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In this web page we provide detailed (e,2e) studies of electron impact ionization of noble gases including helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon from near threshold to intermediate energies, where the outgoing electrons carry equal energy from the interaction. The experiments were conducted in the perpendicular plane, where the outgoing electrons are detected orthogonal to the incident electron beam.
The data show the cross sections undergo complex variations as a function of incident energy, and in particular ionization of the heaviest target is at variance to all others that have been studied here.
The (e,2e) process provides the most precise experimental data for the study of the ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact.
By determining the momenta of the scattered and ejected electrons in a time correlated coincidence measurement, the differential ionization cross section (DCS) is derived for comparison with theoretical models. Since the scattered and ejected electrons may emerge over a wide range of different angles, experiments usually define a specific scattering geometry in which to carry out the measurements. In the present work, we have constrained the spectrometer to measure the DCS only in the perpendicular geometry, where psi = 90A°. For both electrons to emerge in this geometry it is necessary for an interaction with the target nucleus to occur, and this provides a stringent test of current ionization models.
We have taken measurements with the incident electron energy E0 ranging from near the ionization threshold of the selected target, through to energies up to 80eV above the ionization potential (IP). Understanding these processes is hence important in areas ranging from the production of plasmas in stellar and planetary atmospheres, through to electron impact ionization in lasers and in nuclear reactors. In all cases results are presented for the outgoing electrons having equal energies at the analysers.
The apparatus can measure the DCS from the coplanar to the perpendicular plane geometry by moving the electron gun, gas jet and Faraday cup together around the interaction region (figure 2). The electron analysers consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens that focuses electrons from the interaction region into a hemispherical energy selector. The data were taken over a period of several months, and the electron gun current was varied for each of the data sets so as to ensure linearity of the detection system. The energy of the incident electron beam was determined by observing the negative ion elastic scattering resonance in helium at ~19eV, so as to determine the offset in the gun due to contact potentials.
The energies of the outgoing electrons were determined by observing inelastic scattering from the excited targets, and by considering the location of Fano resonances in the ionization continuum.
The experimental data for helium are taken from previous work carried out in Manchester re-presented here normalised to unity at the peak of the DCS to allow comparison with other noble gases. The ground state of helium is 1S0, with an electronic configuration 1s2, and so both bound electrons occupy s-shell orbitals prior to the interaction. For helium, neon and argon targets, the bound electrons occupy either s-orbitals or p-orbitals in their ground state.
It was not possible to resolve these individual channels in our experiment (due to the limited energy resolution of the spectrometer) apart from for xenon, where results were taken for production of the different ion states at incident electron energies from 10eV to 30eV above the IP. Figure 3 presents results for ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane for ten different incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the IP. As the incident electron energy increases, additional peaks are seen at angles around 90A° & 270A°.
By 20eV above the IP three distinct peaks are clearly visible, the relative strength of the central peak to outer lobes decreasing monotonically as the energy increases.
The physical reasons behind these structures has been described by several models, ranging from DWBA calculations through to TDCC models.
There is only one process that can produce a peak at 180A? in the perpendicular plane without interaction with the target nucleus. The peaks at around 90A° & 270A° are found to result from elastic scattering of the incident electron from the core, followed by a single binary collision between the incident electron and a bound electron. It should be noted that although agreement between theory and experiment in the perpendicular plane has proven to be very good, the results in a coplanar geometry are not as satisfactory, particularly for non-equal outgoing electron energies. The results at the lowest energy are similar in shape to that for helium, with a single broad peak observed centred around 180A°. As the incident energy increases, the DCS for neon shows a very different character to that for helium. The mechanisms that produce these structures in neon must be quite different to that proposed for helium, apart from at the lowest energy where PCI is expected to dominate for all targets. Al-Hagan and co-workers recently considered the low energy regime for both He and H2 from threshold to ~10eV above threshold, and concluded that for these targets PCI dominates at energies <2eV, which is also consistent with the observations for neon presented here.
The results in figure 4 indicate that the interaction is clearly more complex, and may be due to the momentum distribution of the ionized p-electron and polarizability of the atom (which is 1.9 times greater for neon than for helium).
A similar study was carried out for argon, whose outer electronic structure ([Ne]3s23p6) is similar to neon ([He]2s22p6).
In the frozen-core approximation as used in many theories, the inner electrons are considered as spectators during the interaction, and so in this approximation the structure of the DCS should be similar for neon and argon. For argon, nine separate energies were chosen for study, so as to reveal the complex variation in the DCS as a function of energy. Once again the results for argon are not consistent with the simple models found successful for helium.
Figure 6 shows the results for krypton, which unlike helium, argon and neon also has bound electrons occupying the 3d-shell. Once again results were taken for a lowest energy 2eV above the IP, with the data having much better statistical significance compared to those for argon at the same energy. As the energy increases, the results for krypton show a similar trend to that for argon, with the central minimum deepening until around 10eV above the IP where a central peak starts to emerge.
The similarity between argon and krypton data tends to indicate that the d-shell electrons in the heavier target are not playing a significant role in the ionization process. As the heaviest isotopically stable noble gas target, xenon has the largest calculated size (108 pm) due to full occupation of the 4d, 5s and 5p shells. The ionic ground states of Xe+ are sufficiently separated that it was possible to resolve ionization to individual states during the experiments, for energies up to 30eV above the IP. The data are particularly surprising since they do not follow the general trend seen for all other noble gas targets at higher energies. The minimum at 180A° is significantly deeper than for krypton under the same outgoing energy conditions, and unlike krypton this minimum then becomes shallower as the incident energy increases. These results show that the mechanism for ionization of xenon must once again be different to all other targets that have been studied.
As far as we are aware this phenomenon has never been observed for any other target, and it remains to be seen why this should occur for xenon.
Only three energies were selected for these experiments, due to the difficulty of obtaining good statistical data. The set of data presented here for isotopically stable noble gases shows there is a large variation in the probability of ionization in the perpendicular plane. The perpendicular plane is particularly poignant for testing the most sophisticated electron impact ionization models, since multiple scattering must occur for electrons to emerge in this plane.
The perpendicular plane has proven to be a fertile ground to test recent theoretical models, which have found success for simple targets such as helium and molecular hydrogen. It appears that PCI plays a role at the lowest measured energy for each target, although the significance of this process reduces as the target weight increases. The most surprising result is for the heaviest target xenon, since the relative magnitude of the central peak continues to increase as the incident energy increases, and the side lobes reduce to insignificance.
It is worth noting that the resolved data for ionization to the different Xe+ states indicate there is little variation to the measured cross section due to fine structure effects. KLN thanks the Royal Society for an International Newton Research Fellowship held at the University of Manchester. Volumes and the central public space are towered above by 11 big ”petals” that are independent both formally and structurally from the rest of the building. Displaying a highly contemporary architecture, House V by I + GC [arquitectura] was especially developed to answer the needs of day to day family life. On a total surface of 1,733.08 square meters, the creative team at Unsangdong Architects envisioned and implemented E+Green Home, a sustainable home which employs no less than 95 green technologies. Situated on a very particular site at the midst of a forest at the foot of a mire, surrounded by at least 6 different types of native tree species, Argentinian practice G2 Estudio’s Swamp House in Patagonia Preserves the biodiversity by building within and throughout the local vegetation to leave as much as possible intact. This shimmering steel house in Kyoto by Japanese architects ALPHAville towers above its vernacular neighbours. Nicholson Residence is a renovation project conducted by Australian architect Matt Gibson and located in Melbourne, Australia. Our site is being constantly developed, because we are focused on giving our members the best experience in using our website. Egypt-based architectural practice HOUSE Studio has sent us photos of its newest project of Oxygen Villa. It’s been taken in consideration the architectural invention in design and satisfying all tastes in mass productions process, taking care of the privacy issue in designing the inner spaces which is important for the Arabian family in the men and women spaces and reception spaces also, taking care of the spaces distribution and achieving the maximum benefit of land use in spaces and referring to the possible increasing of the building in the future by the increasing of the family members number, the interaction between the building and the national heritage has been taken care of it in the design of the buildup unit, the building design gives a variety of alternatives by using the module system and the prefabricated units that would help in changing the character of the building at any time when its needed and it will be in a harmony with each other, the prefabricated system gives the advantage of reducing the construction time and the simplicity of establishing the building and also for recycling process. One of the major features of the Mashrabiya is privacy, an essential aspect of Arabian culture. The wooden screen with openable windows gives shade and protection from the hot summer sun while allowing the cool air from the outside to flow through the building. The projection of the Mashrabiya achieves several purposes, on one hand it allows air from three sides to enter, even if the draught outside was parallel to the house facade; on the other hand it serves the outside and in turn the neighborhood. The mass production process has a good advantage which is the build up unit for many reasons The module system allows to have a variety of colors and shapes of the building by changing color of the unit or making various colors . 1- In this case the units would be opened vertical to make a group of sunshades on the building and also having more space for air. 2- In this case while having a strong storm of wind and sand as example the units will be closed completely on itself to avoid the villa from bad climatic changes. 3- In this case of a good weather with a light sun ray the units would be opened horizontal to make shade from the glass part on the unit and acceleration the air movement inside the building.
Photovoltaic (PV) window or glazing modules are an exciting and extremely visible method for integrating PV into both new and existing buildings. The buildup detail design contains 3 parts: 2 solid parts and a glass one which is consists of a double layers of glass and between them is loaded with the nitrogen gas The nitrogen gas has the advantage of absorption the thermal energy that comes from sun rays and emits a low quantity of it so it helps to keep the inner space cool.
The construction process starts with establishing the fixed steel columns in place then the floor slabs and at last the buildup window unit, all are prefabricated units from Etalbond (as its known for its toughness and lightness reducing aluminum size by using only for outer cover and inside the panels are loaded with foam) , the floor slabs are reinforced concrete and the upper roof slab from light concrete, the inner court carry the slabs loading on fixed columns.
The inner spaces was designed as a one space to make the air movement more easier inside the spaces, air movement depends on two or more entrances and three exits that gives a continues moving of air all day The site was designed to make the air movement always passes through green areas and trees inside and outside the building on the eastern and northern corners for filtering the air then passing through water area for cooling the air. Is a system of glass balls used under the ground floor level in court area, the glass granules process is to absorb the thermal energy all day time and keep it inside, in the night time when it’s cold the Glass granules emits the thermal energy again in the space to keep it warm. The design of inner spaces depends on open view idea for all spaces according to the space function. Eco-friendly ideas continue to save our energy and resources, and it’s great when such things are stylish in design.
Public spaces on the first and third floors are more open to the outdoors via huge windows, while the private spaces on the middle floor are protected by the protruding elevations above and below. After seven years of planning and fundraising in the midst of a national recession, construction of the North Carolina chapter of the American Institute of Architects’ (AIA NC) thoroughly sustainable Center for Architecture & Design was completed this summer in Raleigh.
The three-level, 12,000-square foot building was designed by noted “green” architect Frank Harmon, FAIA, principal and founder of Frank Harmon Architect PA, after the firm won a professional competition for the project in 2008.
Quick to note that not a line was drawn before landscape architect Gregg Bleam, FASLA, studied the site with him, Harmon stresses that building and landscape were conceived as “one interlocking system.
The narrow building is sited snugly up against the existing city sidewalk so that the majority of the triangular lot is a park-like green space in its urban context. The building’s open floor plan features two main rooms on the ground level and a continuous open office space on the top floor. Harmon designed the building to meet LEED Platinum standards as well as AIA Committee On The Environment (COTE) goals, which include regional appropriateness and the use of regionally available materials, land use and site ecology, sustainable materials and methods of construction, reduced water usage, and increased energy efficiency.
China Sea The Citizen Citizens Bank Classic Chevrolet Classic Chevrolet - pre-owned The Clock Works Co-Go's Coins R Us Colaizzi Pedorthic Center Community Care Plus Costcutters Family Hair Care Cricket - Bellevue Wireless Curves of Bellevue CVS Pharmacy Dairy Queen of Bellevue Dance America Dari-Villa Restaurant John B DeBonis Family Dentistry Joseph G DeFrancesco, DMD Domenic S. Enjoy Bellevue Ephesus Mediterranean Erin's Hallmark Esthetica Salon Family Dollar First Niagara Bank Samuel S Floro, Esquire Fodi Jewelers, Inc Forest Avenue Presbyterian Church Frankfurter's Hot Dog Shoppe Fred Dietz Floral, Gifts and Antiques David Gillingham Girl Scouts Western Pennsylvania Gold Star Construction USA, Inc. Jackson-Hewitt Tax Service James Trunzo Collision Shop James V Jordan, Attorney at Law Jatco Machine & Tool Co., Inc. Pittsburgh Regional Chiropractic Center Pittsburgh Valve and Fitting PJ's Smoke Shop Plank Eye Board Shop PNC Bank Donald H Presutti, Esquire Produce Plus Market & Deli, Inc. EAT'N PARK RUSTY NAIL HOME DEPOT STATE STORE BASEBALL PITTBIRD THREE RIVERS CASINO FOOTBALL PNC PARK HEINZ FIELD CONSOL ENERGY CENTER CADDY DOLLAR GENERAL BELLEVUE POLICE DEPARTMENT PD FAMILY DOLLAR AVALON BEN AVON EMSWORTH WOODS RUN GIANT EAGLE KUHN'S LINCOLN AVENUE BUSINESS DISTRICT GROCERY SHOPPING KMART WALMART BELLEVUE POLICE DEPARTMENT PD P.D. Supreme Court, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania and several of the U.S. The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region.
In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.
The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American.
According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary.
The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation. The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v.
Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members.
New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism.
The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country.
By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation.
In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director.
In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president.
In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights.
Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States.
When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized.
21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.
In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J. In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. I originally put these memories on paper to share with my two sons when they become mature enough to comprehend more fully the events described.
As long as I live, I will never forget my secretary, Kathy informing me on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, that an airplane had just struck one of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center. That moment had an exceptional impact on me, as my nearly seven and nearly four and a half year old sons and I had been studying skyscraper history and construction for the past several months. I ran out to the lobby of my office building, where there was a television and watched in horror as the black smoke billowed out of gaping holes in Tower 1. My heart sank as any doubts about this being a terrorist attack went up in the very smoke that I was now horrifiedly watching along with my colleagues. I resumed seeing the shocked patients in my office, when my secretary informed me that one of the Towers (Tower 2) had just fallen. My mind was now miles away from my office, with those innocent victims of the ultimate in hate.
I called both of my hospitals, Manhattan, Eye, Ear and Throat and New York-Presbyterian to learn that their emergency rooms had a€?adequate staffing for the time beinga€?.
I now knew that if I were to make a significant contribution to the relief effort, I had to get a slit lamp downtown to treat the rescuers and victims with eye problems on-site. I called the assistant administrator at the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, Craig Ugoretz, who combed the building and found the one slit lamp microscope that was not bolted to a floor-mounted stand. Not knowing when my next meal would be, or when I would return home, I grabbed a quick bite in a local restaurant. When I arrived at the hospital, the slit lamp was in the lobby, waiting for me at the security desk.
On our way it was suggested that I first stop at One Police Plaza to treat the eyes of injured police officers. The police officers that I cared for were still so debris-laden, that their uniforms appeared more khaki than blue from the concrete dust and ash.
On the first day alone, I had the honor of caring for the eyes of more than one hundred heroes in every sense of the word. Fortunately, most of the eye injuries were not severe, but were nonetheless incapacitating. During the night, when the steady flow of the injured slowed to a trickle I walked into the Command and Control Center next door to try to learn what was going on outside this fortress. Still later when the flow of injured officers stopped, I wanted to take the slit-lamp to a€?Ground Zeroa€? itself to care for injured members of the other uniformed services. I went uptown during the night for a few hours to check on my family, clean up and possibly get a nap to prepare for the next day. It wasna€™t until my second day downtown, during a break, that I first opened the blinds of my improvised emergency room at One Police Plaza to discover that the windows faced out over the devastation.
After my final visit to One Police Plaza to render follow-up care on September 20th, I was escorted to a€?the sitea€? by Sergeant Giuzio from the Office of the Chief of Police. As we went through multiple checkpoints, I began to see large groups of rescue workers walking through the streets. We walked the blocks of lower Manhattan, through several more checkpoints, to an NYPD a€?staging areaa€?. The road on which we were walking (West Street), just days before, was under high piles of debris, left by the Towersa€™ collapses.
We were now standing adjacent to a€?Ground Zeroa€? on West Street between Building 6 and the World Financial Center. While I was transfixed by the overwhelming spectacle of this tragedy, the sergeant asked me to stay where I was as he walked up to a tall thin man. As we walked around the corner to the Hudson River side of the World Financial Center both the lights and the clatter of the rescue work faded, somewhat. Going down Albany Street, we passed a restaurant, where people must have been sitting until the windows were blown in by falling debris.


As we walked onward toward the site of the Tower 7 collapse, there were many tents and tables set up to provide the workers with the essentials of life during their mission. We passed buildings that looked as if they had been spray-painted gray because of their coating of concrete dust. After the address we said farewell, feeling a sense of comradeship, which was disproportionate to the time we spent together. As we approached Liberty Street we saw a large group of rescue workers gathered under one of many gasoline-powered floodlights. Taking Douglasa€™ design from concept stage to a scale model rendered in Plexiglas became a year-long father and son project. Victimsa€™ names are an entirely appropriate means of remembering the dead in all memorials. It must be noted that there were no recovered or identifiable remains belonging to over one thousand victims of the World Trade Center tragedy.
Albeit not universally praised for their architecture, the Twin Towers were an integral part of New York City, which no longer grace our skyline. Both the names of the victims and a reincarnation of the World Trade Center icons could be represented simultaneously by the memorial, as there is no fundamental incompatibility between memorializing both human and material loss.
Relics and rubble from the disaster site represent significant and tangible ties to the actual tragic event and location.A  Relics of the disaster should not solely be housed in a museum or off-site (as they are now) in an airplane hangar.
The design evolved into a pair of transparent towers with rectangular areas missing where the airplane impacts occurred, containing standing faA§ade relics inside one Tower and the recovered American flag inside the other.
After studying the photo for pensively for several minutes, he said, a€?You have to do something with thisa€?. Within a few weeks, I received not just one, but two letters from the General Counsel of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (the organization empowered with the rebuilding of the Ground Zero area). Not knowing where to start, I casually asked an architect, Mark Mascheroni, who has a son at my sonsa€™ school, how much a set of architectural renderings might cost. We met face to face for only the second and final time at a very busy architectural printing shop, Esteban & Co at 139 West 31 Street. As I handed Mansion a check for his work, I asked him to sign the official LMDC release, required for all submission team members.
One appropriately placed 3-dimensional rectangular space, devoid of its glass faA§ade, representing the a€?impact voida€? in each Tower (floors 93-98 of the North Tower and floors 78-84 of the South Tower) symbolize the loss from, and location of, the damage from each initial airplane impact. The difference between life and death for thousands of people inside the Twin Towers was the ability or inability to find an intact stairway by which to escape. Each of the two Memorial towers has a footprint of 40 x 40 ft., and is situated in the space in between the two 200 x 200 ft. The glass panels making up the curtain-walls are inscribed with each victima€™s name, date of birth, occupation, nationality and, when from a uniformed service, the appropriate shield (FDNY, EMS, NYPD, PAPD) (Image 1, Section E).
The glass curtain wall is supported by an internal, open stainless steel frame, reminiscent of the Twin Towersa€™ metal infrastructure whose melting under the intense heat of the jet fuel fires resulted in the Towersa€™ ultimate collapse. 1)The inspiring American flag recovered from the World Trade Center rubble that was solemnly raised by rescuers. A patient of mine, who saw the submission to the contest, was so impressed with Dougiea€™s concept that she arranged a meeting with the world-renowned architect, A.
William Stratas, a website developer from Toronto created a wonderful website for contestants to share news of the competition and to discuss their personal experiences. Stratas and I began to communicate on a regular basis and became long-distance comrades in architecture.
After office hours, I took Dougie to the party followed by a trip to the exhibition of the eight finalists at the Winter Garden of the World Financial Center. After talking to Dougie for a while, she informed me that the man standing directly behind me was Kevin Rampe, the President of the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. At the Forum, Dougie was interviewed by Georgett Roberts of the New York Post and by Alan Feuer of the New York Times. After the photo session and the presentation of the Certificate of Merit to Doug, we were escorted to a locked room called a€?The Family Rooma€?.
Doug was introduced to the winner, Michael Arad, and his associate, Peter Walker, in a conference room. Aptly stated about the competitors by New York Times reporter Julie Iovine was, a€?Working on their own initiative and against lousy odds, determined to express themselves and to keep memory alive, they spent countless thousands of hours conceiving, drafting, revising and explaining their visionsa€?. As an ophthalmic surgeon, I expressed my personal need to do something constructive in the aftermath of the WTC tragedy by obtaining a portable slit lamp microscope and using it to treat the eye injuries of rescue workers at Ground Zero.
I reflected on how many renowned architects begin their creative processes with Lego blocks (or equivalents), or perhaps with rough sketches on cocktail napkins. I discussed my feelings about these comments with a patient, who is an editor of the New York Times. Our teama€™s memorial design now proudly resides on the LMDC website along with the other 5200 entries. One final note is that, several years later, a patient came into my office and informed me that he had just been hired as the General Counsel of an insurance company in Philadelphia, by, of all people, Kevin Rampe. As I wrote in the beginning, I originally put these memories on paper to share with my two sons when they become mature enough to comprehend more fully the events that I have just described. One of the most difficult things that I have ever been called upon to do, was to address the Connecticut Society of Eye Physicians on my experiences and on emergency preparedness, only a few months after the disaster, on December 7, 2001. I think about the tragedy every day, and particularly my personal memories of experiences that have changed the course of history. A total of 5,193 World Trade Center memorial proposals have been given the heave-ho, but the people who created them aren't slinking quietly back to their day jobs. On December 6, hundreds of teachers, architects, and engineers that didn't make it will gather at New York University to display their work and discuss their discarded ideas.
Another participant, Barry Belgorod, plans to bring his 6-year-old son, Doug, to the all-day event. William Stratas, the Canadian Web developer organizing the forum, said the event wouldn't be a rally or a session dedicated to critiquing the eight designs that made it past the 13-member jury.
Only one session is dedicated to discussing the finalist designs, and he said he's anticipating some thoughtful but harsh critique. December 7, 2003 -- Some 60 people, including a 6-year-old boy, who were among the 5,000 entrants who submitted Ground Zero memorial designs, and lost, met in lower Manhattan yesterday to protest the closed-door judging process that produced the eight finalist proposals. Contestant Douglas Belgorod, 6, of Manhattan said he used his Lego building set to construct the two towers and had pulled out the blocks to leave a space where the hijacked planes hit. Brian McConnell, 33, an engineer from San Francisco, said he was glad he made the effort to see other people's work. New York heart surgeon Robert Jarvik, 57, said the finalists lacked passion and imagination.
The losers -- no, not the losers, the ones who did not win -- stood around doing what they had done for many months online, which is to say they thought, talked, argued, vented, ranted, complained and basically obsessed to the point of meltdown over how to build the best possible World Trade Center memorial. Naturally, there was a bit of surprise when Adrienne Austermann, who goes by the name of Trinity online, turned out to be a woman since many people thought she was a man, and there was more than pleasant applause when Eric Gibbons, also known as Lovsart, took his own turn at the lectern since people really liked the absence of public benches in his plan, benches that might encourage loiterers to hang out eating hot dogs -- not exactly what Mr. All in all, it was a remarkably diverse group, which had among its ranks a financial analyst, an engineer, a graphic designer, a schoolteacher, a sculptor, a union electrician, an ophthalmologist and his 6-year-old boy, and Robert Jarvick, the inventor of the artificial heart. There was also a very simple replica of the towers done in glass that was conceived by Dougie Belgorod, the 6-year-old, who constructed the initial model out of Legoes.
At any rate, the idea did not attract the interest of the competition's jury, which -- whenever it was mentioned -- seemed to produce in the crowd of nonwinners the kind of forced affability and small uncontrollable tics one often finds in people trying to suppress great rage.
They spent the morning sharing their designs with one another, and in the afternoon set out to draft a Declaration (''Capital D,'' Mr. Later in the afternoon, the nonwinners went down to ground zero, where they stopped off at the World Financial Center to look at the eight designs that had defeated theirs. It smarted having lost, no doubt about it, but all the nonwinners said they would not give up. As long as I live, I will never forget my secretary, Kathy informing me on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, that an airplane had just struck one of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center.A  Prior to this, it seemed like a normal Tuesday morning, seeing patients in my ophthalmology office on the Upper East Side of Manhattan.
Fortunately, most of the eye injuries were not severe, but were nonetheless incapacitating.A  When the Towers collapsed, there was a cascade of enormous quantities of pulverized concrete and sheetrock, wisps of fiberglass, asbestos dust (the buildings were not asbestos free) and splinters of glass. Still later when the flow of injured officers stopped, I wanted to take the slit-lamp to a€?Ground Zeroa€? itself to care for injured members of the other uniformed services.A  I was emphatically discouraged from doing this by the staff of the office of the Chief of Police, until buildings stopped collapsing and the ground beneath was more stable.
In most animal cells, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a compound with high potential energy, works as the main carrier of chemical energy. Mitochondria are the main site for ATP synthesis in mammals, although some ATP is also synthesized in the cytoplasm. Over a hundred ATP molecules are synthesized from the complete oxidation of one molecule of fatty acid, and almost forty ATP molecules result from amino acid and pyruvate oxidation.
For electrons to emerge in this geometry they must undergo multiple scattering including scattering from the nucleus of the target, and so this provides a highly sensitive test for scattering theories. In these experiments a single electron of well defined momentum impacts with a target in the interaction region, resulting in target ionization and a scattered and ejected electron which emerge after the interaction has taken place. Our (e,2e) apparatus can access a wide range of geometries from a coplanar geometry, where the incident, scattered and ejected electrons all occupy the same plane, through to the perpendicular geometry, where the scattered and ejected electrons emerge in a plane orthogonal to the incident electron trajectory (figure 1). In this regime the probability of single ionization is a maximum, and so it is here that most ionizing collisions with electrons occur in nature. Low energy electron ionization has also been attributed to the production of DNA damage in biological tissue, and so it is important to understand these collisions at a fundamental level to describe the physics of these processes. The helium results are reproduced from previous studies carried out in Manchester, re-presented here for completeness. By choosing the analyser residual energy to pass electrons around the selector, a channel electron multiplier detects electrons of the specified energy for subsequent amplification and counting. In the perpendicular plane, only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant, where xi1, xi2 are as shown in figure 1. The orbital angular momentum of each electron is hence zero, with a momentum distribution that peaks around zero a.u. The configuration of the 10 electrons in neon is 1s22s22p6, whereas argon has 18 electrons occupying a configuration [Ne]3s23p6.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Helium.txt. Experimental results for the ionization of helium in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 3eV to 80eV above the ionization potential for this target.
This is considered to be due to the dominance of post-collisional interactions (PCI) between the outgoing electrons, which drives electrons emerging with equal energies from the interaction region asymptotically towards opposite directions. At ~50eV excess energy the three lobes have equal amplitudes, whereas at higher energies the outer lobes dominate. The DWBA theory most easily allows the different processes involved in the interaction to be switched on and off, and this has explained the origin of these lobes. This process requires the momentum of the incident electron to be exactly matched by the momentum of the bound electron, with both electrons moving in opposite directions prior to the interaction. In this case, since the particles have equal mass and energy, they emerge from the interaction region at a mutual angle of 90A° & 270A° as observed. It is therefore clear that further work is needed to fully describe the ionization reaction, even for a simple target like helium. The lowest energy studied was 5eV above the IP, with six measurements being taken up to 50eV above the IP as shown. Experimental results for the ionization of neon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 5eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target. The width for this peak in neon is ~120A°, which is broader than ~80A° for the same outgoing electron energy in helium.
As the energy is raised to 10eV above the IP, the broad single peak seen at the lowest energy increases in width, and develops a flat structure at the peak.
However, at higher energies the mechanisms proposed for helium ionization described above would be expected to produce similar structures in all targets that have a central ionic core.
The calculated atomic radius of argon (71pm) is however significantly larger than that for helium (31pm) or neon (38pm) due to the n=3 shell being occupied. Experimental results for the ionization of argon in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target.
The lowest energy studied was 2eV above the IP, the data at this energy having poor statistics due to experimental difficulties working with argon at this energy.
This minimum flattens at 10eV above the IP and rapidly evolves into a clear peak 15eV above the IP. The results further indicate that the use of a A”frozen-coreA• approximation is unlikely to be accurate in any theory attempting to emulate these data. The physical size of krypton (88pm) is slightly larger than argon due to occupation of this shell, and due to closed occupation of the 4s and 4p shells.
Experimental results for the ionization of krypton in the perpendicular plane, with incident energies ranging from 2eV to 50eV above the ionization potential for this target.
Ionization of krypton no longer shows the dominance of PCI as predicted by Wannier, since there is now a central minimum at 180A°.
This central peak is not as significant in krypton compared to the side lobes, and by 30eV above the IP is once again diminishing. It also appears that the variation in cross section as a function of energy follows a similar pattern for each of these targets.
A coincidence energy loss spectrum is shown in figure 7 to illustrate this separation at an incident electron energy 10eV above the IP for this target. The results were taken from 2eV above the IP to 70eV above the IP for this target, so as to establish the variation in the cross section that is observed. At the lowest energy 2eV above the IP, a clear two-peak structure is observed which is similar to that observed from krypton. The results at higher energies are surprising, as the mechanism that produces the central peak with the electrons moving opposite each other is clearly dominating all other scattering processes. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon2.txt. These data indicate that fine structure in the final ion state does not play a significant role in the ionization process, since the comparison between this data and that reproduced from figure 8 shows that the shapes of the cross section for each energy are very similar. This contrasts to the coplanar geometry most often adopted, where the dominant scattering mechanism is usually a single binary scattering between electrons, resulting in a high probability that forward scattering occurs.
The results presented here will hence further test these models for heavier targets, so as to elucidate the scattering mechanisms that result in the observations.
Argon, krypton and xenon also all evolve a central peak as the incident electron energy increases from near threshold, which cannot be due to PCI.
The side lobes observed previously in the perpendicular plane have been attributed to a binary collision between the incident electron elastically scattered into this plane and a bound electron. It is hence likely that the results for neon, argon and krypton are also not significantly altered by these effects, even though the spectrometer was not capable of resolving their individual ion states.
CK would like to thank the University of Manchester for providing a PhD scholarship while carrying out this work. The brief of the project was to build a residence around a central patio, while maintaining a feeling of openness. The gently sloping topography allows the house to open up below grade, maintaining the unobstructed views from the entry street and creating several levels to house all the programmatic elements. Triangular cut-aways create light wells on two opposite sides of the building, where all the windows are lined up on top of one another. According to the architects, “the newer works provide a more generous engagement with the exterior and garden foliage via extensive use of glass and continuity of material externally. The location in the lot and design of this house was defined by the importance of natural light in the project.
Architects wrote about identity of this project: The project build up unit is inspired from national heritage which is obviously shown in the void shape and the treatment of elevations which is taken from oriels that provides the known privacy idea in the arabian community also inside the building.
Also module system helps in mass production by saving money in construction It also helpful in maintenance and durability by fixing the needed unit only that saves money, time and effort.
PV glazing modules add architectural accents to a building while generating clean power and expressing the building owner’s environmental ethics. By creating a middle double volume void area makes a visual contact between ground and first floor and also by creating inner court helps in the connecting between spaces in all levels that gives inner open feeling which is visually and Psychologically comfortable, that would also help in cooling process of the inner space.The design depends on having a variety between the inner and outer shape that gives a flexibility in inner furniture of spaces. Professor Sheila Kennedy created SOFT Rocker, it’s a lounge chair where you can rest while recharging the batteries of various devices. The 12,800 square foot residence blends interior and exterior almost seamlessly with ample access to breathtaking scenic views and huge, clear windows. Located on an oddly shaped, previously unused lot in downtown Raleigh near the State Capitol and Government Complex, the new Center is the first AIA headquarters facility to be built from the ground up expressly for this purpose, and AIANC hopes it will serve as a flagship for modern, sustainable urban design in North Carolina’s capital city. The landscape is an extension of the building and the building is an extension of the landscape.” As if to underscore that notion, the native stone walls in the landscape extend inside the building – or extend outside into the landscape, depending on one’s perspective.
In fact, the necessary parking area is what Harmon and Bleam call a “parking garden,” porously paved so that it will dry quickly and can be used for a variety of outdoor functions by AIA NC and other community groups. The open plan is meant to evoke a sense of community among occupants, and it also makes temperature and lighting control more efficient.
Jesse The Tailor Jim's Hidden Treasures Joe's Rusty Nail Restaurant Johnston Self Storage Joyce's Antique Emporium of Bellevue (Antiques & Uniques) Just Playin Norman J. Hickton was nominated for United States Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania by President Barack Obama on May 20, 2010, and was confirmed by the U.S.
The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department.
They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890.
In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism.
In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I.
Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v.
Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional.
These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964.
The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis.
A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004.
Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts.
Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391).
Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220.
Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. Charles Mango, from New York-Presbyterian Hospital, had managed to get downtown near the disaster site. Lester, a detention-center designer, is flying in from Kansas City, Mo., to show his design, which involves a kinetic polycarbonate sphere etched with the names of the victims. McConnell used mathematical equations to design his plan for a spire that creates the illusion of infinite height.
Stratas posted registration forms online Wednesday morning, as the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation was announcing the finalists. Stratas insists the forum isn't about political action, some people say they'd like to find power in numbers. Stratas was standing at the lectern, on the fourth floor of the student center at New York University, talking to a group of peers whom he knew intimately but had never met before.
Mango said: ''You see, when I came up with my idea, I really thought that I was going to win. Stratas said), which will lay out their displeasure with the competition's eight finalists and which could be released to the public as early as today. Heys's comment, Zane Kinney, who had flown all the way from Ellensburg, Wash., felt compelled to correct the record. Vincenta€™s (which is not one of my hospital affiliations), which was closer to the scene, but they too had a€?enough medical personnela€? for the task.A  I was referred to a triage center at Chelsea Piers where medical volunteers could go to see a€?if they were neededa€?.
In general, the energy to synthesize ATP molecules must be obtained from rather complex fuel molecules. Lipids are broken down into fatty acids, proteins into amino acids, and carbohydrates into glucose.
Two ATP molecules are synthesized in the cytoplasm via the conversion of glucose molecules to pyruvate. Between meals, cardiac muscle cells meet 90% of their ATP demands by oxidizing fatty acids.
Since adipose tissue is the storehouse of body fat, one might conclude that, during fasting, the source of fatty acids for adipose tissue cells is their own stock.


However, only the liver supplies the blood with glucose since it has an enzyme that make it possible for glucose molecules to be transported across cell membranes. Hence it is possible to accumulate a full range of DCS measurements over all scattering angles using this spectrometer. The incident electron can move from the coplanar geometry (psi = 0A°) to the perpendicular plane (psi = 90A°), the outgoing electrons being measured in the detection plane.
The shape of the DCS for a given energy and target is then of importance, for comparison with theory. This contrasts with the other noble gas targets whose levels are 1S0, but whose valence electrons occupy closed p-orbitals.
By contrast, the bound electrons in both of the heavier targets also occupy d-orbitals, with a correspondingly more complex momentum distribution. As the outgoing electron energy is lowered, the post collisional interaction time increases, resulting in an increased flux in the 180A° direction.
At excess energies over 80eV above the IP the central lobe has virtually disappeared, leaving only the two outer lobes in the DCS.
In this case, momentum conservation requires the outgoing electrons to move in opposite directions (180A°) in the perpendicular plane. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Neon.txt. At 15eV above the IP this flat structure has evolved into two peaks with 180A° now being a local minimum. The static polarization of argon is eight times larger than for helium, so scattering effects due to polarization of the target are expected to be significantly larger than for neon or helium. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Argon.txt.
This central peak is visible for incident energies up to 40eV above the IP, until at the highest energy (50eV above the IP) this has once again disappeared, the side peaks having also moved outwards compared to at the lower energies.
The relative magnitude of this minimum compared to the peaks around 110A° & 250A° is however larger than for higher incident energies, so there is probably a contribution to the cross section at this angle due to PCI.
This central peak has virtually disappeared 40eV above the IP and there is no evidence of a peak 50eV above the IP.
It might hence be expected that the cross section for the heaviest target (xenon) would follow a similar trend to that of argon and krypton. The data are fitted to two Gaussians, showing that contamination from each ionic state is <10% when the spectrometer is set to each peak in the cross section. The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Xenon1.txt. This indicates that PCI is once again not the dominant mechanism producing the cross section at this energy. The relative magnitude of this peak compared to the lobes at 110A° and 250A° then increases in magnitude as the energy increases, as with krypton and argon. This result indicates that fine structure does not appear to play a significant role in electron collision processes at these energies.
The marked contrast between results for helium and all other noble gas targets demand that these models carefully consider the intricacies of the interaction, since a simple extension of the basic physical ideas presented for helium cannot explain the experimental data. For argon and krypton the relative magnitude of this peak increases with respect to the side lobes until it reaches a maximum, then decreases to become insignificant at the highest energies measured.
This process has always been considered as the dominant mechanism at higher incident energies, yet the new results presented here indicate these ideas need to be revisited for this heavy target. There are three floors, an open plan living room on the bottom floor, the private areas in the middle and an office space to literally top it all. It has 28.000 mq and is made up of 7 volumes that contain offices (each volume is made up of 4 floors located on different levels). The petals, different for their geometry and dimension, reaches almost 35 meters and they are supported by a structure of steel pillars with a tree shape, visible, as well as the petals, externally and internally from the building. As a result, the house consists of two originally shaped wings, partially merged to form the letter “V”. Inside the house are three split-level storeys, connected by paper-like stairs with white surfaces and black undersides.
A whimsical and artistic giving back to the parkland legacy is provided at first floor level in the form of a steel sheet external graphic ‘applique’ and internal decal. It allows you to work on a couple of projects at the same time with full visibility and control over them. Even if you have many projects in many companies you are still able to manage all your to-dos. Every single detail of your project which is crucial to you will appear in a transparent way.
The facades were located according to the movement of light and shadows to help enhance the interior design.
The module system would help in construction time by installing the prefabricated units in place and floor slabs. PV glazing modules can be integrated into a building as non-view windows, skylights as shown in this building. During the sunlight hours a 12-ampere hour battery stores the solar energy and then utilizes it for charging. Maria Simbra of KDKA Pittsburgh Publicly tell the World, on the Internet and TV, whether AHN murders healthy patients for organs, via fabricated diagnosis, fraudulent life-support, torture thereby, and Morphine overdose. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American.
Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements.
The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case.
Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low.
Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent.
Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national.
A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12.
Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
Their design was a glass replica of the twin towers with rectangular holes where the airplanes struck. His design includes uniformed honor guards, firefighters and cops watching over a tomb in defense of the nation. The human body uses three types of molecules to yield the necessary energy to drive ATP synthesis: fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Via a series of oxidation-reduction reactions, mitochondria degrade fatty acids, amino acids, and pyruvate (the end product of glucose degradation in the cytoplasm) into several intermediate compounds, as well as into the reduced electron carrier coenzymes NADH and FADH2 (Figure 1).
Both the apparatus (enzymes) and the physical environment necessary for the oxidation of these molecules are contained in the mitochondria. Although these proportions may fall to about 60% depending on the nutritional status and the intensity of contractions, fatty acids may be considered the major fuel consumed by cardiac muscle.
Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue cells also utilize glucose in significant proportions, but only at the absorptive stage - that is, right after a regular meal. Although that may sound strange, human red blood cells are the most common cells lacking mitochondria. In most physiological situations, the blood-brain barrier prevents the access of lipids to the cells of the central nervous system (CNS). For the data presented here, the perpendicular plane was chosen, so only the mutual angle phi = xi1 + xi2 is relevant.
The combined coincidence energy resolution of the unselected energy electron gun and the two analysers is ~1eV. Krypton has 36 electrons and has a ground state configuration [Ar]3d104s24p6, while xenon has 54 electrons with a ground state configuration [Kr]4d105s25p6.
This type of threshold behaviour was first predicted by Wannier and was later considered by Peterkop, Rau and others to explain results in this regime.
This mechanism was considered as being the main reason for the peak at 180A° until the work of Madison and co-workers in 2009 showed the probability of this occurring was low. As the energy increases further, the peaks separate in angle, and the minimum at 180A° deepens.
This angular shift of the side lobes is consistent with PCI playing a continuing role in the interaction, since as the energy increases the effects of PCI diminish, and the electrons move away from 180A° as is observed.
The data files for these results can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file Krypton.txt. However, unlike krypton and argon whose central peak reaches a maximum and then decreases, the central peak in xenon continues to dominate the cross section as the energy rises. Further, the frozen core approximation often adopted in these models which treat all non-ionized electrons as spectators does not appear valid for the heavier targets when compared to neon, even thought the outer valence electrons have the same p-type character. The modern technologies are applied a lot: a heat pump and low temperature underfloor heating, natural ventilation, high insulation values of roof walls and floor, special heat-resistant glass, a sedum roof, attention to thermal bridging details and orientation.
These volumes are placed around a ”central public square”, which is the core of the project, where there is the front office services. The Tbilisi Public Service Hall includes: the National Bank of Georgia, the Minister of Energy, the Civil and National Registry.
In between, a small garden reigns, allowing inhabitants to enjoy green space within the comfort of their property. A poured-in-place concrete structure is wrapped in wood planks and topped with a series of green roofs, extending view out to the nires forest. The color and material palette is deliberately restrained so as not to compete with the exterior, or with the family’s accumulated artwork and furnishings”. The components of this software provide a wide range of possibilities such as estimation and planning, scheduling, managing tasks and time. You can lie in this chair comfortably, with a lap top or a book and recharge this device or something else. Keystone Rehabilitation Systems KFC Klauscher Architects Knights of Columbus Council #1400 Jonathon Kohler, DDS P.C. Monda, DMD Mount Assisi Academy PreschoolMount Zion Baptist Church Mt Assisi Convent Mt Nazareth Center Muddy Cup Coffee House Lisa M. Hickton was involved in a wide range of community activities, and has long been an active supporter of and participant in organizations which benefit children and the arts.
This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D.
Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead.
Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama.
He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975.
He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. There was a 70-foot glass sculpture of a pair of hands cupped together reaching for the heavens, and a sort of paddle-wheel thing that people pushed, and when they pushed it, it generated energy, and the energy was used to power spotlights, and the spotlights shone up into the sky, and the intensity of the shine, well, it depended on how many people were pushing the wheel.
The intermediates enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, also giving rise to NADH and FADH2. Other examples include tissues of the eyes, such as the lens, which is almost totally devoid of mitochondria; and the outer segment of the retina, which contains the photosensitive pigment.
They proposed a triple scattering mechanism to describe this peak, where the incident electron first scatters elastically from the nucleus so as to enter the detection plane, followed by a binary inelastic collision with a bound electron, followed by elastic scattering of one of the electrons back from the nucleus. This trend continues up to the highest energy which was possible to measure (70eV above the IP), where the central peak is seen to be broad with a width ~100A°. It is hence likely that these assumptions will need to be relaxed to accurately model the data.
The authors used much wood in architecture and interior design, so the house looks cozy, inviting and warm, and the owners and guests may enjoy stunning lake views. Offices are connected to each other by internal footbridges that stretches on different levels. The swimming pool acts as an extension of the building, which is characterized by the architects as “a fluid volume that is detached from the floor to the front turning down until fully backward lean. The wooden decked terrace is probably the most spectacular feature of the residence and a great place for family dinners or late night informal gatherings. All the construction was done in exposed concrete and wood to assure the low maintenance requirements as well as the adequate aging of the space with the natural patina that will acquire with time. Usual softwood panels may be used for storing solar energy, this is a great solution, especially if you spend much time outdoors. The original home was built in 1984 and underwent many modifications and additions throughout the years. He is a past Executive Board Member of the Pittsburgh Public Theater, and served as its President. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization.
Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G.
Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black.
449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
The worldwide impact of the tragedy is emphasized by recognizing the international scope of the loss. Still, they wanted to remain involved and to contribute something -- anything, please -- because their energies and passions, the collective vat of their creative juices, really, could you throw it all away? These molecules enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the mitochondrion to be completely oxidized to CO2, with concomitant reduction of NAD+ and FAD to NADH and FADH2, respectively. These reduced electron carriers are themselves oxidized via the electron transport chain, with concomitant consumption of oxygen and ATP synthesis (Figure 1). Indeed, fatty acids are the main source of energy in skeletal muscle during rest and mild-intensity exercise. The cortex cells of the kidneys need a constant supply of energy for continual blood filtration, and so does the liver to accomplish its important biosynthetic functions. You may have already guessed that these cells and tissues then must produce ATP by metabolizing glucose only. In prolonged fasting, however, ketone bodies released in the blood by liver cells as part of the continual metabolization of fatty acids are used as fuels for ATP production by CNS cells. This complex mechanism was found to emulate the cross section more closely compared to the single scattering process originally envisaged. As for all measurements in this study, the DCS must be zero for the electrons emerging at the same angle (0A°, 360A°), due to post collisional interactions between outgoing electrons of equal energy.
At all energies greater than 40eV above the IP, the outer peaks seen in all other targets have disappeared.
The work gives the feeling of movement, of a compact mass that was pulled up to the present form. From various high performance insulation systems to solar panels, water reuse and smart ventilation ideas, this home ensures a modern and responsible lifestyle. Nevertheless, we decided to create a new “Recent activity” feature in order to make our members’ lives easier! The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks.
He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996.
In these situations, glucose is degraded to pyruvate, which is then promptly converted to lactate (Figure 2). In both situations and unlike red blood cells, however, CNS cells are extremely metabolically active and do have mitochondria. This is emphasized with the longitudinal windows and unevenness in the top of the facades.” The interiors are minimalist and elegant, inspiring an overall sober feel.
Other secondary factors that influence the substrate of choice for muscle include exercise duration, gender, and training status. Unexpected lines and angles determine a visual connection with the exterior, while generous windows make this bond unbreakable.
86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. Although not highly metabolically active, red blood cells are abundant, resulting in the continual uptake of glucose molecules from the bloodstream. Indeed, the daily consumption of nerve cells is about 120 g of glucose equivalent, which corresponds to an input of about 420 kilocalories (1,760 kilojoules).
Additionally, there are cells that, despite having mitochondria, rely almost exclusively on lactic acid fermentation for ATP production.
This figure accounts for 60% of glucose utilization (or 20% of the energy needs of the human body in the resting state). This is the case for renal medulla cells, whose oxygenated blood supply is not adequate to accomplish oxidative phosphorylation. However, most remaining cell types in the human body have mitochondria, adequate oxygen supply, and access to all three fuel molecules. Seven World Trade Center was not actually on the same plot of land as the rest of the World, Trace Center complex.




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