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Markets & FinanceFinancial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies. InternationalInternational energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. As a result of last year's drought, stretches of the Upper Mississippi River have approached record lows. Large stretches of the Upper Mississippi have seen low water levels, although for the most part the Lower Mississippi River Basin (after the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, near the Missouri, Illinois, and Kentucky borders) has remained at normal water levels. Waterborne movements in the opposite direction, from the Gulf Coast to the Midwest, consist mostly of petroleum products.
Barge traffic is highly ranked (behind rail) as the most frequent transport mode for coal headed to electric power plants in the United States.
As with flooding in the spring of 2011, the disruptions in barge traffic have not had a material effect on coal supplies at electric power plants yet. These are just a few of the signs that your low energy levels may be deeper than simply eating a proper diet and getting more exercise. Menopause – Low energy levels are one of the main complaints of menopausal women and can cause all kinds of problems in their daily lives. Low Thyroid – A thyroid gland that isn’t producing enough of the hormone, thyroxine, can’t produce the energy the body must have to function.
Anemia or Low Iron – If you’re experiencing low energy levels, you may have low iron level issues that you need to deal with.
Insomnia – When you suffer from insomnia, or lack of sleep, it can affect your entire life. Depending on the cause of your low energy feelings, you can go about combating the condition in several different ways. ABOUT THE AUTHORAnn Louise BarronAnn Louise is a naturopathic doctor and an American College of Nutrition-certified nutrition specialist. Fatigue is the sophisticated term used by medical professionals to mean a state of lack of energy and a sense of tiredness. If you don’t have enough nutrients and calories in your diet, you can experience low energy levels because your body doesn’t have the tools to keep functioning optimally. You meet an old classmate of yours (who is now a doctor) at your high school reunion after several (depends on how old you are) years. Low energy levels could be the result of something wrong with your waterworks or kidneys, the organs which produce your pee. This condition happens when your butterfly-shaped organ (thyroid gland) doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormones.
This list isn’t by any means a complete list, we have just highlighted some of the common causes of low energy levels. We are a team of people - passionate about health & researching the latest information for you!
With that in mind, I figured I’d share some information about Ferritin levels and recommend that we all get our blood tested and checked at least once a year (especially if you are feeling tired and run-down)! Outside of training deficiencies, low iron levels in runners is one of the most common reasons for poor results during workouts and races. Recent research indicates that almost 56% percent of joggers and competitive runners suffer from an iron deficiency that severely hampers performance. If you are worried that you might be iron deficient, you should schedule an appointment with your physician for a blood test.
The major results of interest to runners are: hemoglobin (Hg), hematocrit (Hct), iron (Fe), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and ferritin. Red blood cells, which contain hemoglobin (an iron-containing protein), transport oxygen to your working muscles when you run. Through your feet – First, a process called foot strike hemolysis occurs in runners, especially those who run high mileage. Through the intestines – Loss of iron through the GI tract (primarily the stomach or large intestine) is a problem for some athletes. Female runners – Finally, female runners have an especially difficult time maintaining proper iron levels since they also lose iron during menstruation. As you can see, the cards are stacked against you as a runner when it comes to maintaining your iron levels. Good food sources of iron include: lean meat, oysters, egg yolk, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, dried fruit, and whole grain or enriched cereals and bread.
I suggest most runners be on an iron supplement unless their iron levels have tested high in the past.
If you’re just looking to maintain your iron levels, supplement with 30mg of elemental iron. By paying attention to your iron levels, getting tested if you think you may be low, and increasing your iron intake through diet or supplements, you can avoid lulls in your training and boost performance. During the cross-country season, there were 71 injuries severe enough to cause lost training time.
The researchers concluded that low ferritin is related to an increased risk of injury in female cross-country runners. Experimental results are shown for three energies in a coplanar symmetric geometry, and for three energies in an asymmetric geometry.
Ionization of atomic and molecular targets is one of the most complex and fundamental collision processes that can be studied in detail. To fully characterize these interactions, it is necessary to perform sophisticated measurements where an incident electron of well controlled momentum scatters and ionizes the target.
In these (e,2e) experiments, information about the collision is obtained by measuring the outgoing momenta of the collision products. For molecular targets, it is difficult to know the orientation and alignment of the molecule prior to the interaction occurring, unless this can be defined prior to the collision or can be measured following the collision.
The interaction of low to intermediate energy electrons with molecular targets has been much less studied compared with high energy electron collisions. Experiments on molecular targets often employ effusive beams produced at room temperature, and so the targets may have internal rotational and vibrational energy.
Results are presented here for an H2O target at significantly lower energies than has been studied before.
Figure 1.1 Representation of the 1b1 state of H2O, showing an incident electron ionizing the molecule. The experiments described here were carried out in the fully computer controlled and computer optimized (e,2e) spectrometer that operates in Manchester. For the coplanar symmetric experiments described here, the electron detectors were moved so that their angles with respect to the incident beam direction were equal to each other throughout measurement (see figure 1.2). For coplanar asymmetric experiments, analyzer 1 was fixed at a scattering angle thetaa = 22A°, while analyzer 2 was swept around the scattering plane. The fixed scattering angle thetaa = 22A° was chosen as this was the smallest angle that could be used without the incident electron beam from the gun striking the side of the analyzer (and so producing unacceptable levels of noise on the coincidence signal). The energy resolution of the spectrometer is set by the resolution of the electron gun and the pass energy of the analyzers. Production of a high quality molecular beam of H2O required careful monitoring of the experiment as it progressed. The de-gassed water was then transferred to a 150mm long tubular stainless steel flask which was connected to the main vacuum system using a swagelok fitting. An AD590 sensor was secured to the aluminium block surrounding the flask, so that the temperature of the insulated assembly could be monitored and controlled. To monitor the molecular beam inside the vacuum chamber produced from the water, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was installed onto the spectrometer. Figure 1.3 shows a typical coincidence energy spectrum obtained from the experiment during operation. The experiments were carried out over a period of several months, using electron beam currents ~200nA for all data runs.
As the incident energy increases, the ratio of forward to backward scattering cross section increases, as has been seen for most atomic targets in this geometry. The measured coplanar asymmetric data is shown in figure 4, again normalized to unity at thetab = 45A°. As the incident energy is increased to 55eV above threshold, the forward lobe splits into two clear peaks of approximately equal magnitude, as seen in figure 1.5(b). Results from the 1b1 state of water have been presented for coplanar symmetric and asymmetric energies.
These results have been compared to a DWBA theory in the paper J Phys B, however the averaging used in this theory was not a good approximation, and so is not expected to yield accurate results for this state. Experimental results are presented for electron impact ionization of water in the energy regime from near threshold to intermediate energies.
Results of a sophisticated model which approximates the random orientation of the target using a spherical averaging of the wave-function prior to the collision, using sophisticated distorted wave Born calculations that include post-collisional interactions in first order and to all orders of perturbation theory are also shown for comparison (see J.
The calculations predict the data most accurately at the lowest energy studied (4eV above threshold) in a coplanar symmetric geometry, whereas the comparison between theory and experiment is generally poor for higher energies and for non-coplanar geometries. Energy deposition and angular distributions resulting from electron collisions with water are used in charged particle track structure analyses to model radiation damage in biological samples. These low energy electrons have an effect over a much wider volume than the targeted cancer site. At incident energies less than ~200eV, the collision dynamics are strongly influenced by effects including post-collision interactions, target polarization, distortions in the wave-functions for the participating electrons and multiple collisions.
Current models now yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for a range of atoms, implying a good understanding of the collision dynamics under the conditions used in the experiments, and these models are now being extended to low energy (e,2e) collisions from molecules.
Recent experiments studying simple diatomic targets including H2 and N2 have provided benchmark data. The apparatus at Manchester can also access non-coplanar geometries, and so has provided additional data to further test these models. In a previous study the groups at Manchester and Missouri investigated the 1b1 (HOMO) state of H2O in coplanar kinematics. By contrast, the 3a1 orbital of interest here is involved in the O-H bonding and has a charge density distribution distorted from that of a symmetric atomic like orbital. The experimental triple differential cross sections (TDCS) presented here were measured in the (e,2e) apparatus at the University of Manchester. The spectrometer can be operated in a standard coplanar geometry where the momenta of all three electrons (the incident and two outgoing electrons) are within the same detection plane (psi = 0A°, figure 2.1). The power supplies for the electrostatic lenses in the electron gun and the electron analyzers are fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing for automated tuning at regular intervals, with the analyzers being re-optimized each time they move to a new angle. The energy of the spectrometer was re-calibrated at the start of each new kinematic arrangement, by measuring the coincidence binding energy spectrum. Over the course of this study the binding energy spectra were recorded for various energies and geometries, and it is estimated that contamination from neighbouring orbitals was always less than 10%, and is more typically in the range of 0.5%. The distilled water sample used to provide the molecular target beam was contained within a 50mm diameter 100mm long stainless steel vessel sealed by a CF-70 flange to a 6.35mm swagelok fitting. The sample vessel and gas handling line were held at a constant temperature of 50A?C throughout data collection, so as to create sufficient driving pressure for the target beam. The purity of the target beam was verified with a Spectra VacScan mass spectrometer fitted to the scattering chamber. The background pressure within the scattering chamber was set to 1.1 x 10-5 torr during operation, and was found to remain constant throughout all data runs. During these experiments we observed an unusual behaviour of the tungsten hairpin filament used as the incident electron source. To facilitate this, the current measured by the Faraday cup located on the opposite side of the interaction region to the electron gun was monitored by the computer control software, and the current through the filament adjusted to maintain a beam current of 300nA throughout data collection. In the present study we also measured the coincidence energy resolution from ionization of helium, and found this did not change, indicating that the temperature of emission remained approximately constant. The data presented in figures 3-5 were then averaged over these angular sweeps, and the uncertainties in the measurements determined from the complete set of data for each scattering angle. The experimental data are not measured on an absolute scale and so experiment and theory are normalized to a maximum of unity at each energy, as shown in figure 2.2.
As the energy of the outgoing electrons is lowered, it would be expected that the Coulomb repulsion between the outgoing electrons should play an increasingly important role, driving the electrons apart. The best agreement between experimental data and theory is at the lowest energy, where the experimental data and MDW model are in excellent agreement for the binary peak. A key advantage of the spectrometer in Manchester is the ability to measure data for kinematics in non-coplanar geometries. Non-coplanar measurements were hence taken here with both outgoing electrons having an energy of 10eV. As shown in figure 1, the geometry adopted in this spectrometer provides a common normalization point (xi1 = xi2 = 90A°) for all gun angles psi, which allows ALL data at a given energy to be referenced to a common point.
For the current measurements, the coplanar data have been normalized to a maximum of unity, as before. The data in figure 2.3 show a clear trend indicating the binary and recoil peaks diminish in magnitude as the angle of the electron gun angle increases. The data contrasts strongly with the theoretical models for the larger gun angles y, where the theories predict significantly more structure than is seen in the data.
The final kinematic configuration used symmetric geometries and 20eV excess energy as above, however in this case the data are for unequal energy sharing between the outgoing electrons. The data were only taken for coplanar and perpendicular plane geometries, so as to contrast differences in these two extremes. The key differences that can be seen in these data for the coplanar geometry are that the binary peak moves to a smaller angle as the energy asymmetry increases, as might be expected from post collisional interactions. Agreement is mixed, and rather surprisingly gives best results at low energies, where it might be expected that the approximations are least accurate. The experimental results for both equal and non-equal energy sharing in the perpendicular plane show almost no structure, whereas the theoretical calculations predict that three clearly defined lobes should be seen.
This work was supported by the University of Manchester and the US National Science Foundation under Grant. 12.A A  Naja A, Staicu-Casagrande E M, Lahmam-Bennani A, Nekkab M, Mezdari F, Joulakian B, Chuluunbaatar O and Madison D H 2007 J. Employees measure the aging levels of low-energy consumption LED light bulbs at a factory in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, May 18, 2012. A new iteration for improved LCD screens from Wuhan China Star Optoelectronics Technology Co.
The sixth-generation production line will manufacture low-temperature Polysilicon LCD screens using thin film transistors. According to China Daily, the company sees the new line to attain mass production in 2017, with 88 million display panels or modules produced yearly.
The new firm received major fiscal boost from Shenzhen China Star Optoelectronics Technology Co. The chairman of TCL Corp., Li Dongsheng, said during the opening ceremony of the facility that "the completion of the line shows Wuhan China Star Optoelectronics has the ability to produce state-of-the-art high-end display panels.
Government officials from Wuhan pointed out that they are dedicated to attract many corporations involved in the manufacturing process of display screens, from suppliers of raw materials to producers of panels, models, and terminal products, to establish offices and facilities in the region. The officials are confident that the production line will help the local industry catch up with firms in Japan and South Korea that have dominated the LTPS LCD display market in recent years.
Other local producers have invested heavily to establish the sixth-generation LTPS LCD screen production lines. Tags:Low-temperature Polysilicon LCD Wuhan China Star Optoelectronics Technology Co Ltd Shenzhen China Star Optoelectronics Technology Co Ltd TCL Corp.
New LG X series: LG bringing camera, screen choices with its LG X Screen, LG X Cam at MWC 2016?
The Laomiao Library was modified from several abandoned cave dwellings, an ancient way of living in northwest China's Loess Plateau, and has a collection of nearly 10,000 books for the moment. Record-low water levels on Rhine River are disrupting fuel shipments - Today in Energy - U.S. Low water levels on the Rhine River have resulted in transportation disruptions for shipments of petroleum products by barge, which in turn have resulted in record supply disruptions in markets upriver, such as Switzerland and southern Germany, and high stock levels downriver, in the Netherlands and Belgium. The Rhine River, which runs northwest from the Swiss Alps through Switzerland, Germany, France, and the Netherlands, where it flows into the North Sea, is a major petroleum product transportation corridor.
Tanker barges carry petroleum products from the ARA upriver to inland bulk distribution terminals that provide petroleum products to nearby areas.
In recent months, water levels on the Rhine River measured at Kaub, Germany, near the Rhine's midway point, have been at historic lows.
The low water levels have resulted in tight supplies in markets farther upriver, such as Switzerland.
These disruptions come at a time of year when markets upriver of the ARA begin to build stocks of heating oil for the winter. This report focuses on the health effects of low-dose, low-LET (low linear energy transfer) radiation. The central question that must be resolved when considering the physical and biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation is whether the effects of ionizing radiation and the effects of the free radicals and oxidative reaction products generated in normal cellular metabolism are the same or different.
Ionizing radiation, by definition, contains enough energy to displace electrons and break chemical bonds.
Figure 1-1 gives the LET of electrons as a function of their kinetic energy and compares it to the considerably higher LET of protons. Artificially produced X-rays have a wide spectrum of energies resulting from the deceleration of electrons as they traverse high-atomic-number materials. There are three different types of energy-transfer processes whereby photons of sufficient energy eject electrons from an atom, which can then interact with other atoms and molecules to produce a cascade of alterations that ultimately lead to observable biological effects.
FIGURE 1-2 Mean free path of photons and neutrons in water and range of electrons and protons.
Figure 1-3 compares in terms of the distributions of photon energy fluence the γ-rays from the A-bomb explosions with the distributions of photon energy for orthovoltage X-rays and low-energy mammography X-rays.
The passage of fast electrons through tissue creates a track of excited and ionized molecules that are relatively far apart.
FIGURE 1-3 Distributions of photon energy fluence for mammography X-rays, orthovoltage X-rays, and γ-rays from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. While γ-rays and X-rays of various energies are all sparsely ionizing, in the body they generate electrons with somewhat different spectra of LET values (ICRU 1970). Figure 1-4 gives the dose average LET values for the electrons released by monoenergetic photons (solid curves) and compares these values to the averages for 29 kV mammography X-rays and 200 kV X-rays (solid circles and squares, respectively; ICRP 2003). The dose average, LD,Δ, of the restricted LET is a parameter that correlates with the low dose effectiveness of photon or electron radiation. FIGURE 1-4 The dose mean restricted and unrestricted linear energy transfer for electrons liberated by monoenergetic photons of energy Eph. FIGURE 1-5 Measured dose average lineal energy, yD, for monoenergetic photons and for different simulated site diameters, d. The γ-rays from the atomic bomb explosions had average energies between 2 and 5 MeV at the relevant distances (Straume 1996). It has long been recognized in experimental radiobiology that low-LET radiations do not all have the same effectiveness at low doses.
Sasaki and colleagues (1989; Sasaki 1991) have determined the yields of dicentrics in human lymphocytes over a broad range of photon energies. NOTE: The low-dose coefficients represent the linear component of a linear-quadratic fit to the data. The diagram demonstrates that there is a substantial decrease of the yield of dicentrics from conventional X-rays to γ-rays. The data for dicentrics in Figures 1-6 are reasonably consistent with the LET values in Figure 1-4 for a cutoff value in excess of 1 keV.
Apart from these considerations it is uncertain whether the marked dependence of the low-dose RBE on photon energy for chromosome aberrations also is representative for late radiation effects in man.
Numerous epidemiologic studies on medical cohorts have provided risk estimates that exhibit considerable variation.
FIGURE 1-6 Data points are linear coefficients (and standard errors) of the dose dependence for dicentric chromosomes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. FIGURE 1-7 Excess relative risk (and 90% confidence interval) from various epidemiologic studies of breast cancer. The various exposed cohorts also differ considerably in the duration of follow-up and, especially, the age at exposure.
The dominant influence of the various modifying factors makes it impossible on the basis of epidemiologic data to confirm the difference in effectiveness between γ-rays and X-rays or the difference between X-rays of different energies.

The probability that a low-LET primary electron will interact with a DNA molecule along its track is low, but a direct interaction of this sort is possible (Nikjoo and others 2002). FIGURE 1-8 Panel A: Illustration of primary and secondary electron tracks producing clusters of ionization events. This report assesses the biological effects of low-LET radiation, that is, photons and electrons.
Recoil protons with energy of a few hundred kiloelectronvolts appear, in line with the above biophysical considerations, to be the particles that produce maximal cellular damage per unit energy imparted. The linear dose coefficient, an, for neutrons is always substantially larger than the linear dose coefficient, a, for photon radiation. In terms of Equations (1-1) and (1-2), RBE can be expressed as a function of the neutron dose or the photon dose. Although the general features of the dependence of neutron RBE on dose are brought out consistently in experimental studies, the numerical values of RBE vary, and the variation appears to be largely a matter of the different magnitude of the linear dose component for photon radiation. Cell survival curves usually exhibit pronounced initial slopes, and the observed maximal neutron RBE rarely exceeds a factor of about 10. In the context of risk estimation, the major interest is in neutron RBEs that have been evaluated in animal experiments with regard to tumor induction. In view of this complexity, it appears best to refer to experiments with male mice or rats that determine the overall incidence of solid tumors. In all experimental studies with rodents, it was difficult or impossible to determine excess tumor rates at γ-ray doses substantially less than 1 Gy. As previously described, free electrons can be produced by X- and γ-ray interactions with atoms in tissue. Nikjoo and colleagues (1997, 2002) have modeled the probability of electron and OH• radical interaction with DNA. In the case of energetic electron interactions with DNA (0.1 eV to 100 keV electrons), Nikjoo and others (2002) estimate that more than 80% of the interactions do not cause damage in the form of DNA SSBs.
Another recent study suggests that single low-energy electrons can produce DNA SSBs and DSBs at energies below ionization thresholds (Boudaiffa and others 2000).
DNA is an unstable chemical entity under in vitro conditions because it is the target of a variety of reactive small molecules.
More than 90% of naturally occurring oxidation in a cell originates in the mitochondria, and oxidative nuclear damage occurs only for reactive products that can migrate far enough to enter the nucleus and react with DNA. Strong evidence pointing to differences between X-ray damage and oxidative damage has come from studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Added to the sources of spontaneous damage and metabolically produced oxidative DNA damage is background radiation, which includes radon, cosmic rays, terrestrial γ-radiation, and natural radioisotopes in the human body. Ionizing radiation produces several kinds of damage in DNA, including SSBs and DSBs in DNA chains, DNA-DNA covalent cross-links, and DNA-protein covalent cross-links and a large variety of oxidative changes in the nucleotide bases (Hutchinson 1985; Ward 1988).
Energy Information Administration, based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service's Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service. These low water levels have jeopardized commercial barge traffic shipping agricultural and energy commodities on the river. When levels start to drop below certain points, barge traffic is slowed because of congestion in the narrower portion of the river that remains navigable.
Waterborne movement of crude oil from PADD 3 to PADD 2 was seen in only four months between January 2010 and October 2012. The Mississippi River also is a key transport mode for coal being delivered to export terminals in New Orleans.
Stockpiles of coal at electric power plants remain elevated because of increased competition between natural gas and coal for power generation as well as a warm winter, providing ample supply of coal at electric power plants. If you’re doing everything you can to promote energy in your lifestyle such as eating a balanced diet, exercising and reducing stress in your life, you may have another problem – either mental or physical. Women especially can benefit from getting a full checkup (blood work) from a health care provider to see if Vitamin-B might be the cause of fatigue.
There may be many reasons for insomnia, but feelings of exhaustion could be a sign that you’re not getting enough sleep. Some (especially women) may need Vitamin-B shots or pills on a regular basis, while others may need to change dietary habits or even make lifestyle changes.
It can wreak havoc in relationships, your work and every other area of your life that should be savored rather than neglected because you just don’t have the energy to deal with it. Some may be temporary fixes (such as drinking a caffeinated drink), while others may target a long-term fix. Get the proper diagnosis from your health care provider before you take any energy boosters that might be harmful to your overall health and get to the root cause so you can be properly treated.
A heart condition called congestive heart failure means that your ticker (heart) isn’t strong enough to pump blood to your organs especially your brain, kidneys and muscles. Firstly, try to determine if you’re lack of energy is likely to be due a non-medical factor. Thanks for visiting!Earlier today I visited my doctor for a regular check-up and had my recent blood test results reviewed…I am happy to report most of my levels were normal, including my Iron and Total Iron. And with that in mind…I anticipate my running only improving and my times only getting faster (once I start my iron pills)! By closely monitoring iron intake and supplementing if needed, you can quickly boost performance and prevent lulls in your training. It’s a simple test that most doctors would be willing to provide if you tell them you’re running a lot of miles and feeling more fatigued than usual.
In anemia, your hemoglobin and hematocrit, which are a measure of your red blood cell count, are low. If you have low iron levels, you will generate fewer red blood cells and your hemoglobin levels will decline. Foot strike hemolysis is a process where red blood cells are damaged when the foot hits the ground, thus reducing your hemoglobin levels.
While the amount of iron loss isn’t staggering, for a runner working out in hot and humid conditions, the losses can easily add up.
Iron loss through the GI tract is fairly minor, but there may be a cumulative effect over months of running that leads to iron deficiency. Therefore, it is important that you consciously monitor your iron intake through your diet and with supplements, if you already have low levels. If you are worried about your iron levels, avoid drinking coffee, milk, or tea with iron-rich meals, as calcium inhibits iron absorption.
Likewise, take with vitamin B (a pill or orange juice) and a B-complex supplement to aid absorption. Those runners who were injured had average ferritin levels which were about 40-per cent lower than those found in non-injured runners.
Since iron is a key component of haemoglobin, the compound which carries oxygen to muscles and other tissues, it’s possible that athletes with low ferritin had decreased oxygen delivery to tissues and therefore became fatigued more easily during workouts and races, compared to individuals with normal ferritin. Coplanar symmetric and asymmetric electron impact ionization studies from the 1b1 state of H2O at low to intermediate impact energies.
The experimental data show a wide variation in the cross section over this range of energies. These ionizing collisions are important in a wide range of different areas, ranging from plasma physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, medical and biological processes involving low energy electrons through to the study of high voltage discharges. The scattered electron is then detected in time correlated coincidence with either the electron ejected during ionization, or with the resulting ion. This is usually accomplished by determining a cross section that is five fold differential in angle and energy. In most cases, this means that an averaging over the orientation of the target must be included for theory to compare with experimental results. This energy region (from threshold to ~200eV) is important as it is here that the cross section for ionization is largest. The ionization potential from these ground ro-vibrational states is usually less defined than for atomic targets, due to the associated Franck-Condon overlap between the potential energy curves of the neutral molecules and the resulting ions. This apparatus is described in detail on other web pages on this fileserver, and has been designed to operate in the energy regime from ~10eV to ~300eV. In this configuration, the energies selected for the scattered and ejected electrons were equal.
The inner diameter of this flask was 9mm, and the outside diameter was 12.7mm, so that a standard swaged fitting could be used. This was accomplished using a Newport model 325 temperature controller, which supplied drive current to the TEC. This proved invaluable, as it was then possible to continuously monitor the background gases in the chamber during operation.
In this example, the analyzers were set to pass electrons of energy 20eV, and a symmetric geometry was chosen with thetaa = thetab = 45A°. Over this period of time, the filament current driving the cathode had to be steadily decreased, probably since the water vapour within the vacuum chamber slowly reduced the diameter of the filament. The data is normalized to unity at thetaa = thetab = theta = 45A°, since the results have not been placed on an absolute scale.
Results were taken in symmetric coplanar and non-coplanar geometries, with both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies. The human body, and other biological material comprise of ~80% water, which makes it an ideal test case to investigate processes occurring in the body. These models are an active area of research since the observation that high energy radiation that is used to treat cancers also liberates many low energy electrons, causing additional damage to cell DNA.
Knowledge of the collision dynamics of low energy electrons with biological systems is hence needed, so as to develop robust models of these processes. In such experiments the energy and momenta of the outgoing electrons are measured, giving a five fold differential cross section. In this regime these processes must be considered on an equal basis, and so the complexity of the interactions means that theoretical studies have mainly been limited to atomic targets.
This contrasts to atoms which have a single nuclear scattering centre, and which can hence be described using a spherical basis. A further challenge arises since the experiments cannot, at present, align the molecules prior to the collision, so the models must consider the random orientation of the targets for accurate comparison.
The majority of data is recorded in a coplanar geometry, where the incident and two outgoing electrons are in the same plane, and were conducted at a higher incident energy than the studies presented here.
The symmetry of the 2py oxygen atomic orbital, representing the lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atoms, prevents it from hybridizing with the H atomic orbital, leaving the molecular 1b1 HOMO orbital essentially atomic like, and therefore symmetric. However, the orientation averaged molecular orbital used in the theoretical calculation is a bad approximation for that state given the cancellations due to the orbital symmetry. The molecular orbital used in the model therefore should not suffer from the same cancellation problem during the orientational averaging procedure. This apparatus is fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing it to operate continuously without user intervention. A coplanar geometry (psi = 0A?) is defined when all three electrons are in the detection plane. The angular resolution of the apparatus is estimated as A±3A°, based on geometric considerations of the electrostatic lenses at those energies. Several freeze-pump-thaw cycles were performed using a salted ice slurry bath, to remove dissolved gas impurities from the water prior to admission into the scattering chamber. Over time the emission current from the filament dramatically increased, when a constant current was delivered to the filament.
The data were normalized to a collection time of 1000sec for each measurement, and up to 30 sweeps of the detection plane were used to produce statistically significant results.
The overall shape of the TDCS measured at corresponding energies in a previous study of the 1b1 state are qualitatively similar, however the 1b1 state shows a second peak in the binary region emerging at higher energies that is not observed in the 3a1 state. PCI would also be expected to shift the recoil peak towards xi = 90A°, although this cannot be confirmed in the data.
This agreement diminishes as the energy increases, which is unexpected since the MDW model is usually more accurate at higher energies. The TDCS measured in the perpendicular plane is almost constant over all analyzer angles, which is very different to what is observed for atomic targets.
The progression in both models shows a decrease in cross section from psi = 0A° to 45A°, after which the intensity once again increases. There also appears to be a narrowing in the main binary peak as the asymmetry increases, with a new shoulder appearing around xi = 60A°.
This contrasts markedly with the calculations, which predict triple peaks in the perpendicular plane that change magnitude only marginally with the asymmetry.
This discrepancy is seen both for equal energy and for non-equal energy data, which have been taken in coplanar and perpendicular geometries.
The high-tech company that is situated in Wuhan, Hubei Province, will market the displays for smartphones and other mobile gadgets. The navigable portions of the river connect the major refinery and petroleum trading centers of Amsterdam and Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Antwerp in Belgium, collectively known as the ARA, to inland markets. Water levels on the Rhine River fluctuate with the seasonal rainfall, and both high and low water levels can create problems for barges.
The average water level at Kaub in October was 2.8 feet, compared to the five-year average levels of nearly twice that (five to seven feet). On October 28, the Swiss Federal Office for National Economic Supply permitted the release of emergency fuel reserves following problems at the nation's only refinery and the continued disruption to Rhine River shipments.
Normally, stocks of distillate fuel would be transported from refineries and terminals in the ARA region upriver on the Rhine, but the low water levels and high transportation costs are causing distillate stocks to remain in the ARA.
More precipitation in the Alps will flow water in the tributaries of the Rhine River, raising the water level downstream.
In this chapter the committee provides background information relating to the physical and chemical aspects of radiation and the interaction of radiation with the target molecule DNA.
Is ionizing radiation a unique insult to cells, or are its effects lost in the ocean of naturally occurring metabolic reaction products? Charged particles, such as high-energy electrons, protons, α-particles, or fast heavy ions, are termed directly ionizing because, while they traverse the cell, they ionize numerous molecules by direct collisions with their electrons.
It is seen that electrons are generally sparsely ionizing while protons are, at moderate energies, densely ionizing.
However, neutrons and their high relative biological effectiveness must be considered in the context of low-LET risk estimates derived from the observations on delayed health effects among A-bomb survivors. A continuous distribution of photon energies is generated, with a mean energy of about one-third the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons.
Compton scattering occurs when an incoming photon’s energy greatly exceeds the electron-binding energy of the affected atom.
A photon interacts with an atomic nucleus, and the photon energy is converted into a positron and an electron.
To compare the penetration depth of photon radiation with that of electron radiation, the mean range of electrons of specified energy is given in the same diagram.
The distributions of the energy fluence relative to the logarithmic scale of energy are plotted, because they represent roughly the fractional contribution of incident photons of specified energy to the dose absorbed by a person. To quantify the differences, reference is usually made to the dose average LET or to the mean values of the related microdosimetric parameter dose-averaged linear energy, y.
Figures 1-4 and 1-5 do not extend to these energies; however, it is apparent from Figures 1-4 and 1-5 that the mean values of the restricted LET or the lineal energy do not decrease substantially beyond a photon energy of 1 MeV.
With regard to mutations in Tradescantia, aberrations in human lymphocytes, and killing of mouse oocytes (Bond and others 1978), conventional 200 kV X-rays have been found to be about twice as effective at low doses as high-energy γ-rays. The upper panel of Figure 1-6 gives the linear coefficients (and standard errors) from linear-quadratic fits to the dose dependencies. The photon energies below 20 keV are of special interest with regard to biophysical consideration, but are less relevant to exposure situations in radiation protection. Many of these studies on patients relate to X-ray exposures, but there is no consistent epidemiologic evidence for higher risk factors from X-rays than from γ-rays.
The estimated risk coefficients (and 90% confidence intervals) are expressed in terms of the excess relative risk (ERR) per gray and the excess absolute risk (EAR) per gray per 10,000 person-years (PY).
The upper panel shows the excess relative risk per gray, the lower panel, the absolute risk per 10,000 person-years per gray.
Furthermore, there are ethnic differences, including those related to life-style, that are associated with greatly different background rates of breast cancer.
The last two studies (RochThym, SwHem) relate to exposures in childhood, while the remainder refer to exposures at intermediate or higher ages. Studies related to other types of cancer are even further removed from providing an answer. Along the primary electron track, secondary electrons with lower energies are also formed, producing clusters of ionizations (see Figure 1-8, panel A).
For clarity of presentation, the size of the tracks is increased relative to the cell and is not drawn to scale. It does not deal with densely ionizing radiation, such as heavy ions (including α-particles) and fast neutrons.
The current reevaluation of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki dosimetry, DS02, is in general agreement with these observations. At neutron energies up to a few million electronvolts, the energy transfer is predominantly to protons.
This is confirmed by various experimental studies that consistently demonstrate the maximal effectiveness of neutrons at a neutron energy of about 0.4 MeV (Kellerer and Rossi 1972b). The same has been observed for more complex effects such as opacification of the lens and, more important in the context of risk assessment, induction of tumors in animals.
A multitude of results have been reported in the literature for many tumor systems (NCRP 1990). These electrons can then interact with the DNA molecule and create damage in the form of strand breaks or damaged bases; these are known as direct effects. Early experiments demonstrated that about 70% of the DNA damage can be prevented by the addition of OH• scavengers (Roots and Okada 1972). The breaks were produced in DNA in a vacuum, so the relevance of the resonance phenomenon to DNA breaks in the intracellular aqueous environment is open to question.
The cell nucleus consequently is almost anoxic (Joenje 1989), and oxidative damage is quenched about fiftyfold by histones and by suppression of Fenton oxidants. However, the steady-state level of DNA damage is low, so most of the spontaneous and metabolically generated damage is apparently repaired efficiently and correctly.
A genome-wide collection of nearly 5000 deletion mutants in all nonessential genes is now available for this species.
A river stage of zero would be considered near the historic normal for that river gauge, while flood stage is declared at a river stage of 30 feet.
In 2011 and 2012, waterborne shipments were driven by crude oil movements as production of crude oil in PADD 2 outpaced pipeline capacity growth and producers looked for alternative ways to move growing crude oil volumes to refining centers on the U.S.
Make sure you see your health care provider to see if you can regulate the hormonal levels.
Other questions, which can bug your mind might be: Do I have an undiagnosed disease causing low energy levels? What probably concerns us more is the persistence of fatigue despite our best efforts to get rid of it. Depression and worrying a lot are just two of the many emotional states which can suck the life force out of you. It gives your body a rest from all the basic functions you deal with when you’re awake and time to repair. This type of infection can zap away your energy because of the increase in your major stress hormones (cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine).
It tickles (stimulates) your bone marrow (the fatty and yellow stuff inside both ends of your long bones) to produce red blood cells (RBCs).
Cancer can cause a variety of symptoms (depending on the type of cancer), one of which is fatigue.
I will be starting with an over the counter supplement (sulfate) first thing tomorrow morning!
You can appreciate the dilemma here if you’re a runner – you’re always tired after a workout and shortness of breath defines our preferred mode of transportation.
Even if you are not iron deficient, you can establish a good baseline for your iron levels, which could help you identify an iron problem down the road.
Therefore, less oxygen will be transported to your muscles, and running performance will suffer. In addition, you should drink vitamin C with your iron rich foods since vitamin C aids in absorption.
In addition, the 34 runners with the lowest ferritin concentrations had twice as many injuries as the 34 runners with highest ferritin. Their exhausted muscles would then be less able to stabilize and support the knees and ankles – two key sites of injury in the study.
Theoretical approximations accurate at high impact energies can no longer be applied, and so there are stringent demands on theory which must be satisfied for accurate comparison with data.
The (e,2e) coincidence signal for molecules may then have a correspondingly lower yield compared to an atomic target where the ionization potential is well defined. A pictorial representation of the water molecule in the 1b1 state is given in figure 1.1 below. The spectrometer allows measurements to be conducted from a coplanar geometry through to the perpendicular plane, although in the present measurements only a coplanar geometry was used. The analyzer pass energy was then set to measure electrons so that the overall resolution of the coincidence signal (as measured using a helium atomic target) was 600meV.

The pump removed background gas from the flask, and extracted dissolved gases held in the water. The flask was secured to the cold side of a 50mm x 50mm thermo-electric cooler (TEC) using a large aluminium block, and the assembly (flask + block) was insulated from the air using Styrofoam. The 1b1, 3a1 and 1b2 states are clearly resolved in this spectrum, which is fitted to three Gaussian peaks to ascertain the widths of the spectral profiles.
These data were measured in a coplanar geometry with outgoing electron energies of 20eV detected at theta1 = theta2 = 55A°. Figure 1.5(a) shows the lowest energy results, with an incident energy 15eV above the ionization threshold. Molecular wave-functions are generally not spherical, the nuclei within the molecule providing multiple scattering centres.
This becomes a computationally intensive problem, and so approximations are usually made to allow these calculations to become tractable.
In this study the analyzers were always kept in a symmetric configuration with xi1 = xi2 = xi.
A needle valve at the entrance to the scattering chamber controlled the flow of target H2O vapour into the interaction region.
This indicates that an H2O target molecular beam of high purity was created, as confirmed from binding energy spectral studies. This increase in emission current was often more than a factor of 2 within a 24 hour period. The solid line shows results from the Molecular Distorted Wave Born Approximation (MDW) while the dashed line was generated from the Molecular 3-body Distorted Wave Approximation (M3DW). This trend is much clearer in the present data compared to that from the 1b1 state measured at higher energies. For the theoretical model, the coplanar TDCS has also been normalized to unity for both MDW and M3DW models.
These measurements were taken in a series of symmetric non-coplanar geometries with outgoing electron energies of 10eV. The M3DW model follows a trend that is closer to the experimental data, although neither model accurately predicts the results that have been obtained.
The theoretical calculations are also shown, where once again the data and theory have been normalized to unity at the peak in the coplanar geometry. The minimum around 90A° in this geometry does not change substantially as the energy sharing changes.
High water levels on the Rhine may put barges at risk of potentially striking bridges over the river. Alternatives to shipments on the Rhine River are costly, as Europe's petroleum product pipeline infrastructure is not as extensive as in the United States, leaving relatively more expensive transport by rail and long-distance trucking as the remaining alternatives.
After high refinery runs this summer, independently held distillate stocks in the ARA in October averaged 10 million barrels above their five-year average level. The committee discusses contributions of normal oxidative DNA damage relative to radiation-induced DNA damage and describes the DNA repair mechanisms that mammalian cells have developed to cope with such damage. Can cells detect and respond to low doses of ionizing radiation because of detectable qualitative and quantitative differences from endogenous reaction products? Electromagnetic radiations, such as X- and γ-rays, consist of photons that can travel relatively large distances in tissue without interaction. Neutrons are densely ionizing because in tissue they release fast protons and heavier atomic nuclei that have high LET.
However it is also noted that very energetic protons, as they occur in altitudes relevant to aviation and in space, are sufficiently fast to be sparsely ionizing.
Dose average LET represents more realistically the high local energy densities that can occur in a track even for low-LET radiation, and it therefore can assume larger values. The reason is that a small fraction of the absorbed dose to A-bomb survivors was due not to the predominant high-energy γ-rays, but to fast neutrons. Higher-energy γ-rays, up to 7 MeV, can be generated by inelastic scattering, as occurred in the neutron-nitrogen interaction from the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The photon is extinguished, and most of its energy is imparted to the ejected electron as kinetic energy. The photon energy above 1.02 MeV is converted into the kinetic energy of the newly created particles. It is seen that the electrons released by photons are always considerably less penetrating than the photons themselves.
There are, nevertheless, differences in effectiveness and possibly also differences in the risk for late effects due to these radiations. This explains the substantial difference between the mean LET of high-energy γ-rays and conventional X-rays. A similar dependence on photon energy is seen in the related microdosimetric parameter dose lineal energy, y, which has been used as reference parameter by the liaison committee of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in The Quality Factor in Radiation Protection (ICRU 1986). However, the difference has to be noted whenever risk estimates are derived from exposures to γ-rays and then applied to X-rays. In fact, while the risk estimates from medical studies are not inconsistent with those for atomic bomb survivors, they tend to be, as a whole, somewhat lower (UNSCEAR 2000b). The two data points in the lower panel labeled 220 kV both had 220 kV generating voltage, but the filtration was different.
Populations with low spontaneous rates tend to exhibit comparatively high ERR, while their EAR tends to be low.
The last factor is especially critical, because both ERR and lifetime integrated EAR decrease substantially with increasing age at exposure. If such an ionization cluster occurs near a DNA molecule, multiple damages can occur in a very localized segment of the DNA (Figure 1-8, panel B).
The track size is enlarged relative to the nucleus to illustrate the theoretical track structure. As the energetic electron interacts with atoms of the material, secondary electrons are produced and kinetic energy is lost.
Although neutrons need not be considered here on their own account, they must be accounted for in the analysis of the most important source of information on radiation risks, observations on the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, although the absorbed dose fraction of neutrons was small in both cities, it is known from a multitude of radiobiological investigations that the RBE of small neutron doses can be large enough for even the small absorbed dose fraction to add appreciably to the late health effects among atomic bomb survivors. A synopsis of such findings was provided in the context of the microdosimetric interpretation of the neutron RBE (Kellerer and Rossi 1972b). This large maximal value might be seen as an indication of an exceptionally high effectiveness of neutrons at low doses.
Experiments with rodents show considerable variation, especially in female mice and rats, and this variation reflects the decisive influence of hormonal status. This comparison corresponds to a neutron RBE of 50 against a reference γ-ray dose of 1 Gy. Because OH• is so highly reactive, it has been estimated that only the radicals formed within about 3 nm of DNA can react with it (Ward 1994).
They note that to extrapolate available epidemiologic and experimental data from high-dose and high-dose-rate studies to the relevant low levels of single isolated tracks, it is essential to develop a more molecular and mechanistic approach based on the amounts, types, and repairability of the early molecular damage that results from the initial physical and chemical processes. They note, however, that there is still a considerable contribution (>20%) to the DSB yield from complex DSBs in which a simple DSB is accompanied by at least one additional strand break within 10 bp. Hanel and colleagues (2003) have shown that electrons at energies below the threshold for electronic excitation (<3 eV) can decompose gas-phase uracil to generate a mobile hydrogen radical. Although DNA in cells is basically unstable, the instability is counteracted by DNA repair processes. Using this collection, all genes that were required for resistance to the lethal effects of X-rays and hydrogen peroxide were determined (Birrell and others 2001, 2002). This background value includes radon exposure, the health effects of which are not evaluated in this report. Army Corps of Engineers and rainfall in the near-term forecast are expected to provide some relief. Does my age, poor diet, stress levels (from thinking what could cause your low energy levels) and persistent lack of sleep cause low energy levels?
The rise in these stress hormones occurs because of an increase in substances called cytokines in your system. If there’s something wrong with with your waterworks, they may not produce enough EPO. Cancer cells grow very quickly so they use energy and other resources which would otherwise go to normal cellular processes in the body. On the other hand, if you identify a medical factor as the cause for your fatigue you will need to seek the help of your doctor. If your stomach does bother you, taking ferrous gluconate rather than ferrous sulfate can be easier on your stomach.
Low ferritin might also decrease the rate at which muscles and connective tissues are repaired, allowing minor injuries to blow up into major problems –Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. The angles that could be accessed in this configuration ranged from thetaa = thetab = 25A° through to thetaa = thetab = 135A°.
The acceptance angle of the analyzer lenses was A±3A°, as set by input apertures at the entrance to the electrostatic lenses. This de-gassing procedure was carried out for ~2 hours before the water sample was used in the experiment, to ensure that the proportion of dissolved gases in the water was minimized. The hot side of the TEC was attached using thermal conducting paste to an aluminium heatsink to which a 12VDC boxer fan was secured, so that heat from the TEC could be dissipated efficiently. If this ratio reduced, the experiment was halted and the water changed to a newly de-gassed sample. In this case, the 1b1 state was found to have a width of 620meV, which is comparable to that for an atomic target. The contrast between the maximum and minimum in the cross section increases as the energy increases. As the energy increases further to 95eV above threshold (figure 1.5(c)), the double peak in the forward direction is still visible but the magnitudes of the peaks are now different.
The purity of this beam was monitored regularly using the mass spectrometer throughout this study. To ensure constant incident electron beam current throughout the measurements as required, the filament current was hence also placed under computer control. The experimental and theoretical data has been independently normalised to unity at each energy. Dr Kate Nixon thanks the British Council for funding under the research exchange programme, and the Royal Society for a Newton International Fellowship. Finally, this chapter introduces a special subject, the physical characteristics that determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons, estimates of which are required in the derivation of low-LET radiation risk estimates from atomic bomb survivors. Once an interaction with one of the electrons in the material occurs, part or all of the photon energy is transferred to the electron.
Because of the greater effectiveness of these fast neutrons, this small dose component must be taken into consideration. The scattered photon has less energy than the primary photon and can undergo further Compton scattering until its energy is sufficiently degraded for the photoelectric process to occur.
LET is an important measure in the evaluation of relative biological effectiveness (ICRU 1970; Engels and Wambersie 1998) of a given kind of radiation. This accounts in an approximate way for the increased local energies due to Δ-rays and therefore provides larger values that are more meaningful than those of unrestricted LET.
These differences are most clearly documented in cell studies and, especially, in studies on chromosome aberrations (Sinclair 1985; ICRU 1986).
Since the dose dependence for solid tumors among A-bomb survivors indicates little curvature, the dependence of risk on photon energy may be similarly weak for tumor induction in man.
The radiation-related increase in breast cancer incidence can serve as an example because it has been most thoroughly studied. This complicates the comparison of risk estimates, since it remains uncertain whether relative or absolute excess incidence is the more relevant measure of risk.
These clusters have been referred to as as clustered-damage or locally multiply damaged sites (LMDS) (Ward and others 1985; Goodhead 1994). Such collisions can result in deflection of the primary electron from its original path (Figure 1-8, panel A). Neutrons of 1 MeV therefore produce recoil protons with an average initial energy of 500 keV. In experiments with female Sprague-Dawley rats, Shellabarger and others (1980) found that 4 mGy of fast neutrons produced as many mammary neoplasms as 0.4 Gy of X-rays, which implied an RBE of 100. When the experiments were evaluated in terms of life shortening as a proxy for tumor mortality, the inferred RBE was closer to 30 (Wolf and others 2000). As in the low-energy study just described, this model does not include any contribution to the yield of strand breaks from damaged bases.
The superoxide radical (O2−) formed by one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen is generated in all aerobic cells. Of those that were resistant to either agent, few genes were in common and their rankings were different.
Medical sources of radiation (diagnostic X-rays, nuclear medicine, and so on) can substantially increase a person’s yearly radiation exposure. The January 16 edition of This Week In Petroleum included a detailed analysis of crude oil shipments from PADD 2 to PADD 3. Cytokines are chemicals produced by your immune system in response to continued chronic infection.
The RBCs are components of your blood responsible for transporting oxygen from your lungs to your organs.
In addition your immune system produces a large amount of cytokines to fight the cancer cells. Iron supplements can also cause constipation, so you could consider a stool softener if needed. For asymmetric geometries, thetaa is fixed at 22A° while analyzer 2 is swept around the scattering plane. A glass flask was used for this procedure as this allowed the process to be visually monitored. This indicates that the energetic effects of ro-vibrational transitions from the ground state to the ion state are negligible for this state. Further checks were made regularly on the energy of the incident electron beam by monitoring the coincidence energy spectrum (figure 1.3), and regular monitoring of the partial pressures of the gases in the vacuum chamber.
A second peak occurs in the backscatter region, however the maximum of this peak appears to occur at thetab < 225A°. For non-coplanar geometries the electron gun is lifted out of the plane, and is defined by the angle psi. Within safety and operational constraints, barges adjust the amount of cargo they carry to balance bridge clearance and deep draft restrictions based on the water level. Conventional X-rays, used for diagnostic radiology, are commonly produced with accelerating voltages of about 200 kV. Accordingly, the average energy of the electrons begins to increase again, which explains the relatively small difference in average LET between 200 kV X-rays and soft X-rays. The most reliable and detailed data on photon RBE exist for chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. It is of interest to compare the biophysical information and the experimental results to the radioepidemiologic evidence for health effects.
The arrow identifies an ionization cluster near a DNA molecule to represent the possibility of locally multiply damaged sites.
Important components of the track structure are the clusters of secondary ionizations that occur in a very small volume (see Figure 1-8, panel B).
Broerse and Gerber (1982) used female Sprague-Dawley rats, which have a much lower spontaneous incidence, and found substantially lower values of neutron RBE.
Ejection of an electron from a water molecule by an incoming photon produces an ionized water molecule, H2O+. Signal transduction from cell membrane phospholipids damaged by free radicals and oxidizing reactions is an important natural process.
Of the top 100 genes conferring resistance to X-rays, only 35 were in the top 100 that were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (see Annex A-1).
Unless the cause of the chronic infection is addressed, your immune system will continue to produce cytokines.
They’re responsible for the production of the adrenal hormones, cortisol and aldosterone. There is an offset of 1eV in the position of the peaks which is due to contact potentials in the spectrometer. The full line represents a three-Gaussian fit, whereas the dotted lines show the individual Gaussians from this fit, illustrating the degree of separation measured with the current energy resolution. The results in the backward direction also have structure, with a minimum occurring when thetab ~ 250A°. Low water levels mean barges must carry less cargo, increasing the freight rate per unit of cargo. For mammography, where high contrast is sought and only a moderate thickness of tissue must be traversed by the X-rays, the low acceleration voltage of 29 kV is usually employed. These clusters, acting directly or indirectly on the DNA molecule, may produce clustered damage, LMDS, that may in turn be refractory to repair.
The ionization density in such proton tracks is far greater than that in an electron track, as depicted in Figure 1-1.
However, considerable differences in neutron RBE at higher doses were observed for different tumor types. Trapping of the electron by polarizing water molecules produces a so-called hydrated electron, e-aq. This is one set of biochemical pathways by which the effects of ionizing radiation may overlap with the effects of endogenous processes, such as macrophage oxidative bursts. However, more than 30% of DSBs are of a more complex form; these complex breaks are somewhat analogous to LMDS, but Nikjoo and colleagues do not include base damage in their model.
These rankings indicate that the types of damage caused by X-rays and hydrogen peroxide were significantly different and required different mechanisms for repair. Examples of chronic infections include tuberculosis, hepatitis, gingivitis and Lyme disease.
To learn more about this precious gland check out our Thyroid Series: Meet Your Thyroids Part 1, Meet Your Thyroid Part 2 and Meet Your Thyroid Part 3. Addison’s Disease is an adrenal condition which leads to an insufficient production of adrenal hormones.
Very little contamination is expected from neighbouring orbitals in the measured TDCS for the 3a1 state. This term is also applied to fast neutrons, because they too traverse large distances in tissue without interaction but can, in occasional collisions, transfer much of their energy to atomic nuclei that in turn produce the main part of the ionizations. New data have since confirmed these substantial differences of effectiveness for different types of penetrating low-LET radiations.
The likely site of health effects of low-dose radiation is the genetic material, which directs the structure and function of the organism.
It is evident that the resulting high local energy concentration will produce far more clusters of closely spaced ionizations than do low-LET photons and thus more LMDS (clustered damage) that may remain unrepaired or misrepaired. In another study using these deletion mutants, the oxidative damage caused by five different oxidants was found to differ significantly, indicating an unexpected complexity for oxidative damage (Thorpe and others 2004). To learn more about your waterworks see our ‘Meet your Kidneys’ articles Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3.
The most common cause of this disease is an autoimmune response where your immune system attacks your adorable adrenals and renders them incapable of producing enough adrenal hormones. This genetic material is made up of DNA organized into genes and chromosomes (for a brief description, see Appendix A). In addition, recoil protons have track lengths of a few micrometers, so critical damage can, with fairly high probability, be caused in neighboring chromosomal structures. The simple assumptions made in the calculation of RBE do not seem to be applicable in such a case. The authors conclude that the large deletions seen in radiation-induced mutations may have other mechanisms, such as nonhomologous recombination (Nikjoo and others 1997). Despite these differences, all of the oxidants caused predominantly protein damage, and few of the genes involved in DNA repair were involved in resistance to damage caused by any of these oxidants. Being tired most of the time is just one of the many symptoms you can experience with this disease. Radiation can damage DNA as described in this chapter, and the damage can result in cell lethality, impaired cell function, or may produce damage involved in the carcinogenic process.
These studies indicate that DNA damage is a more significant factor in resistance to X-ray damage than to oxidative damage.
Before you receive any treatment for it, the suspicion of anemia should first be confirmed by laboratory tests requested by your doctor. These studies also showed that the genes whose expression was induced by X-rays or hydrogen peroxide were not the genes required for resistance to these agents; few of the X-ray DNA repair genes in particular were inducible by damage (Birrell and others 2002). The most common causes of anemia include a deficiency of iron and a deficiency of vitamin B12.

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