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He asked another Pfizer chemist, Willard Welch, to synthesize some previously unexplored tametraline derivatives. Welch then prepared stereoisomers of this compound, which were tested in vivo by animal behavioral scientist Albert Weissman. The survey of feed ingredients in each country covered all materials of proven value as fish feeds currently used in traditional aquaculture as well as those materials heretofore not utilized as such in that country but, by virtue of their nutrient composition and established safety for use on livestock, are considered suitable for incorporation into formulated feeds for fish. The feedstuffs described below represent the broad spectrum of feed raw materials known to be available among the twelve countries covered in the survey. Selection was based on known value or potential value of individual feed ingredient for aquaculture production.
Few comparative feeding trials have been conducted to evaluate the relative feed values of common feedstuffs for fish. Legumes are potentially a valuable feed resource for aquaculture in the tropics because of their widespread distribution in those areas. The ipil-ipil is one of the two legumes whose leaves and stems have been used commercially on a regular basis in animal feed manufacture in many parts of Asia.
The alfalfa is the better known of the two legumes whose leaves and stems are exploited commercially as a principal ingredient in compound feed manufacture. A shrub native of Mexico, the mesquite produces an abundant crop of pods which are sugary and contain seeds rich in protein. The mung bean is a native of central Asia, grown primarily for the bean which serves as food for humans.
Grown primarily for its seeds which are used for human consumption, the red bean is found throughout tropical Asia. Also a herb found in tropical Asia, the seeds of the horse gram are used as concentrate feed for cattle.
Although there are many varieties of fodder plants which can be fed to fish, their exploitation for this purpose, for the most part, has been hindered by low digestibility of nutrients and difficulty in obtaining adequate and regular supplies. Mainly cultivated for food, the kangkong has also been used as stock feed in South East Asia. The sago palm, which often proliferates in freshwater swamps, is valued for the starch contained in its trunk. For the most part, roots and tubers are grown as food for human consumption in the tropics.
Cassava has low feed value in diets for fish but its presence in small quantities improves the water stability of pelleted feed. Grown primarily for human consumption, cereal grains are no less important as feed for efficient animal production.
While cereal grains are considered mainly as a source of dietary energy, their byproducts represent a fairly rich source of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Cereal grains sometimes constitute a significant percentage of fish feed processed into pellets. Grown primarily for human consumption, millet is only occasionally available as feed for livestock. Rice is seldom used for animal feeding because of its high cost, although damaged grain and portions considered unfit for human consumption, viz., sweepings from warehouses and mills, are available for that purpose.
Where available, rice bran has been successfully used in compound fish feeds for both warm as well as cold water species. Although primarily a crop of temperate countries, wheat is also grown in parts of the tropics where there is a long period of relatively cool weather.
Wheat, often used as an ingredient of compound fish feed in temperate countries is seldom used in the tropics because of its high cost.
Milling of wheat produces three major by-products, two of which are almost exclusively used as feed for livestock. Maize is grown throughout the tropics and is the principal cereal grain employed in the feeding of livestock. Wet milling of maize is an industrial process for production of valuable components of the maize kernel. In the tropics and sub-tropics, soyabean, groundnut, and sesame (gingelly) are the principal oil seeds yielding protein-rich oilcake or meal after oil removal. Oil extraction from seed or fruit is carried out by two methods: by pressing, or with chemical solvents.
The oil meal that is produced as a by-product of the solvent extraction process has a very low fat content; often less than 1 percent.
Quality in groundnut oilcake depends on whether the material is made from decorticated nuts. Coconut oilcake is widely available as a feed for fish and livestock in countries such as Sri Lanka, Indonesia and the Philippines. One of the main problems in its use is the tendency of coconut fat to turn rancid in storage. Soyabean meal is a good source of essential amino acids (EAA) and is one of very few plant sources rich in lysine. Considerable work has been carried out on the extent to which processed soyabean products can replace fish meal as a protein source in fish diets.
An important factor limiting usage of cottonseed cake or meal in fish feed is its gossypol content. Although the amino acid profile of cottonseed protein is somewhat similar to that of soyabean, and superior to that of groundnut, the danger posed by high gossypol content makes it unwise to use cottonseed meal beyond 15 percent in fish diets. Cottonseed meal is available in limited quantities in the majority of the countries surveyed, except in Egypt and India, where there are large annual crops of cotton and the feedstuff is the principal protein source for feeds. The seed of the rubber tree has only been exploited recently as a protein source for animal feeding. Rubber seed oilcake is available in rubber producing countries such as Brazil, Sri Lanka, India (southern states), and the South East Asian countries.
Linseed, or flax, is grown for the production of fibre and linseed oil - a drying oil used widely in paints. Linseed oilcake is available in considerable quantities in India where it is safely fed to cattle and in lesser quantities in Thailand. Although sesame oilcake usually has a higher fibre content than groundnut oilcake, the protein content of both feedstuffs are about the same.
One distinguishing characteristic of feedstuffs of animal origin is their high protein quality.
Animal protein supplements, or meat meals, are the principal by-products of animal slaughterhouses. The quality of meat meal as a protein supplement depends on its production process as well as raw material used. Meat meal is imported by the majority of the countries covered in this survey to augment local supplies to meet the needs of the feed milling industry.
Fresh blood may be used to enrich commonly available feedstuffs such as rice bran and wheat bran in fish diets.
Because animal blood is widely available in most countries, often at little or no cost, its use in aquaculture diets can help lower feed cost.
Bone meals are made by heat processing of animal bones followed by grinding to produce a fine powder. With the development of fish diets containing ever-decreasing content of animal protein such as fish meal and meat meal, bone meal may become more prominant as a dietary source of calcium and phosphorus.
Hydrolyzed poultry feather meal is more commonly used as a nitrogen source in ruminant feeding. Feather meal is available in those countries that have a highly developed and integrated poultry industry.
By-catches of the fishing industry have traditionally been used as raw materials for fish meal production or as feed for livestock and fish. Although fish meal production in countries such as Thailand and Peru is an industrial activity linked to world demand for this important feed commodity, in other developing countries it remains a way of utilizing surpluses and fish that cannot be sold for human consumption. Another contaminant of fish meal is urea, sometimes added by unscrupulous merchants to give an otherwise inferior product a deceptively high crude protein content.
When properly prepared, fish silage contains practically all the nutrients of the raw fish. Efforts so far in the use for fish silage in Indo-Pacific region have been for feeding poultry and pigs. Shrimp meal is made from freezing-plant waste (heads and scales) or from whole shrimps not suitable for human consumption. Because crustacea also contain carotenoid pigments, shrimp meal has long been used in trout and salmon diets to improve flesh colouration in the fish.
Fly larvae grown on animal wastes have also been successfully used as a protein source in diets for tilapia and channel catfish (Bondari, K. Milk by-products such as milk powder, due to their high cost, are seldom used in preparing fish feed, although the milk protein, casein, is widely used in purified diets for experimental purposes.
Whey and dairy-processing wastes have been successfully used at the 10 percent level in diets for rainbow trout (Rumsey, G.L. Apart from the ingredients described in the preceding sections, there are also feed materials which do not quite fit into the categories mentioned above in this section.
Leaf protein concentrate is produced by first grinding the plant and then separating the juice by pressing.
The machinery required for large-scale production of LPC is expensive; the minimum economical output being 10 tons of leaf protein per hour.
High processing cost of juice extraction is a major constraint in wider use of LPC in compound feeds. Cane molasses is predominantly sugar of which roughly half is sucrose and the other half reducing sugars.
Because of its relative cheapness and wide availability in the tropics, molasses is a good partial replacement for the more expensive cereal grains as an energy source.
Because molasses ferments rapidly it may also be added in small quantities along with rice bran to trash fish in the production of fish silage.
Brewer's spent grains, or brewery waste, as they are often termed, are residues from the initial breakdown of starch to fermentable sugars in beer manufacture. Raw brewery waste is available in considerable quantities in large urban areas of most countries, including those covered in this survey. Fish have a relatively high requirement for lipids that serve as a source of poly-unsatured fatty acid and as an energy source. The following gives the PUFA content of fats from a wide variety of animal and plant sources. Using this information together with lipid content of ingredients provided in Table 1, one could determine if a certain diet is likely to be deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bacterial protein is among the single-celled proteins (SCP) that have received increasing attention in recent years. The most commonly used and widely available SCP for animal feeding is torula yeast (Candida utilis). Feed-grade yeast have been shown to be excellent substitutes for fish meal at low levels in diets for both fish and livestock.
Yeasts from molasses and other industrial wastes are less costly to produce than paraffin-grown yeasts. It will be noted that 'food quotient' values, derived mainly from traditional feeding practices, and frequently employed to compare the value of individual feedstuffs in supplementary feeding of fish, have been omitted in the present consideration. Food quotient values reflect not only the nutrient composition of individual feedstuffs, but also the contribution, if any, of natural foods present in the culture medium in particular situations. The Feed Code is an alpha-numeric term employed by FAO for generic classification and identification of feedstuffs. The nutritive value of an aquaculture diet depends not only upon proper balance of nutrients according to requirements, but also on it being free from anti-nutritive factors that might have been present in the ingredients and remain active after processing. It has been determined from human as well as animal studies that chicken eggs are the richest and best source of food protein. The most commonly encountered class of feed toxins of plant origin are the protease inhibitors. Overnight soaking or germination of the beans, while bringing about improvement in their nutritive value, does not destroy the trypsin inhibitors.
These toxins, which cause red blood cells to agglutinate, are present in almost all legume seeds.
Goitrogen effects have only been demonstrated in two legume seeds, the soyabean and the groundnut. Cassava and sorghum are the two feeds most often associated with cyanide poisoning in livestock. Antivitamin D and antivitamin E factors are known to be present in raw soyabeans and raw kidney beans, respectively.
Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), a tropical legume exploited as a feed for chicken and livestock, contains a cyclic amino acid, mimosine, which is toxic at high levels. For Treatment Of Feline Herpes Virus (fhv-1) Enisyl-f Is A Palatable Lysine Paste That Comes In A Unique Dial-a-dose Syringe For Easy And Accurate Administration. Tear Stain Supplement Is Formulated To Help Eliminate Unsightly Tear Stains From The Inside Out.
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Catslim Is A Meal Replacement And Food Supplement That Helps Cats Achieve And Maintain Proper Weight.all Natural, Low-calorie, And High In Dietary Fiber. This amount includes seller specified US shipping charges as well as applicable international shipping, handling, and other fees. Estimated delivery dates - opens in a new window or tab include seller's handling time, origin ZIP Code, destination ZIP Code and time of acceptance and will depend on shipping service selected and receipt of cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab.
This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. Will usually ship within 1 business day of receiving cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab. By submitting your bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder.
By clicking Confirm, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Some feedstuffs are indigenous to a few countries and are not available even as imported items elsewhere. Studies reported in the literature deal primarily with high protein feed materials (Fowler, L.G. Although grown mainly for human consumption, the seeds of the chick pea are frequently used as feed for poultry and livestock.
The seeds of the lablab, which are fairly rich in protein, have been fed as concentrates to livestock, but have not been evaluated in fish.
Ipil-ipil leaf meal is fairly rich in protein but may not be fed at excessive levels to farm animals due to the presence of the toxic amino acid mimosine. Both the leaves and seeds are rich in protein, the latter fed at up to 20 percent in rations for monogastric animals.
Alfalfa meal, unlike ipil-ipil, does not appear to contain anti-nutritive factors that limit its use in compound feeds. Its leaves are rich in digestible protein and its seeds are often fed as concentrates to poultry. It has not been evaluated as a feed for fish, but only the seeds appear suitable for use in compound feed.
Although not evaluated in fish, because of their low fibre content, these seeds appear suitable for use at moderate levels in compound fish feeds. Two exceptions in this category are the sago and the kangkong which are relatively abundant in the tropics and which have high feed value for animals because of their high digestibility. The starch, which is normally extracted in small village mills, has a variety of industrial uses apart from its value as food.
However, because of their high starch content, some varieties are grown as industrial raw material.
Most varieties are toxic unless properly processed to prevent the release of hydrocyanic acid by an enzyme present in the tuber. Present-day high energy diets for monogastric farm animals often contain up to 80 percent cereal grains and their by-products. Starch present in cereals act as good, natural binders when gelatinized under normal pelleting conditions, giving products that have high water stability.


In a few countries, notably Thailand, where it is the principal grain crop, rice of low commercial value such as broken rice is also used as livestock feed. Instead, broken rice (polished) and cargo rice (unpolished) are used in the preparation of traditional type fish feeds as well as in compound diet formulations. The oil is sometimes recovered by solvent extraction because of its high commercial value, especially in countries where demand for cooking oil exceeds supply. The material, therefore, contains a higher proportion of starch but is lower in protein and fibre content. The amount of tannic acid in sorghum depends not only on the variety of sorghum but also on the conditions under which the crop is cultivated.
Damaged grain is, however, frequently available and when fed to fish is at least equivalent to maize in feed value. The main products of the process are: corn oil and starch (from which dextrins and glucose are obtained after further processing). Although many varieties of seeds and fruits are cultivated primarily for their oil content, the protein-rich residues left after oil removal represent an immense resource upon which the world's production of animal protein for human consumption largely depends. The product obtained by pressing is termed oilcake and that by solvent extraction, oil meal. Solvent extraction plants are technically more sophisticated than the screw expeller mills and their operation is economical only for processing large quantities of oil seeds or fruits. Temperatures involved in the solvent extraction process are generally low compared to the expeller process.
It has been demonstrated in India that diets consisting of 50 percent of the material as the principal protein source can be used in complete feeding of carps. On the average, 1 000 nuts yield 60 kg oilcake (called poonac in South India and Sri Lanka).
The effects of feeding rancid coconut oilcake to fish have not been studied, although short-chain free fatty acids in the diet have been shown to suppress growth in at least two species, the trout and channel catfish. In recent years, soyabean meal has been increasingly used as a substitute for more expensive fish meal in compound fish feeds. The seed is processed by first removing the lint and then cutting the tough hull to release the kernel.
The leaves and stems of the plant, at two months, are rich in protein and low in fibre and are suitable as feed for fish.
It is also richer in the sulphur-amino acids than soyabean meal although its lysine content is much lower. The release of prussic (hydrocyanic) acid in raw rubber seeds is prevented by wet-heat processing, which destroys the enzyme that produces it from a glucoside present in the seed. The oilcake has a protein content comparable to cottonseed oilcake but is considerably richer in methionine. Use of the material in compound fish feed in these countries has not been documented, however. Furthermore, sesame oilcake is very rich in methionine (in fact, the richest among oilcakes and meals).
Animal proteins are rich in essential amino acids (EAA's), especially lysine and methionine that are limiting in most plant proteins. They include meat scraps and trimmings after the fat has been removed during the rendering process, as well as internal organs of slaughtered animals.
Although dried blood has a high-protein content and is highly digestible, its amino acid content is not as well balanced as that of muscle tissue. This is due mainly to its deficiency in most of the EAA's, thus making it unsuitable as a source of animal protein for other livestock. Among the countries surveyed, only Venezuela, Mexico and Thailand appear to produce it on an industrial scale.
However, rapid deterioration in quality accompanied by loss of nutrients, particularly protein, occurs with time, unless the fish are frozen. The other countries with the exception of land-locked Nepal, also possess this resource, but have not utilized it to the same degree in aquaculture. Some backyard fish meal factories in West Malaysia dry the processed fish over fire in concrete tubs.
Good quality fish meal should also contain no more than 2 percent salt added as a preservative before processing, and, if kept for long periods before use, should contain an anti-oxidant. It is especially rich in the EAA's lysine and methionine and minerals, and is highly digestible for fish. Although developed upon the need for a less expensive method for preserving trash fish, it is also a cheaper alternative to fish meal for use in aquaculture diets.
A project at the FAO Regional Lead Centre for Aquaculture in Thailand (RLCT), studies the effects of fish-carbohydrate silage on the growth of snake-head. When fed fresh they are a good source of protein as well as fats (especially unsaturated fatty acids). Nevertheless, quite often milk powder and even cheese become available as surplus or damaged items unsuitable for human consumption. Its protein quality, on the other hand, is higher than that of the latter but lower than that of fish meal. However, where high quality protein sources such as fish meal and soyabean meal are not available or are prohibitively expensive, LPC may be an acceptable substitute. Its principal use in the production of compound feed for poultry and livestock is as a dietary energy source, although it also enhances acceptance of the feed. Presumably, its level of usage should not exceed 5 percent of the dry diet, considering its established laxative effect (when used beyond 5 percent for poultry and 15 percent for pigs). The material, if mixed with other feedstuffs before feeding, should first be boiled to deactivate enzymes that may otherwise act on carbohydrates to produce alcohol, and then organic acids.
It is usually discarded by the breweries and, therefore, like fresh animal blood from abattoirs, obtainable at little or no cost. The quantities recovered are not as great as brewer's grains, but the material has a higher feed value and contains more than twice as much protein on a dry weight basis. Their composition depends upon the type of grain used, viz., maize, sorghum, wheat or rice. They constitute the non-fat residues of crude oil plus the alkaline salts of free fatty acids that are removed in the refining process.
The production of algal blooms and benthic algal complexes through fertilization and water management have been practised in Asia for long.
This is cultured on substrates comprising a variety of industrial wastes, including: molasses, dried citrus pulp, or sulphite liquor from the wood pulp and paper industries. The amount of substitution depends upon the type of yeast and the manner in which it is produced.
Nevertheless, due to the high cost of fuel for drying, yeasts as a class of feedstuffs, are still more expensive to use than other protein supplements of vegetable origin. The data have been drawn from sources as noted, including the results of actual analysis at the Regional Aquaculture Lead Centre in India (RLCI). In the search for less expensive substitutes for animal protein, certain plant proteins, particularly those belonging to the Leguminosae family, have emerged as the most promising. Such being the case, egg protein has been used as a standard against which other food proteins are compared.
The values of some animal proteins, including fish meal, have been included for comparison. Indeed, fish meal has been successfully replaced by soyabean meal and yeast after proper supplementation with methionine. These include: trypsin inhibitors, phytohaemagglutinins, goitrogens, cyanogenetic glycosides, anti-vitamin factors, and toxic amino acids.
Most well known among these is the trypsin inhibitor occurring in raw legume seeds, particularly soyabean. The degree of deactivation of the toxin depends upon the applied temperature, duration of heating, particle size and moisture conditions. The potency of the toxin, however, varies from species to species, with those of Phaseolus vulgaris among the most potent. Other feeds are linseed meal and certain legume seeds, including the lima bean, the kidney bean, the Bengal gram and the red gram. The amino acid is stable to heat and its permanence in the leaf limits use of ipil ipil to less than 20 percent of the diet for most classes of livestock. Pro-vite Supplement For Cats Is Your Felinea€™s Perfect Companion In Having Remarkable Health And Longer Life. Highly Concentrated Formula That Naturally Helps Curb Appetites While Helping To Metabolize Fat.
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The list is not exhaustive and does not include live foods and animal waste materials such as manure used primarily for increasing natural productivity in ponds. Despite the many varieties that have been identified for use as fodder for livestock, only a few have been utilized commercially for feed manufacture. The upper (leafy) part of the plant has a high protein content and is usually fed to cattle. Although not evaluated as a feed for fish, it is presumed to be safe for inclusion as a major constituent in compound fish feed. This plant is not to be confused with lab-lab, an algal complex fed to milkfish in the Philippines. Ipil-ipil has been used at low concentrations (5-10 percent) in compound fish feed in Thailand and the Philippines without noticeable adverse effects. Although not evaluated as a feed for fish, it is believed that the seeds of the lupin can be fed at moderate amounts to fish without harm. Although not evaluated in fish, ready acceptance of both leaves and seeds by poultry indicates its safeness. Although not evaluated as feed for fish, the absence of glucosides in the seeds makes them safe for use at moderate levels. Kangkong has been fed successfully to carps in Sri Lanka as a principal component of compound feed. The unrefined starch, or meal, has been fed to livestock and is considered equally safe for fish.
The use of grains is somewhat restricted in fish diets because of generally lower tolerance for dietary carbohydrates by fish. Consequently, cereal grains are indispensable in the manufacture of floating-type pelleted feed. Judging from favourable growth response of monogastric farm animals fed the cereal, millet should, at least, be comparable to maize in feeding value.
On the other hand, by-products from mills are more generally available and constitute the most important feed resource in all rice-producing countries. The oil present in the bran is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids which undergo rapid oxidation under normal storage conditions.
Its protein content is somewhat higher than fresh rice bran while its energy content is lower. It is not produced in as large quantities as rice bran, and, in most mills, is often mixed with the latter to give rice pollard. In Mexico where maize is normally reserved for human consumption, sorghum is used as a substitute in compound feed for trout and carp.
Because it is also high in fibre, it has a laxative effect when fed at excessive levels to animals. Wheat pollard also contains a higher proportion of gluten which is a good natural binder for pelleted feed production.
These plants are found in most of the countries that came under this survey, although they are more prominent in some than in others. Because of this and because of the need to de-activate antinutritive factors generally present in some oil seeds, toasting of the extracted residues follows solvent recovery. Its high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content also makes further addition of fats to such diets unnecessary.
Compared with residues of oil seed extraction, coconut oilcake is low in protein and high in fibre.
The residue of the palm kernel has a slightly lower protein content than coconut oilcake or meal but its feed value is not very different. Because of this, and because the seeds can be easily flaked by crushing, oil removal of flaked soyabean is carried out by solvent extraction. Soyabean meal has a relatively low methionine content which can be corrected by addition of synthetic forms of the amino acid in the feed. The high PUFA content in full-fat soyabean makes supplementing with extraneous PUFA's unnecessary. It is the yellow pigment which constitutes 20 to 40 percent of the substances inside the glands of the seed kernel. The gossypol effect may be counteracted by the addition of ferrous sulphate, although the level of additions required has not been established for fish.
Use of rubber seed oilcake in fish feeds has not been documented although it appears that its use will be safe at or below the level used in chicken feeds (between 10-15 percent of the diet).
Linseed cake, like rubber-seed oilcake, contains an enzyme that releases prussic acid from a glucoside present in the seed. Experiments on the rohu (Labeo rohita) in India have shown that up to 50 percent of gingelly oilcake may be fed in a complete diet with good results. Animal proteins are also rich in trace minerals, vitamins and identified growth factors (UGF). Meat meal is frequently used as an animal protein source in compound fish feed manufacture although its feed value is generally considered inferior to that of soyabean meal and fish meal (Fowler, L.G. In combination with rumen contents, fresh bovine blood has successfully substituted for fish meal in channel catfish diets (Reece, D.L. Depending on the processing method employed, bone meal can contain up to 36 percent protein. Its protein is predominantly keratin, very rich in the non-EAA cystine (as high as 25 percent). In tropical waters in the Indo-Pacific region, the threadfin snapper (Lutianus nematophorus) Malaysia, and the silverbelly (Leiognathus splendens) India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, are among the principal species caught (Disney, 1979; Disney and James, 1980). Certain marine species also contain high levels of the enzyme thiaminase which is activated at post mortem. Although the meal is mechanically stirred during this operation, without proper supervision, over-cooking frequently occurs.
Although widely used to supply these nutrients in fish diets in Western countries, fish oil is seldom used in commercial fish feed manufacture in developing countries.
It is used in commercial salmon farming in Denmark and Norway and in experiments in developing countries involving warm-water species, viz the snake-head in Thailand, and the carp in Indonesia.
Another desirable aspect of fish silage as an ingredient for moist pellet production is its good binding properties.
Because shrimp exoskeleton is primarily chitin, an indigestible nitrogen-containing homopolysaccharide, the true protein content of shrimp meal made from freezing-plant wastes is only 50 percent of the value obtained by proximate analysis. Although materials such as leaf protein concentrate (LPC) and some single cell proteins (SCP) can be included among them, others such as molasses and yeast have long been among common ingredients used in the formulation of feeds for livestock and fish.
The raw juice that is pressed out can be used directly by blending with other dry components, and the entire mixture subjected to heat treatment before extrusion into moist pellets.
Its incorporation into pelleted feed has a positive effect on the physical properties of the pellets. Ordinarily, the wet material may be kept for up to two weeks at ambient temperature without spoilage. The effect has been attributed to unidentified growth factors believed to be present in the material.
Other effects of addition of fats in manufactured diets are prolongation of pelleting die life and reduction of dustiness during milling operations.
Soapstocks can be fed safely to fish at up to 5 percent of the total diet without adverse effects. Certain species of Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Spirulina have been established as excellent feed for larvae of many cultured species of fish (Rumsey, G.L. Where values of proximate analysis of particular ingredients from the corresponding countries are not available, published values for comparable materials available in other countries have been substituted. A deficiency in one essential nutrient may affect the absorption and utilization of others, and an excess may also have the same undesirable effects.


These new protein sources are especially important because they are widely available in the tropics.
Although the basis for applying this standard to fish feeds has not been established, it is generally recognized that, based on recently completed work involving feeding different protein sources to fish, amino acid content rather than source determines the nutritive value of protein feeds. The leguminous seeds, quite surprisingly, are relatively rich in lysine, the amino acid that is most often the first to be limiting in compound feed. Of particular interest is the high score of the beans (mung and red) which, although having comparatively low protein content, hold promise as substitutes for fish meal as well.
Soyabean trypsin inhibitors are totally deactivated by moist heat at 100°C for 15-20 minutes.
Phytohaemagglutinins are also heat labile, but care should be taken to ensure that adequate heat (normal boiling temperature) is applied. Cooking in water not only destroys the enzymes responsible for cyanide release, but also volatilizes the HCN released. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable.
These materials include the feed grains, oilcake and meals, animal by-products (including fish meal), and an assortment of industrial and agricultural waste products. Because the quality of the same feed material is expected to vary from country to country, indeed among different production sources within a country, there is no single set of compositional analysis that can be generally applied in the feed formulation process. Certain food materials normally reserved for human consumption have also been included because of occasional availability of substantial quantities rendered unsafe for that purpose but usable as feed for fish and livestock.
The material has a high feed value and, although not evaluated in fish, probably can be used at fairly high levels in compound fish feed.
Roots and tubers are also suitable for feeding to fish, although their use for this purpose appears very limited due to their relatively high cost.
The leaves of the sweet potato are highly digestible, free from toxins, and fairly rich in protein. This effect appears to be more pronounced among cold-water species such as the trout than among warm-water species. Pelleted feed containing a high proportion of de-oiled rice bran are not very water-stable. However, maize is usually used in finely ground form as an energy component in compound feeds. The presses used in this process are of relatively simple design and can be fabricated quite easily. Where they are located, these plants are usually used for extraction of oil from soyabeans that are either grown domestically, or imported. Due to the relatively mild treatment given to oil meals, these products have a comparatively higher feed value than expeller cakes. Because groundnut protein is especially low in methionine, the oilcake should be used with methionine-rich protein supplements or with synthetic methionine to achieve a proper balance of essential amino acids in the diet.
In a few countries there are two varieties of groundnut oilcake: the mill produced and the 'country' produced. It is difficult to make a water-stable pelleted feed if the formulation contains too much coconut oilcake, as the material tends to absorb large amounts of water, causing the pellet to disintegrate.
Anti-nutritive factors, principally urease and trypsin inhibitor present in the raw bean are usually destroyed by heat during the oil extraction process.
The kernels are then crushed and the oil removed by mechanical means or by solvent extraction. The amount of gossypol is proportional to the number of glands present as it does not occur elsewhere in the seed.
The range for land species varies from 1 part ferrous sulphate to 1 part free gossypol for pigs to 4 parts to 1 part for poultry layers. Sesame oilcake and groundnut oilcake used in combination can substitute for the more expensive animal proteins such as meat meal or fish meal. The presence of certain animal proteins, particularly fish meal, even in small amounts, can greatly improve the nutritional value of the entire diet. Animal rendering on a commercial scale is more frequently practised in countries where animal slaughter is stringently regulated and where the internal organs of animals are not valued as human foods. Much of this protein is, however, of low quality since it is mainly collagen, the substance extracted industrially from bones to produce gelatin and glue. Thiaminase destroys thiamine, a B-vitamin otherwise present in considerable amounts in fish.
The second method involves the cooking of whole fish followed by pressing to remove the oil and finally grinding up of the press cake after it has been dried in a steam jacket.
This high content of indigestible matter restricts its use to less than 25 percent in aquaculture diets (Randall Robinette, H.
Unless finely ground, shrimp meal added in large amounts to the diet may result in difficulty in obtaining good quality pellets. Due to the high content of chitin in silkworm pupae, its actual protein value is only 75 percent of the value obtained by proximate analysis. The availability of these miscellaneous feedstuffs varies from country to country, but quantities presently involved are small. Heat processing will not only destroy most of the toxins and anti-nutritive factors present in the raw juice, but will also lead to production of pellets with good water stability since the soluble protein in LPC coagulates on heating. If longer storage is desired, it should be ensiled or dried, the latter process usually preferred by large breweries.
Raw brewer's yeast should also be boiled before use in fish feed to de-activate the enzymes present.
The first is known as the British process which involves the two basic steps of grain conversion, followed by separation of spent grains, fermentation of sugars to alcohol and final distillation of the product. Due to its lower availability and higher feed value, distillery wastes are usually more expensive than brewery wastes.
The rate and degree of rancidity occurring in untreated fats depend on its PUFA composition. Even then, these are usually refined for human consumption, and with the exception of crude palm oil, are too expensive to use in feeds. More recently, paraffin-grown yeasts have been produced in small quantities for evaluation as food for both livestock and humans. Proper supplementation with synthetic sources of the amino acid could permit yeast to be the only protein source in the diet. Similarly, where amino acid values for ingredients are not available, computations have been made, based on established values for comparable materials. For instance, the food quotients for maize and groundnut cake are 4 to 6 and 2 to 4, respectively. Supplementary feeding with individual feed ingredients is usually carried out without consideration of the quality of other foods present in the culture medium and can, therefore, be wasteful. Plant proteins, however, are usually low in certain essential amino acids which are necessary for rapid growth in animals, including fish.
The egg standard, therefore, can be applied to aquaculture diets for all practical purposes. Although the other amino acids listed, arginine, histidine, threonine and tryptophan, are also classified as essential, their impact on growth is not as great as the others. Unlike other plant proteins, sesame and palm kernel proteins are surprisingly rich in the sulphur amino acids. In other laboratory animals, it is believed to lead to pancreatic hypertrophy with concommittant loss of endogenous protein secreted by the pancreas.
Red gram bran, a by-product of gram flour production, has almost the same protein content as the seed and is used for the same purpose. Also, because the feed value of roots and tubers is in their carbohydrate content, they cannot be used at too high levels in feed for fish, which have a lower tolerance for carbohydrates than farm animals.
The starch in the tuber provides good binding for dry and moist-type pellets if heat processing is employed. Rice and its mill by-products are important feed constituents in fish feeds in each of the countries covered in this survey. No digestibility study has been made with fish but for mono-gastric farm animals, uncooked rice is more digestible than maize. This is because of the water absorption characteristics of fibre, which will be fairly high in such feed. Nevertheless, wheat bran has been successfully fed at fairly high levels to various species of fish without adverse effects on growth. While there is little published data on the digestibility of starchy components of cereal grains in general, studies on maize have indicated enhanced utilization after cooking. The process is now extensively used for secondary recovery of oil in the palm oil industry in Malaysia as well. The lower residual oil content in an oil meal also gives it a higher protein content compared to a similar product obtained by the screw expeller process. The former is an industrial product with a generally lower residual oil content (less than 7 percent), whereas the latter is produced on often a very small scale in villages and may contain as much as 13 percent oil.
Aflatoxin is a hepatotoxin and mortality among afflicted animals and fish invariably results from severe liver damage. Use of palm kernel oilcake in fish diets has not been documented although, like coconut oilcake, it should be used sparingly in diets for fish.
However, it contains other toxins of unknown identity that cause depressed growth in poultry, even when fed at low levels (3 percent of the diet). Effects of excessive use of sesame oilcake has not been studied in fish although in conventional livestock, it has been shown to have a laxative effect. Fish diets will not be improved by its inclusion unless they already contain other high quality protein sources. Trash fish, when fed fresh, with or without prior cooking, are superior to fish meal in terms of protein content (expressed as percentage dry matter) and protein quality. On the east coast of India and in Sri Lanka, fish meal is usually made from sun-dried by-catch consisting mainly of silverbelly (Leiognathus splendens).
In the Indian subcontinent, a high protein waste product is also obtainable from the refining of ghee. Nevertheless, these unconventional sources of feed proteins are expected to become increasingly important in the future. Although few studies have been conducted with fish, it is presumed that LPC made from alfalfa and other legumes may be safely used. This process yields two products: distiller's grains, and distiller's solubles (including yeast).
Fish oils and most raw vegetable fats have a high degree of unsaturation and anti-oxidants are normally added during the refining of such fats.
Whenever available, however, their inclusion enhances the feed value of fish diets significantly. The harvest of bacteria, usually one every three days, has a high protein content, a good portion of which is nucleo-protein.
Large-scale mono culture of these SCP's, however, involves technology that is still at a developmental stage.
On the whole, petroleum yeasts (Candida lipolytica) have higher feeding value than yeasts made from molasses (C. Leguminous plants are also known to contain natural substances that, unless removed or deactivated, are either toxic to the consuming animal or interfere with its normal digestive processes. This, together with a low content of methionine, makes meat meal a rather poor quality protein source, despite its animal origin. Sesame oilcake, because of its high overall protein content, is especially valuable as a natural source of supplement for these amino acids. Judging from those that have been, their feed value depends invariably on digestible nutrient content.
Only in one instance (in Orissa, India) was it possible to carry out actual chemical analysis on a variety of indigenously available feedstuffs. Although not evaluated as feeds for fish, both seeds and bran are judged safe for incorporation into fish feeds at moderate levels. Too much wheat bran in a formulation results in pellets with poor water stability due to the water absorption characteristics of fibre. Normal pelleting processes only partially gelatinize the starch granules whereas total starch gelatinization occurs when the cereal is subject to high temperatures under moist conditions as in extrusion cooking. The second process involves the passage of seeds or fruit kernels along a screw auger confined in a steam-heated conically shaped jacket with the oilcake emerging at the smaller end.
There have been few studies on the toxic effects of gossypol in fish although from animal studies, it has been shown to inhibit digestive enzymes. The toxin may have a more pronounced effect on fish since the requirement for pyridoxine, a B-vitamin very much associated with high-protein diets, appears to be greatly increased in rations containing linseed oilcake.
Also because of its high phytic acid content, supplemental phosphorus will also be required. Fats in meat meal although poor in the PUFA's required by cold water species, are good energy sources for both carp and rainbow trout.
The entrails of animals have a higher feed value than meat meal; their protein content as well as protein quality are generally higher.
When mixed and properly processed in correct proportions with less expensive but more readily available ingredients, such as rice bran, and with adequate supplementation of vitamins, trash fish make excellent diets for aquaculture.
Often the drying is not complete with the result that the product becomes infested with Salmonella bacteria. The other process, known as the American process, does not involve separation of spent grains before the fermentation process and yields only one product that includes both the spent grains and yeast. The digestibility of hydrogenated (hardened) fats made from both fish oils and beef tallows for carp and trout has been shown to depend on the melting point of the fat. Although its production may be feasible in countries which have a surplus of methane, the cost of the product is presently high (Anonymous, 1982).
Moderate scale production at the rural level employing animal (particularly pig) manure has been shown to be feasible. When used with soyabean meal, it would help achieve the proper balance of sulphur amino acids and lysine in the diet.
Trypsin inhibitors were first described in soyabean, but are also known to be present in groundnut and most other leguminous seeds. Although fish, being poikilotherms, are less capable of utilizing carbohydrates at low temperatures, they utilize fats and proteins at least just as well as land mammals. For fish, therefore, it should be used in combination with other materials such as soyabean meal and animal protein sources. Studies with trout have shown that the toxin persisted in body tissues 12 months after its feeding to the fish. However, because of their high water content slaughterhouse wastes are best used in combination with dry feed ingredients to make moist feeds. Leaf protein concentrates can be produced from the leaves of tropical legumes such as the Acacia and Desmodium species, and from grasses. The harvested product, when dried, is non-toxic and can be used to supply practically all the protein required without ill effect, although supplementing lysine (for Chlorella) or methionine (for Scenedesmus and Spirulina) may be necessary.
Yeasts, like bacterial proteins, are rich in nucleic acids which limit its use as food for humans. However, because of the high temperatures associated with the pressure applied, oilcakes produced by this method may come out burnt with subsequent lowering of feed value (especially with regard to protein digestibility in general and lysine availability in particular). Improper post-harvest handling of nuts is usually blamed for the presence of aflatoxin in groundnut although pre-harvest infestation has also been documented.
Heat processing may be necessary and the material used immediately if refrigeration facilities are not available. Whereas Peruvian fish meal is made from the main catch, usually of a single species, anchovy, Thai fish meal is derived from by-catch consisting of many species. Scenedesmus obliquus has been tested quite extensively in carp and found to be a good substitute for fish meal (Meske, Ch.
Because of the high value of edible oils relative to oilcake residues in developing countries, the screw expeller process is favoured over the less efficient hydraulic press process for mechanical expression of oil from seeds and fruit.
However, in South Asia as well as in South East Asia, with the possible exception of Thailand, hydraulic-press extraction continues to be the principal method employed in the vegetable oil industry.
Protein content of Peruvian fish meal is also higher - 65 percent compared to 50-60 percent for Thai fish meal.



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