Spin. Losing or gaining electrons gives a net electrical charge and becomes known as an Ion, which will have different chemical properties than the atom.
Atoms with the same number of protons in the nucleus but different numbers of neutrons are called Isotopes. Energy is transferred in many ways: heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound, and nuclear and chemical transformations. In physical changes, as well as chemical and nuclear reactions, energy is transferred into or out of a system. In a chemical change, a substance undergoes a reaction in which the new substance (product) has different properties than the original substance (reactant(s)). Good examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions can be seen in commercial instant hot and cold packs. In nuclear fission reactions, an atom's nucleus splits into smaller parts, releasing a large amount of energy in the process. During the fission of U-235, three neutrons are released in addition to the two progeny atoms. The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Students view energy as a fuel or something that is stored, ready to use, and gets used up.
This following article offers a good insight into the student misconception that energy is a thing. A study was conducted at Kansas State University to find out what students’ misconceptions are about the atom.
1st Item Specification: Recognize that in physical, chemical, and nuclear changes energy is transformed. This graph below shows the changes of state that occur as thermal energy is added to water. A basketball player activates a heat pack by punching it to break the plastic barrier that separates two chemicals.
Will all of the energy from the power plant reach the end users?  Justify why or why not.
Chemical energy from the coal, oil, or natural gas or nuclear energy from the uranium is transformed to heat energy.
The following is a list of intervention strategies and resources that will facilitate student understanding of this benchmark. Developed by the New York State Energy Research and Development authority, this website offers a variety of energy lesson plans. Developed by the University of Virginia Physics Department, this lab is an interesting way for students to look at energy transfers and its effect on matter.
Developed by the NEED Project, this is an excellent design for an inexpensive solar oven that can be used to teach students about solar energy transfer from the sun to the food. Developed by the California Energy Commission, this website includes projects, experiments, and descriptions of many types of energy. The definition of solubility is the maximum quantity of solute that can dissolve in a certain quantity of solvent or quantity of solution at a specified temperature or pressure (in the case of gaseous solutes).


As stated in the definition, temperature and pressure play an important role in determining the degree to which a solute is soluble. As the temperature increases, the solubility of a gas decreases as shown by the downward trend in the graph. If the heat given off in the dissolving process is greater than the heat required to break apart the solid, the net dissolving reaction is exothermic (See the solution process).
If the heat given off in the dissolving reaction is less than the heat required to break apart the solid, the net dissolving reaction is endothermic. The effect of temperature on solubility can be explained on the basis of Le Chatelier's Principle.
Sg stands for the gas solubility, kH is the Henry's Law constant and Pg is the partial pressure of the gaseous solute. The inverse of the Henry's law constant, multiplied by the partial pressure of the gas above the solution, is the molar solubility of the gas.
Another property of gaseous solutes in summarized by Henry's law which predicts that gasses become more soluble when their pressures above a liquid solution are increased. But if in the future new information comes to light that is inconsistent, then the Theory must be modified or rejected. Examples: Astrology, UFO-ology, Paranormal Studies, Many 'New Age' philosophies and medical practices.
As the ball ascends it slows down, losing Kinetic Energy but gaining Potential Energy (the distance between the ball and Earth is increasing). Heat, light, mechanical motion, electricity or other energy transfer mechanism might all be involved in such transfers.
An example of a heating curve showing the change in temperature over a period of time as energy is continuously added. When these plateaus occur, the added energy does not contribute to a change in temperature. Commercial packs usually consist of two compounds that when combined will release energy to its surroundings or absorb energy from its surroundings. The positively charged nuclei repel each other, and therefore, the nuclei strongly resist being forced together.
In addition to explanations and mathematical formulas, it has simulations that demonstrate what happens to the energy as it is transformed.
Students are confused about the difference between conservation of energy and energy conservation.
Students also have difficulty with the concept that even though energy is conserved, it is no longer in a useful form. Students often think that nuclear reactions are the only way to get energy from particles.
It is a lesson plan that asks the student to describe their ideas about nuclear energy, gives the teacher internet resources for addressing those concepts, and offers a test for pre and post content ideas.
The milk and sugar mixture that will become the ice cream is located in a bag that is within another bag of ice and salt. As the energy travels to the next location in the picture, explain how the energy is transformed. The website gives you a list of ingredients and procedures, typical questions relative to energy transfer, suggestions for inclusion, and an assessment. The addition of more heat (increases temperature) inhibits the dissolving reaction since excess heat is already being produced by the reaction.
The addition of more heat facilitates the dissolving reaction by providing energy to break bonds in the solid.
A salt such as ammonium nitrate is dissolved in water after a sharp blow breaks the containers for each.
Le Chatelier's Principle states that if a stress (for example, heat, pressure, concentration of one reactant) is applied to an equilibrium, the system will adjust, if possible, to minimize the effect of the stress. Quite often what marks a pseudoscience is the blantant ignoring of evidence that does not support the basic hypothesis.
The advice is clothed in such vague language as to make an interpretation in hindsight seem as if the horoscope had actually predicted something. When it reaches the top of its trajectory it has no velocity and therefore no Kinetic Energy, therefore it now has only Potential Energy. People have learned how to change energy from one form to another so that we can do work more easily and live more comfortably. Some reactions release energy to their surroundings, usually in the form of heat transfer, and are called exothermic. This results in the formation of two or more new atoms that are smaller than the original atom.
When the interior of the star achieves tremendous temperatures (greater than 1 million Kelvin), they hydrogen nuclei can overcome this repulsion and get close enough for the attractive nuclear force to take over. In such experiences, students may begin to understand that energy is not a substance to be used up. Increasingly, as we transform the energy from one type to another it becomes less and less useful.


The students shake the bag containing the ice and salt and the milk and sugar mixture within. But the reality is that almost every solute is somewhat soluble in every solvent to some measurable degree. This situation is not very common where an increase in temperature produces a decrease in solubility.
This is the most common situation where an increase in temperature produces an increase in solubility for solids. Because DHsoln is positive for most solutions, the solution formation reaction is usually endothermic.
Imagine that you have a glass of water inside of a sealed container filler with nitrogen gas. As the ball falls back to Earth, the situation reverses; Potential Energy converting to Kinetic Energy.
Kinetic energy of the particles within an object (sometimes called thermal energy) is either added or taken out of the water to cause it to change phase. When the sodium acetate is allowed to mix with the air, crystallization occurs and thermal energy within the pack increases, resulting in an increased temperature and the pack getting hotter. Fuel (such as oil or food) is a resouce that allows energy to be transformed when its chemical make up is changed.
Which answer BEST describes what is happening to energy in this process as the milk and sugar mixture begins to solidify? This dissolution is an equilibrium process for which an equilibrium constant can be written. If the size of that container were suddenly halved, the pressure of nitrogen would suddenly double.
As thermal energy is continuously added to the water, kinetic energy of the water molecules increases. In a commercial instant cold pack, urea and ammonium chloride are held in separate containers within a plastic bag.
Students cannot see the energy; therefore, they cannot see where it is being transferred to or how it is being transformed. The chemical bonds contain potential energy that may be transferred to kinetic energy during combustion, which in turn, can be transferred (via work) to kinetic energy that allows pistons to move in an engine.
The website encourages conservation and gives students information on energy conservation in their home and community.
The higher kinetic energy causes more motion in the gas molecules which break intermolecular bonds and escape from solution.
An increase in temperature puts a stress on the equilibrium condition and causes it to shift to the right. To decrease the pressure of nitrogen above the solution (as is required by Le Chatelier's principle), more nitrogen gas becomes dissolved in the glass of water. Because temperature is the measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules, the temperature of the water also increases, as show in Figure 1. When the bag is bent and the inside containers are broken, the two compounds mix together and begin to react. The battery’s energy is transformed into other forms such as sound, heat and light, which do not disappear, but may not be noticeable to the student, especially if the battery is disconnected from a circuit.
However, there are solutes that do not follow the normal trend of increasing solubility with increasing temperature.
A BTU (British Thermal Unit) is the amount of heat necessary to raise one pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit (F). Because the reaction is endothermic, heat is transferred from the surrounding environment and the bag gets cold. Students must walk through the process of transformation to understand that the resource is not energy. The form of the equilibrium constant shows that the concentration of a solute gas in a solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the solution.
One class of solutes that becomes less soluble with increasing temperature is the gasses.
Also, having a diagram of energy flow might be useful in identifying student misconceptions. A temperature rise will decrease the solubility by shifting the equilibrium to the left. Henry as an empirical law well before the development of our modern ideas of chemical equilibrium.



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