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DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Your protein-rich muscles allow for body strength and movement, which enable you to enjoy many activities. Protein makes up approximately 20 percent of the human body and is present in every single cell.
ProteinsMacromolecules composed of monomeric subunits, called amino acids., simply put, are macromolecules composed of amino acids. The side chain of an amino acid, sometimes called the a€?Ra€? group, can be as simple as one hydrogen bonded to the carbon center, or as complex as a six-carbon ring bonded to the carbon center. During translation each amino acid is connected to the next amino acid by a special chemical bond called a peptide bondThe chemical bond that connects amino acids in a sequence. Amino acids differ chemically in the molecular composition of their side chains, but they do have some similarities. Proteins have up to four different levels of structure, making them much more complex than carbohydrates or lipids. Acerola (Malpighia glabra)is an edible and widely consumed tropical fruit for its high vitamin C content.
The common name for each fatty acid is shown with the systematic name in square parentheses. Operator can move the machine smoothly without hindrance and to operate the machine more effectively.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
The word protein is a Greek word, meaning a€?of utmost importance.a€? Proteins are called the workhorses of life as they provide the body with structure and perform a vast array of functions.
Amino acidsSimple monomers composed of the elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Although each side chain of the twenty amino acids is unique, there are some chemical likenesses among them. Recall that there are twenty different amino acids, and we require all of them to make the many different proteins found throughout the body (Table 6.1 "Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids"). Different proteins are produced because there are twenty types of naturally occurring amino acids that are combined in unique sequences. In the process of translation, amino acids are sequentially strung along in a chain in a specific sequence that spontaneously folds into the correct protein shape. Proteins are similar to carbohydrates and lipids in that they are polymers of simple repeating units; however, proteins are much more structurally complex.


Some are nonessential in the diet because the body can synthesize them, and some are essential in the diet because the body cannot make them. Find out more about how one incorrectly placed amino acid causes the disease sickle cell anemia by watching this animation. In every cell in your body over ten million ribosomes are at work constructing millions of proteins every minute. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (62 MB) or just this chapter (6 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
Eleven of these are called nonessential amino acidsAmino acids that are made in the human body.
The first step in constructing a protein is the transcription (copying) of the genetic information in double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into the single-stranded, messenger macromolecule ribonucleic acid (RNA).
The peptide bond forms between the carboxylic acid group of one amino acid and the amino group of another, releasing a molecule of water. In contrast to carbohydrates, which have identical repeating units, proteins are made up of amino acids that are different from one another.
Protein is necessary for proper immune system function, digestion, and hair and nail growth, and is involved in numerous other body functions.
The side chains of these amino acids are long carbon chains or carbon rings, making them bulky.
The side chains of polar amino acids make them hydrophilic, meaning they are water-soluble.
The hormone insulin, which regulates blood glucose, is composed of only fifty-one amino acids; whereas collagen, a protein that acts like glue between cells, consists of more than one thousand amino acids.
In fact, it is estimated that more than one hundred thousand different proteins exist within the human body. Proteins contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen just as carbohydrates and lipids do, but proteins are the only macronutrient that contains nitrogen. However, nine of the amino acids are called essential amino acidsAmino acids that are not made by humans and must be obtained from the diet. The RNA that is transcribed from a given piece of DNA contains the same information as that DNA, but it is now in a form that can be read by the cellular protein manufacturer known as the ribosome. Specific amino acid sequences contain all the information necessary to spontaneously fold into a particular shape. The first level is the one-dimensional sequence of amino acids that are held together by peptide bonds.
In this chapter you will learn about the components of protein, the important roles that protein serves within the body, how the body uses protein, the risks and consequences associated with too much or too little protein, and where to find healthy sources of it in your diet. In each amino acid the elements are arranged into a specific conformation around a carbon center. It accounts for the elasticity of muscles, and consists of more than twenty-five thousand amino acids! Next, the RNA instructs the cells to gather all the necessary amino acids and add them to the growing protein chain in a very specific order. Carbohydrates and lipids also are one-dimensional sequences of their respective monomers, which may be branched, coiled, fibrous, or globular, but their conformation is much more random and is not organized by their sequence of monomers.


Each amino acid consists of a central carbon atom connected to a side chain, a hydrogen, a nitrogen-containing amino group, a carboxylic acid groupa€”hence the name a€?amino acid.a€? Amino acids differ from each other by which specific side chain is bonded to the carbon center.
The abundant variations of proteins are due to the unending number of amino acid sequences that can be formed. Each protein in the human body differs in its amino acid sequence and consequently, its shape. In contrast, the two-dimensional level of protein structure is dependent on the chemical interactions between amino acids, which cause the protein to fold into a specific shape, such as a helix (like a coiled spring) or sheet.
Sometimes during infancy, growth, and in diseased states the body cannot synthesize enough of some of the nonessential amino acids and more of them are required in the diet.
To compare how so many different proteins can be designed from only twenty amino acids, think about music. The decoding of genetic information to synthesize a protein is the central foundation of modern biology.
These types of amino acids are called conditionally essential amino acidsAmino acids that become essential during certain times in life, such as child growth..
All of the music that exists in the world has been derived from a basic set of seven notes C, D, E, F, G, A, B and variations thereof.
A protein made with an incorrectly placed amino acid may not function properly and this can sometimes cause disease. As the different side chains of amino acids chemically interact, they either repel or attract each other, resulting in the coiled structure. The nutritional value of a protein is dependent on what amino acids it contains and in what quantities. As a result, there is a vast array of music and songs all composed of specific sequences from these basic musical notes. Thus, the specific sequence of amino acids in a protein directs the protein to fold into a specific, organized shape.
Similarly, the twenty amino acids can be linked together in an extraordinary number of sequences, much more than are possible for the seven musical notes to create songs.
The fourth level of structure (also known as its a€?quaternarya€? structure) is achieved when protein fragments called peptides combine to make one larger functional protein. As a result, there are enormous variations and potential amino acid sequences that can be created.
For example, if an amino acid sequence for a protein is 104 amino acids long the possible combinations of amino acid sequences is equal to 20104, which is 2 followed by 135 zeros! Large fibrous protein structures are more difficult to digest than smaller proteins and some, such as keratin, are indigestible. Because digestion of some fibrous proteins is incomplete, not all of the amino acids are absorbed and available for the body to utilize, thereby decreasing their nutritional value.



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