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We know that Jacques RanciA?re speaks about the relation between politics and aesthetics in terms of a€?the distribution of the sensible.a€? Tonight I want to speak about the distribution of the insensible.
But I also want to register an implicit critical dimension of this argument, a critique of RanciA?re and of his presently immense influence, which I view as unwarranted.
By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€? leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials.
Labor is, first of all, a process between man and nature, a process by which man, through his own actions, mediates, regulates and controls the metabolism between himself and nature. What distinguishes capitalism as a mode of production, however, is the peculiar manner in which the transformation of materials through the labor process is shadowed by the process of valorization. We can thus view the process of production either from the perspective of the labor process or the valorization process.
So, this brief summary of Marxist fundamentals is our first approach to the distribution of the insensible.
In Intellectual and Manual Labor, Alfred Sohn-Rethel argues that the social abstraction of the value form and the exchange relation gives rise to our abstract forms of thought. The exchange abstraction excludes everything that makes up history, human and even natural history.
In Sohn-Rethela€™s account, the exchange relation gives rise to a social genesis of the transcendental (the forms of intuition and the categories of the understanding). In the act of exchange, the natural and material physicality of the product is negated by the abstract value of the commodity, and this negation constitutes the a€?positive realitya€? of the social physicality of the exchange process. The history of modernity, which is to say the history of capitalism, is also the history of modern technology. And thena€”in the discourse network of 2000, spawned by the cybernetic systems, information theories, and encryption technologies of World War II, digital technology draws media differentiation back together through the synthetic resources of digital code, a universal medium traversing audio, video, and textual recording. However (fourth approach)a€”we should recognize that just as Kittlera€™s media theory offers a necessary supplement to Sohn-Rethela€™s account of the social genesis of conceptual abstraction, it is also necessary to submit Kittlera€™s own work to a Marxist inversion. What Marx calls a€?formal subsumptiona€? is the initial subsumption of labor under the value form, through wage labor and exploitation (the extraction of surplus value from surplus labor time).
This contradiction bears upon the history of technology, because it is by revolutionizing the means of production that capital attempts to overcome this contradiction.
The same process also generates a different problem: as automation increases, less labor power is required.
Automation, which is at once the most advanced sector of modern industry and the epitome of its practice, confronts the world of the commodity with a contradiction that it must somehow resolve: the same technical infrastructure that is capable of abolishing labor must at the same time preserve labor as a commoditya€”and indeed, as the sole generator of commodities. We could rephrase this by saying that Fordism both requires and paves the way for post-Fordism. At the same time, however, we know that a commodity like an Apple computer is, in fact, produced by processes quite clearly identifiable as a€?labor.a€? Despite the fact that every effort is made to keep this fact out of sight and out of mind, we know it because we read about it on Apple computers. Composed of aluminum, nickel, steel, glass, vinyl, and fluorescent, the production of Vanitas involves a virtuosic performance of mimetic exactitude. In a dark room, the viewer looks at the object, sees into it, and sees nothing of herself (like a vampire in front of a mirror, Baier says) while the object reflects its own interior infinitely in all directions. The first thing we might note about this piece is its complex engagement with relational aesthetics.
Second, we can say that if Vanitas is a captivating work of art, much of what makes it so is money. Baiera€™s piece instantiates the problem of the relation between materials and money, captured in the art object.
Behind Vanitas, a glass reproduction of Baiera€™s eyeball at the center of a projected disc of light, gazing without seeing across the room at a mirrored box which does not reflect its image. Beside Vanitas, a fond de scA?nea€”a reflector used in the background of photo shootsa€”which Baier placed in a template with a circular hole and left in a window for nine months. Around the corner, a piece called Projet A‰toile (Noir), consisting of a graphite painting titled Monochrome (Black) and a sculptural replica of a meteorite recovered from Death Valley. These are photographic pieces and sculptural objects which Baier would have worked on at the computer in the center of Vanitas. At the crux of materials and moneya€”through the complex history that crux containsa€”the subject of Baiera€™s installation is the relation between memory, recording, mimesis. Baiera€™s problem is not only the remembrance of things past, but, more specifically, the reminiscence of that which has never been sensed, the distribution of the insensible, recalled.
By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€?A  leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials. Schultz et al (2008) raised the question whether regression into autism is triggered, not by the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR), but by acetaminophen (TylenolA®) given for its fever and pain.
In the May 2008 issue of the journal Autism, Schultz et al reported an association between autism and acetaminophen (paracetamol, TylenolA®) given children for fever, pain, and other adverse reactions to the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR), usually administered between 12 and 15 months of age. Although distribution studies detected no association, the MMR has long been suspected of provoking autism, especially by parents whose seemingly normal child regressed into autism not long after receiving the vaccine [2-4]. Interestingly, no parent in the survey reported giving aspirin after a childa€™s MMR vaccination.
Orlowski et al offered compelling arguments, however, that aspirin was not the cause of Reyea€™s syndrome. The most compelling evidence linking acetaminophen use and autism is their rapid synchronous rise in recent decades. Pangborna€™s conclusions were based on thousands of cases collected by the Autism Research Institute (ARI) since the 1960s (Figure 1) [2-4].
Schultz compared the nationwide shift from aspirin to acetaminophen against the number of children with autistic disorders eligible for services in California born before and after 1980. Schultz adapted his graph from a 1999 graph by Californiaa€™s Department of Developmental Services (DDS), which depicted a steep rise in the number of California children with autistic disorders born after 1980 [13]. Because infanta€™s Tylenol is three times more concentrated than childrena€™s Tylenol [15] and parents may not realize childrena€™s cold remedies often contain acetaminophen, acetaminophen overdose in young children is not uncommon[16,17].
Parents and autism support groups commonly report that autistic episodes are triggered when these children eat wheat, corn, sugar, apples, bananas, chocolate, cheese, and other dairy products [21].
Oa€™Reilly and Waring studied 40 autistic children intolerant of certain foods and chemicals. Alberti et al subsequently used acetaminophen to probe the relative contributions of the sulfate and glucuronide pathways of excretion in low-functioning children with autism. Pangborn measured plasma amino acids in 32 children with autism, detecting marginal to subnormal levels of cystine (two cysteine molecules linked by sulfhydryl groups) in 60 percent. One critical sulfation reaction during pregnancy converts the adrenal androgen and estrogen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to its sulfate DHEAS, a storage or reservoir form of DHEA [26] that takes 15 times longer to clear from the blood [27].
Mothers of autistic children commonly suffer more bacterial and viral infections [33] and fevers [6] during pregnancy, for which they commonly take acetaminophen [34].
Acetaminophen impairing sulfation before and after birth may explain why children with autism have smaller brains at birth (estrogen deficiency) then an accelerated and prolonged growth spurt of male-specific brain structures within a few months of birth (androgen excess).[37,38] The testosterone-dependent amygdalae are larger than normal in these children and the estrogen-dependent corpus callosum disproportionately smaller [38,39]. Other good sources of sulfur are cabbage, onions, garlic, dried fruit [42] oral supplements like whey protein [23] and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) [43] and a high-protein diet. Giving aspirin to children with autism, however, may tax the liver as much as acetaminophen, although salicylates are usually metabolized as glucuronides [46]. The synchronicity Schultz detected between the onset of the autism epidemic and the surge in acetaminophen use after the CDCa€™s 1980 warning against aspirin seems unlikely to be artifact or coincidence. For autism, the critical distinction between aspirin and acetaminophen may be the difference between aggravation and provocation. At times ingredients and processing aids which could be derived from a potential GM source are also used during extraction and purification process for natural pigments. To meet the demands of consumers, retailers and food manufacturers, the color industry has reformulated and maintains a non-GMO or GM free line of products.
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And I want to argue that it is the specificity of this problem which allows us to think the relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis. I could summarize this critique as follows: if RanciA?re were more inclined to focus his attention upon the distribution of the insensible, perhaps he might think more perspicuously not only about the relation between politics and aesthetics, but also the relation between political economy and aesthetics.
Marx analyzes the process of production from two perspectives: the labor process and the valorization process.
Moreover, we transform materials into tools, instruments of labor, with which we transform materials. The transformation of materials produces objects with use value, but it also produces commodities with exchange value. But insofar as it is specifically capitalist, what the process of production produces is value, and a particular kind of value: surplus value and its reintegration into the production process as capital. The entire empirical reality of facts, events and description by which one moment and locality of time and space is distinguished from another is wiped out. And this social genesis is at once material and abstract, since the exchange value of a commodity is borne by its use value, and since exchange (like the labor process) is a physical act which also requires abstraction from all physicality. Hence the exchange process presents a physicality of its own, so to speak, endowed with the status of reality which is on a par with the material physicality of the commodities which it excludes.
This is what Sohn-Rethel, following Marx, calls a€?the real abstractiona€? of the value form as a social process of exchange. In a materialist inversion of the Kantian transcendental, media technologies constitute the a priori conditions of possibility for the sensible, such that the distribution of the sensible already operates within these conditions. From the industrial revolution to the production and networking of digital information technologies, the history of modern technology emerges from and responds to the demands and internal contradictions of capitalist accumulation.
This early period of subsumption is merely a€?formala€? because the production process itself (the labor process which is subsumed) remains primarily pre-capitalist. New technologies of production, and new techniques of production (assembly lines, for example) make it possible to increase productivity, and thus increase the amount of surplus value that can be extracted in a certain period of time. If automation, or for that matter any mechanisms, even less radical ones, that can increase productivity, are to be prevented from reducing socially necessary labor-time to an unacceptably low level, new forms of employment have to be created. Essentially, Society of the Spectacle is a book about the consequences of real subsumption, about the contradictions that it bears within its history and about the new regime of accumulation necessary to defer and compensate for the crises those contradictions contain.
A corporation like Foxxcon, the largest manufacturer of electronic components in the world, is something like a distillation of the entire history of the contradiction between capital and labor, the great movements of the industrial revolution, Taylorism, Fordism, the off-shoring of manufacturing labor, and the simultaneity of deindustrialization and post-Fordist cognitive capitalism with the persistence of the most traditional forms of miserable factory work. The main piece is the sculptural object we have been looking at, titled Vanitas, a reproduction of the artista€™s office.
Every component of the artista€™s desk and of his tools is precisely rendered as either a three dimension drawing or a three dimensional scan. It mimics one of the primary gestures of that movement or style, bringing the artista€™s studio and living space into the museum. Obviously it is expensive to reproduce onea€™s office in nickel-plated aluminum and to display it so dramatically.
The content of his piece is nothing other than that relation, a reflection upon that relation. Baiera€™s piece should be considered as part of an installation, not merely a sculptural object, insofar as it does, in fact, come into relation with its surroundings, surroundings composed of digitally produced images and objects. In front of Vanitas, a meticulously composed compound photograph of the stone wall beside the earliest cave paintings, titled Canvas. Not a reflection of the sun but an indexical image of its absorption, marked by the circular discoloration of the black tissue. Having held this meteorite in the palm of my hand, three years ago, I can testify to the strangeness of encountering its inexistence, distributed between these two art of objects.
Instantiated as digital code, they were a€?ina€? that computer, stored in its memory banks, transformed on its screen. At and through the limits of modernity, of capital, of mimesis, of thought, of sensation, and within their outside, his work draws us into that distribution.
Considerable evidence supports this contention, most notably the exponential rise in the incidence of autism since 1980, when acetaminophen began to replace aspirin for infants and young children.
Children given acetaminophen after the MMR were significantly more likely to become autistic than children given ibuprofen [1]. Schultz et al, however, raised the intriguing question whether the trigger for autism is not the MMR itself, but acetaminophen given for its fever and pain. This may reflect awareness that aspirin is no longer considered safe for infants and young children, after being implicated in Reyea€™s syndrome (liver and brain damage after viral infection) in the 1980s. Although salicylates like aspirin have been used to alleviate fever and pain since the beginning of the 20th century, Reyea€™s syndrome was not reported until the early 1950s. When Rimland founded the ARI in 1967, parents were already reporting their child deteriorated into autism soon after the diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine (DPT) [2,3].
Decreased nationwide sales of childrena€™s aspirin and increased sales of childrena€™s acetaminophen products beginning about 1980 were associated with an increased number of California children with autistic disorders born after 1980. Schultz et al noted that sulfation by the liver is the primary pathway to detoxify and excrete acetaminophen in children younger than 10 [1].
All had very low levels of phenolsulfotransferase (PST), an enzyme that sulfates phenols and amines for excretion.
They too found these children were less able than normal children to sulfate phenols and amines, and suggested this might lead to accumulations of unmetabolized catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) in the brain, with neurotoxic effects [21].
DHEAS from the fetal adrenal cortex is the most common precursor of the placental estrogens so vital to fetal growth and maturation [28].
If their babies are born cysteine-deficient, newborn boys may be more vulnerable because their uptake of cysteine takes longer to mature [35].

Oral magnesium sulfate, which is poorly absorbed, draws water into the intestines, potentially causing diarrhea; well-absorbed magnesium taurate provides magnesium as well as sulfur from taurine [40].
Alberti et al noted that salicylates are primary biochemical offenders in autistic children, and high dose aspirin inhibits the sulfating enzyme PST [21]. Cox and McDowell challenged the methods Schultz et al used to gather participants and controls for the online survey, arguing they were biased and insufficiently random, and no estimate of sample size was given. Could the epidemic of autistic regression be due to factors in the MMR vaccine itself (e.g. If replacing aspirin with acetaminophen provoked the autism epidemic, why is its prevalence in the United States comparable to its prevalence in France [55], where children continued to receive aspirin throughout the Reyea€™s epidemic?
If the MMR is usually given at 12-15 months, why does autistic regression usually occur at about 18 months? Yet can it be ethical to administer acetaminophen to a child whose ability to detoxify acetaminophen may be critically impaired?
The Autism Research Institute also concluded that autism rates began to multiply around 1980, especially regression after the MMR. Although aspirin and other salicylates can worsen behavior in children already autistic, they have not been implicated in autistic regression in previously normal children. This process starts from the extraction facility to the final formulation of the color.Where is ROHA's particular area of expertise in the natural colors space?Roha is one amongst the few companies that provide a complete pallet of food colorings, both synthetic and natural.
Crucially, I want to show how the relation between those two histories is mediated by another: the history of technology. That is: focusing on the specific problem of the distribution of the insensible turns out to be the key to thinking about the relation between aesthetics and politics in a materialist way, in a manner properly responsive to the exigencies of Marxist historical materialism. He sets in motion the natural forces which belong to his own body, his arms, legs, head and hands, in order to appropriate the materials of nature in a form adapted to his own needs.
For example, according to Sohn-Rethel, the purely formal character of the Kantian forms of intuitiona€”space and timea€”can be understood as genetically related to the abstract formalism of the value form and the exchange relation. Time and space assume thereby that character of absolute historical timelessness and universality which must mark the exchange abstraction as a whole and each of its features.
Thus the negation of the natural and material physicality constitutes the positive reality of the abstract social physicality of the exchange processes from which the network of society is woven. This real abstraction constitutes a kind of a€?second nature,a€? and Sohn-Rethel argues that this second nature is a€?the arsenal from which intellectual labor through the eras of commodity exchange draws its conceptual resources.a€? We can situate this analysis more broadly at the level of the whole process of valorization, or the accumulation of capital through circulation. We need to supplement Sohn-Rethela€™s materialist critique of epistemology with a history of media technologies like that carried out by Friedrich Kittler. Thus, without further increasing the length of the working day, one can increase surplus value (this called a€?relative surplus valuea€?).
But Marx makes clear that the part of capital invested in constant capital does not undergo any alteration in the process of production, it does not increase (this is why it is called constant). This means that less money is being paid out on the labor market for the consumption of commodities. A happy solution presents itself in the growth of the tertiary or service sector in response to the immense strain on the supply lines of the army responsible for distributing and hyping the commodities of the moment.
And behind the passage I just read, we can also read a commentary on the history of technology. The conditions of possible experience are themselves conditioned by the moving contradiction between capital and labor.
Indeed, bearing the conditions of its production in mind, one might view a device like an Apple computer as a distillation of the entire history of modernitya€”of the manner in which modernity acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way simultaneously changes its own nature, from the printing press to the steam engine to the silicon chip. Each of these objects is then reproduced, at exact scale, by either machining in aluminum (in the case of objects that were drawn) or stereolithography (in the case of objects that were scanned). But in doing so it forecloses the primary content of that gesture, radically separating this space from that of the viewer, encasing it within a mise-en-abyme in which only images interact with one another.
A tour de force of concept, design, and execution, the piece is also nothing if not resourceful.
As he did with the objects reproduced in Vanitas, Baier made a three dimensional scan of the meteorite and then reproduced ita€”at a much larger scalea€”through stereolithography.
The impetus for this shift a€“ a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warning that aspirin was associated with Reyea€™s syndrome a€“ has since been compellingly debunked. An online survey of parents yielded 83 children with autism and 80 control children ages 1-18 years. Because Reyea€™s syndrome virtually disappeared worldwide after aspirin was replaced by other antipyretics and analgesics during the 1980s, parents, pediatricians, and hospitals today commonly give infants and young children acetaminophen or ibuprofen for fever and pain.
Furthermore, Reyea€™s syndrome disappeared from countries like Australia that had not given aspirin to children since the 1950s, as well as from countries like France and Belgium that continued to give aspirin throughout the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Rimland suspected the increase in autistic regression at 18 months was due to wider use of the MMR vaccine a€“ part of an accelerated effort to eradicate measles that began in 1978 [7]. Schultz also found that certain critical events in the history of acetaminophen use were soon followed by inflections in autism rates. To probe the sulfation pathway they administered 500 mg acetaminophen to these children, then collected urine over the next eight hours. Kidd concluded these studies by Waring et al amount to a€?direct proof a€? that children with autism are less able to sulfate foreign and native phenols and amines [19].
Pangborn noted, however, that Waring found higher than normal levels of plasma cysteine in children with autism, as well as higher ratios of cysteine to sulfate (suggesting a cysteine utilization disorder), and after administering paracetamol (acetaminophen), lower than normal levels of paracetamol sulfate. The Feingold Association has received parent reports of significant improvements in behavior of autistic children after removing gluten (wheat) and casein (dairy) products from their diets, as well as salicylates naturally present in fruits and vegetables.
These writers also suspected parents might not accurately recall years after the MMR vaccine whether their child was given acetaminophen [48]. Deligne et al reported that in 2003, 90 percent of more than 500,000 prescriptions for fever in French infants less than three months old were written for paracetamol (acetaminophen) [56]. One alternative: when parents become sufficiently wary of giving acetaminophen to infants and young children, the same kind of a€?natural studya€? may occur as when acetaminophen replaced aspirin in the 1980s [9]. Schultz et al found that children given acetaminophen for reactions to the MMR were more likely to become autistic than children given ibuprofen.
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey. Prenatal influences on brain dopamine and their relevance to the rising incidence of autism. Metabolic endophenotype and related genotypes are associated with oxidative stress in children with autism. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase in the developing human fetus: quantitative biochemical and immunological characterization of the hepatic, renal, and adrenal enzymes.
A clinical and laboratory evaluation of methionine cycle-transsulfuration and androgen pathway markers in children with autistic disorders. Dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate production in the human adrenal during development and aging.
Faulty serotonin a€“ DHEA interactions in autism: results of the 5-hydroxytryptophan challenge test. The time of prenatal immune challenge determines the specificity of inflammation-mediated brain and behavioral pathology. Localization of white matter volume increase in autism and developmental language disorder.
Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors.
Continuing increases in autism reported to Californiaa€™s developmental services system: mercury in retrograde. In Europe the growth is drive by regulatory changes in the past three years, but in the US we are seeing introduction of natural product lines by key manufacturers focusing towards cleaner label.
The relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis is mediated by the history of technics.
Through this movement he acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way his simultaneously changes his own nature.
It is independent because the exchange value of a commodity is entirely determined by the average socially necessary labor time required to produce it, not by the materials of which it is composed.
We can view the process of production from two sides, but what it produces are commodities that are sold for money, which is reinvested in the production process and thereby becomes capital.
He does not think the distribution of the insensible, the movement of valorization, and thus he misses entirely the dimension of political economy in his thinking of politics.
The social process of valorization is the very medium in which we think, and to which thinking is applied through intellectual labor (such as management). And indeed, Kittlera€™s media-theoretical analysis of discourse networks should also be understood as a materialist critique of Kantian idealism.
It communicates with itself, through its own data channels, and consciousness is the epiphenomenon of communication. Thus, during the period of formal subsumption, the extraction of surplus value is primarily correlated to the length of the working day and the cost of labor power. This is what automation and capitalist management techniquesa€”Taylorism and Fordisma€”are for. So labor has to be reabsorbed into the labor market to support consumption and prevent overproduction. The development of industrial automation both necessitates and creates the conditions of possibility for the invention of new media apparatuses, especially digital information technologies and networks. The history of the sensible, the transformations undergone in the media-technological conditions of sensation and experience, is also the history of the insensiblea€”the history of the process of valorization as it develops in relation to contradictions in the labor process. This process includes every electric or electronic plug and cord connecting Baiera€™s computer, his monitors, his speakers, and his scanner.
Although it draws the space within which the artist works and thinks into the space of the museum, the artist is pointedly absent. It patently shows off the artista€™s mastery of that form of technA“ so crucial to contemporary art practice: the capacity to get funding. At his desk, thinking, communicating, representing, the artist enters into the circuits of capital, the movement of valorizationa€”as do we all, one way or another. He then melted the meteorite down and used the graphite of which it was composed to paint the surface of Monochrome (Black). If aspirin is not to be feared as a cause of Reyea€™s syndrome, and acetaminophen is to be feared as a cause of autism, can the autism epidemic be reversed by replacing acetaminophen with aspirin or other remedies? Children with autism had more adverse reactions to the MMR and were more likely to have been given acetaminophen than ibuprofen for those reactions. On the other hand, the 1980s was also the decade when acetaminophen largely replaced aspirin for infants and young children. The liver uses sulfate derived from the amino acid cysteine to make soluble for excretion a variety of foreign and domestic substances.[19] The liver also uses cysteine to synthesize the antitoxin and antioxidant glutathione [22] as well as metallothionein, which transports zinc and copper and binds mercury and other toxic metals [23]. Most children had reduced urine output over the eight hours and were feverish and a€?generally off-colour.a€? The researchers warned about this effect of acetaminophen in these children, given relatively freely for minor illness [24]. They noted that DHEA can convert to androstenedione and then testosterone, or be sulfated to the a€?normally favored storage moleculea€? DHEAS. Pangborn warned that a sudden influx of cysteine may mobilize toxins the body is not ready or able to excrete [4]. Director Hersey concluded: a€?I cannot say if aspirin causes more problems than acetaminophen for autistic kids. Schultz replied that asking parents of autistic children to have their friends with normal children take the survey was an excellent way to select controls, because they represented the population studied, yet did not have autism.
Dales et al calculated that the incidence of autism in California children born from 1980 onward increased more rapidly than the use of the MMR vaccine [50].
Acetaminophen given for the vaccine, he suggests, may weaken a childa€™s immune system, so the child gets sick again and takes more acetaminophen, thus a€?slowly regressing into autism.a€?[57] This scenario may also apply to acetaminophen poisoning the liver. When enough parents stop giving (and taking) acetaminophen, and give aspirin or another remedy instead, any effect on the incidence of autism may be apparent within several years.
Because acetaminophen suppresses the immune system as well as depletes the livera€™s supplies of detoxifying agents, the question remains open which pathology is more decisive. Our expertise is more in providing customized coloring solutions to our customers, and we have strong application support groups for confectionery, bakery, cereals, processed food, snack foods and beverage.  How dynamic is the natural colors space? And it is through this history, this mediation, that art takes up techniques which throw us back outside the history of capital, outside the history of mimesisa€”indeed, outside the history of the human, the history of thought, and the history of sensationa€”within and through the technical means to which the linked histories of capital, mimesis, and technics give rise.
Labor time is that abstract, universal equivalent which will find its answer in the universal abstraction of the money form, and value is not a material thing but a social relation. Production produces both surplus value and capital, and capital produces expanded cycles of accumulation.
One consequence of this failure is that he has no rigorous means of accounting for the relation of his history of art and artistic regimes to the history of capital, to structural changes of the contradiction between capital and labor. Insofar as intellectual labor is subsumed by capital, as is manual labor, the forms of thought themselves enter into a relation of dialectical genesis with the value form. For Kittler, it is not transcendental categories but media technologies which determine the conditions of any possible experience. The capitalist wants to extend the working day as much as possible, and to reduce wages as much as possible. What Marx calls a€?real subsumptiona€? is this revolutionizing of the production process such that it becomes properly capitalist. Thus, as relatively more capital is invested in constant capital and relatively less capital is invested in variable capital, relatively less capital is available for conversion into surplus value. The process of real subsumption thus also requires the growth of the tertiary service sector, which produces both a new labor market and new fields of commodity production and consumption.

These not only enable the growth of the tertiary service sector and its forms of communicative labor and consumption, they also themselves produce new markets of goods and services.
Shortly after he coined the term a€?immaterial labor,a€? Maurizio Lazzarato renounced it, for the good reason that the term was impossible to reconcile with a materialist position. It includes the crumpled pieces of paper in his trash can and a book lying open beside his keyboard. The piece is something like an anti-humanist negation of relational aesthetics: perfectly finished, enclosed, complete, pristine, it subtracts the participation of the viewer precisely through the viewera€™s gaze, which is drawn into and lost within the reflexive auto-mimesis of the object. The distribution of the insensible: the movement of capital, the structural transformation of the contradiction between capital and labor, the circuitous courses of the process of valorizationa€”all this is how a digital information system ends up inside a mirrored box in the company of fluorescent lighting and minimalist furnishings, installed on the distressed concrete floors of an art gallery.
The matter of the object thus remains, and so does its form, but the object itself has disappeared into an uncanny splitting of their formerly integral relation.
Canvas shows us the primordial matter of mimesis: the substrate of inaugural images carved in stone, with stone. Compared to controls, children ages 1-5 years with autism were eight times more likely to have gotten sick after the MMR vaccine, and were six times more likely to have taken acetaminophen.
Public Health Service studies between 1980 and 1987 that associated aspirin with Reyea€™s syndrome, Orlowski et al found serious problems in all a€“ even doubt the researchers were actually studying Reyea€™s. California children born in 1977 were less likely to be diagnosed with autism than children born in previous years. James et al detected significantly reduced plasma levels of methionine, cysteine, and glutathione and reduced methylation capacity in 80 children with autism; plasma cysteine was severely reduced in more than 65 percent [25].
Because sulfation of DHEA requires glutathione as cofactor, they proposed that glutathione deficiency in these children causes less DHEA to convert to DHEAS and more to androstenedione and testosterone [29]. When acetaminophen overdose depletes the livera€™s supplies of sulfate and glutathione and toxicity develops, the current treatment is N-acetylcysteine to replenish intracellular glutathione [44]. The reason why we suggest acetaminophen in place of aspirin is because aspirin is a a€?salicylatea€™ and a known troublemaker for many people. The original paper by Schultz et al pointed out several reasons the population of autistic children in the survey might not have been random [1]. By depleting sulfate, glutathione, and metallothionein, acetaminophen may make a child more vulnerable to a variety of substances, even the phenolic amines and salicylates in food.
Immune suppression inducing more illness thus more acetaminophen may eventually result in toxic levels.
As Marx tells us in Chapter 8 of Volume One, a€?the means of production on one hand, labor-power on the other, are merely the different forms of existence which the value of the original capital assumed when it lost its monetary form and was transformed into the various factors of the production process.a€? Both the means of production and labor power are different elements of capital in its own valorization process. In my opinion, this is a problem substantial enough to render his history of aesthetics more or less irrelevant. For Sohn-Rethel, the Kantian transcendental subject is the representative modern figure of this dialectic (though its status as such is occluded by the idealism of transcendental philosophy).
The rate of surplus value extraction depends upon these factors (this is called a€?absolute surplus valuea€?).
It is not only that labor is subsumed under the value form, but that the very constitution of labor itself changes. Capital needs to invest more in technology in order to increase productivity and sustain the valorization process. The new regime of accumulation that accompanies this structural transformation is what Guy Debord theorizes as the Spectacle. And more importantly, they are the technological ground for the massive growth of speculative markets we call a€?financialization,a€? which is predicated (in its contemporary form) upon the exchange of digital information. He should have referred instead to a€?insensible labor.a€? Information and cognition are not immaterial, but they are insensible.
Each of these reproduced objects is then plated in mirrored nickel before being rearranged, in in a reproduction of their configuration, within a parallelepiped encased on all six sides in one-way mirrored glass and illuminated by overhead fluorescent light.
His studio is something like the Platonic form of so-called a€?immaterial labora€?a€”designer furniture and designer devices, neatly arrayed with the precision of an architectural firm blessed with a particularly fastidious custodial staff. This movement, this transformation, this process is what we are looking at, though we cannot see it. Children with autism who regressed in development were four times more likely to have taken acetaminophen after the vaccine. They noted other studies worldwide that showed no association between aspirin and Reyea€™s syndrome.
Public Health Service and its Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that aspirin was associated with Reyea€™s syndrome [8] a€“ a rare but often fatal disease in young children after a bout of flu or chicken pox. In autumn of 1982 seven people died after ingesting Tylenol capsules laced with cyanide; in 1986 one person died after ingesting Tylenol capsules similarly tampered with. A similar shift of adrenal steroid synthesis occurs in mother and fetus during complications of pregnancy, and in adults under stress, increasing cortisol at the expense of DHEAS [30]. Kidd concluded N-acetylcysteine and oral glutathione were safer than oral cysteine, and noted ascorbate (vitamin C) may protect against glutathione depletion [22]. Schultza€™s reply also noted that the effects of acetaminophen were so great they were significant even for the relatively small sample. In any case, greater use of the MMR does not explain three times more cases of autism present at birth. Reddening of the face and ears (a common response to trigger foods) may be mistaken for fever, prompting more acetaminophen, which eventually reaches toxic levels. Impaired sulfation of DHEA and testosterone before and after birth may explain the extreme male brain. If aspirin is not to be feared as a cause of Reyea€™s syndrome, and acetaminophen is to be feared as a cause of autism, the most direct countermeasure may be low-dose aspirin to relieve pain and high fever in infants and young children (and mothers during pregnancy).
But we can also recognize, as Catherine Malabou argues in What Should We Do With Our Brain?, that there is a structural homology between post-Fordist management discourse emphasizing non-hierarchical networks, self-organization, flexibility, and innovation, and contemporary neurological theory, which views the brain as a decentralized network of neuronal assemblies and emphasizes neurological plasticity as the ground of cognitive flexibility and adaptation. In the discourse network of 1800, the book is the site of an encounter between reading and writing, wherein the romantic imagination produces a projection of the soul into what Novalis calls a€?a real, visible world,a€? written into and read off of printed signifiers, emerging from the text as synaesthetic phantasmagoria in which all the senses are drawn together by the hallucinatory experience of Literature.
Importantly, then, real subsumption requires and depends upon technological innovation: the capitalist process of production both needs and produces new machines because these increase productivity within a given period of time and thus compensate for limits on the length of the working day. But by doing so, it also decreases the amount of capital which can be converted into surplus value.
The tech boom and its implosion are the logical and necessary outcome of real subsumption, pushing beyond its limits into the society of the Spectacle. And the forms of affective labor which precisely are sensed are premised upon the indistinction of labor and leisure, the impossibility of distinguishing them under conditions of post-Fordist accumulation. Star (Black) confronts us with an extra-terrestrial outside, encountered, vanished, recordeda€”at once absent and yet uncannily present as residue and reproduction.
Illnesses concurrent with the MMR were nine times more likely in autistic children when all cases were considered, and 17 times more likely after limiting cases to children who regressed [1]. As for the argument that Reyea€™s disappeared after aspirin use declined in infants and young children, Orlowski et al showed that the incidence of Reyea€™s syndrome was already falling by 1979 [5]. The impact of these studies on the publica€™s perception of aspirin for children was dramatic [9] a€“ perhaps abetted by the makers and vendors of acetaminophen [10].
These events precipitated sharp declines in nationwide sales of acetaminophen, accompanied by declines in the numbers of California children with autistic disorders born in 1984 and 1987 (Figure 2) [12]. Strous et al found plasma DHEAS significantly low in adults with autistic spectrum disorders [31].
Because molybdenum supplements improved behavior in 14 of 38 autistic children [42] further investigations seem warranted. To minimize recall bias they had analyzed a smaller group of children ages 1-5 years, thinking parents of younger children would better remember whether their child was given acetaminophen after the MMR vaccine. The mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in vaccines also depletes glutathione [51] but thimerosal was never a component of the MMR vaccine [52]. Fever and abdominal pain from unsuspected liver damage are commonly treated with acetaminophen [16]. If acetaminophen provokes autistic regression after vaccines, parents have less reason to fear vaccines. The impact of these studies on the publica€™s perception of aspirin for children was dramatic [9] a€“ perhaps abetted by the makers and vendors of acetaminophen [10].A  Arrowsmith et al compared nationwide sales of aspirin and acetaminophen during that time, finding sharp decreases in the purchase and use of childrena€™s aspirin between 1980 and 1985 and a reciprocal increase in sales of childrena€™s acetaminophen products [11]. A similar situation was noticed in turmeric prices.What are the biggest challenges you face from a sourcing perspective? Every manufacturer is focusing on improving extraction technology, formulations, stabilization and color delivery systems. The concrete process of transforming materials through labor, aided by tools, is subsumed by the abstract process of valorization. In the discourse network of 1900, gramophone, film, and typewriter effect an analytic separation of this sensory synthesis, constituting distinct technologies of recording and transmission for sound, the moving image, and the written word. Thus, due to forces of competition and technological innovation driving increased productivity, the rate of surplus value extraction tends to decline.
It is labor itself that becomes insensible under these conditions, dispersed into networks linking neurons and screens and indistinguishable from the most intimate gestures of our affective lives. These are images of the deep time of human and cosmological history, outside the limits of modernity, of capital and its enabling technologies of representation. Croonenberghs et al detected a high ratio of plasma cortisol to DHEAS in autistic adolescents [32]. Torres recommended that fever suppressants be reserved for severe fevers in young children, on grounds that fever helps mature the immune system [34].
The association of autism with acetaminophen was highly significant even for this smaller group [49].
Furthermore, the incidence of autism continues to rise even though thimerosal is no longer used to preserve most pediatric vaccines [53].
Improved formulations and particle size reduction technologies have improved the stability and brightness of the colors, while emulsions of oil based pigments can be made in clear forms with hues that can match synthetic colors.Are many new natural colors likely to hit the US market? Such would be a historical materialist account of conceptual abstraction following from Sohn-Rethela€™s critical of idealist epistemology.
What Kittler calls a€?media differentiationa€? carves up the Romantic imagination, sutured to the book, and parcels out its capacities among discrete technologies addressed to a segmented perceiver: an ear, an eye, a minda€”a modernist collage of the formerly integral subject. Thus, it is only possible to extend the working day so much, or to reduce wages to so little, because the reproduction of capital depends upon the reproduction of labor.
What the installation asks us to think, however, is the manner in which it is these technologies of representation which record this outside, which draw our attention to it and make it manifest. Sulfation is also important for the excretion of steroids, including DHEA and testosterone [4,19]. Large trials have shown that low-dose aspirin during pregnancy is relatively safe for mother and child [45]. Many of our members use various homeopathic remedies a€“ theya€™re a very good option since they dona€™t contain unwanted additives such as artificial dyes and flavorings. On the other hand, in some states children still receive thimerosal-preserved vaccines [54]. For example, spice-based colors like paprika and turmeric are grown primarily in India and now in other Asian countries, annatto and carmine primarily come from Latin America, fruit based colors from Europe and so on. The precise transformations of materials it enablesa€”its retentional exactitudea€”precisely negate all transformation. Another choice would be to ask a compounding pharmacist to make up a product to fit the childa€™s needs.
Haley also noted the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate requires a molybdenum cofactor inhibited by mercury [54] .Urinary sulfite is high in autistic children, and molybdenum supplements improved clinical symptoms [42]. If any of these areas are affected by adverse climatic conditions, it affects the global supply and price of that particular color. Simply put, the way we thinka€”the form of thinkinga€”is dialectically intertwined with the structure and the historical movement of capitalist accumulation. Like Malicka€™s The Tree of Life, Baiera€™s meteorite indexes a cosmological time and an inhuman history which never was sensed, which was prior to sensationa€”though, like Malicka€™s film, Baier makes this history manifest through the most sophisticated technological means of representation. The labor of the artist is the transformation of money, through materials, into its own image. Baiera€™s Canvas, a meticulous photographic recording of the bare stone wall beside the first recorded images, situates this indexical effort within the whole history of representationa€”again, carrying us outside the modern technics of mimetic exactitude which make the digital rendering of this stone wall possible in the first place. Natural sources from which colors are derived are all from non-GM crops except some caramel colors. But this is also to transform them into an art object: neither tool nor raw material, neither instrument nor that to which it is applied. However, soy- or maize-based products are widely used as carriers, emulsifiers [to make water soluble colors from an oil based pigment, or spray drying to make powdered colors] and stabilizers.
Rather, a worked form, presented, apparently useless and withdrawn from exchangea€”though of course it has its uses and cannot help but find its way back to market.
Novel pigment sources, improvements in processing technology, innovative formulation and customized application techniques have geared the use of naturally derived color in all category of food industry. However the natural colors are still not as stable as their synthetic counterparts and have restrictions in usage and shelf life. What advice do you give US clients on ‘natural’ labeling?This is a very sensitive area as it could lead to major legal issues for us and our customers. So our advice to customers is to follow FDA regulations with regard to labeling and rely on what their regulatory team recommends.

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