Oriental medicine schools in texas,alternative medicine graduate programs list,alternative cancer treatment centers uk 2014 - For Begninners

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Please fill in the below fields and list one or several schools you found on this site for more information. In the early 1960’s the antecedent of Samra University was begun by the late Homer Cheng, trained in Western Medicine at the University of Maryland with a clinic in Los Angeles devoted to rehabilitation medicine. Samra University offers a Masters of Science in Oriental Medicine degree with an emphasis on Traditional Oriental Medicine, complimented by Western Medicine. The university curriculum is comprehensive and includes Acupuncture (Chinese and Korean), Herbology, Oriental Medicine, Western Medicine, Acupressure, Nutrition and an extensive internship. Samra also offers highly experienced professors from China, Korea and the United States, which bring a strong depth of knowledge in Oriental and Western medicine to their students. Samra University of Oriental Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. The accreditation commission for acupuncture and oriental medicine (acaom) is the national accrediting agency recognized by the u.s. The accreditation commission for acupuncture and oriental medicine (acaom) is a private, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by the council of colleges of. Nccaom is a private non-profit organization which develops, promotes, and administers examinations and certifications for acupuncture, chinese herbology, and asian.
Nyctcm approved york state education department granted absolute charter november 9, 2001. Copyright © 2012 Share The Knownledge, All trademarks are the property of the respective trademark owners. 1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography.
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. 2) Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935) - From what is now Lebanon, wanted to rejuvenate the Ottoman caliphate. He made no statements opposing Islamic supremacism, but he is called a Reformera„? for denying the way things are like so many today. 3) Muhammad a€?Inayat Allah Khan (1888- 1963) - Born in Punjab, founded the Khaksar Movement, a Muslim separatist group.
The astonishing similaritiesa€”or shall we say the unintentional similarity between two great mindsa€”between Hitlera€™s great book and the teachings of my Tazkirah and Isharat embolden me, because the fifteen years of a€?strugglea€? of the author of a€?My Strugglea€? [Mein Kampf] have now actually led his nation back to success.
Mashriqi emphasized repeatedly in his pamphlets and published articles that the verity of Islam could be gauged by the rate of the earliest Muslim conquests in the glorious first decades after Muhammada€™s death - Mashriqia€™s estimate is a€?36,000 castles in 9 years, or 12 per daya€?. 4) Hajj Amin al-Husseini (~1896 - 1974) - Studied Islamic law briefly at Al-Azhar University in Cairo and at the Dar al-Da'wa wa-l-Irshad under Rashid Rida, who remained his mentor till Ridaa€™s death in 1935.2 3 Perhaps more a politician than a sharia scholar, he is on this page because of his authority and longtime influence as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem beginning in 1921. 5) Sheikh Muhammad Mahawif - was Grand Mufti of Egypt, in 1948 issued a fatwa declaring jihad in Palestine obligatory for all Muslims.
6) Sheikh Hasan Maa€™moun - Grand Mufti of Egypt in 1956 issued a fatwa, signed by the leading members of the Fatwa Committee of Al Azhar, and the major representatives of all four Sunni schools of jurisprudence. There are hundreds of other [Koranic] psalms and hadith urging Muslims to value war and to fight.
10) Sheik Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi (1928 - 2010) - Grand Sheik Al-Azhar University, Cairo 1996 - 2010. BBC said Tantawi a€?is acknowledged as the highest spiritual authority for nearly a billion Sunni Muslimsa€?.
He devotes a chapter to the various ways Allah punished the Jews, among them changing their form. 1996 - 30 years later was appointed Grand Imam at Al-Azhar U., then met in Cairo with the Chief Rabbi of Israel. President of many influential orgs, founder and president of the International Association of Muslim Scholars which issues many fatwas.
During the Arab Springa„? in February 2011, after Mubarak's fall his return to Egypt for the 1st time since he was banned 30 years before drew the largest crowd since the uprising began - over 2 million. He said he worked with and was influenced by Hasan al-Banna, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, where he is a longtime spiritual advisor, and in 1976 and 2004 turned down offers to be the Brotherhooda€™s highest-ranking General Leader. Report on Goma€™a: a€?A fatwa issued by Egypta€™s top religious authority, which forbids the display of statues has art-lovers fearing it could be used by Islamic extremists as an excuse to destroy Egypta€™s historical heritage.
15) Sheikh Gamal Qutb - The one-time Grand Sheik of Al-Azhar on K- 4:24, and sex with slave girls.
19) Sheikh 'Ali Abu Al-Hassan - Al-Azhar University Fatwa Committee Chairman on suicide bombing in 2003.
21) Sheikh Hassan Khalid (1921 - 1989) - Sunni jurist, elected Grand Mufti of Lebanon in 1966 where he presided over Islamic courts for 23 years.
Tibi said, "First, both sides should acknowledge candidly that although they might use identical terms these mean different things to each of them. Muslims frequently claim that a€?Islam means peace.a€? The word Islam comes from the same three-letter Arabic root as the word a€?salaam,a€? peace. 23) Majid Khaduri (1909-2007) - Iraqi jurist, Ph.D International law University of Chicago in 1938, member of the Iraqi delegation to the founding of the United Nations in 1945. 25) Hatem al-Haj - Egyptian, leading American Muslim jurist, MD, PhD, fellow at the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the author of this revealing 2008 Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America paper, which says the duty of Muslims is not to respect the laws of the country where they live, but rather do everything in their power to make the laws of Allah supreme. Warraq says the main arguments of his book are few, since more than fifty percent of it is taken up by quotations from the Koran, from scholars like Ibn Taymiyya, from the Hadith, from Koranic commentators like Ibn Kathir, and from the four main Sunni schools of Law.
Defensive Jihad: This is expelling the Kuffar from our land, and compulsory for all individuals. 28) Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (1939 - ) - Shiite jurist, Supreme Leader of Iran, he was #2 in a 2009 book co authored by Esposito featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims.
30) Sheikh Ahmed Kuftaro (1912-2004) - Grand Mufti of Syria, after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, yes to suicide attacks against Americans there. Grand Ayatollah Sistani (1930 -) - Shiite jurist and marja, the a€?highest authority for 17-20 million Iraqi Shia€™a, also as a moral and religious authority to Usuli Twelver Shia€™a worldwidea€?.
32) Saudi Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Sheikh (1940- ) - Saudi Grand Mufti, the leading religious figure of Saudi-based Salafi Muslims. 33) Saudi Sheikh Saleh Al-Lehadan, Chief Justice of the Saudi Supreme Judiciary Council, and a member of Council of Senior Clerics, the highest religious body in the country, appointed by the King.
34) Saudi Sheikh Wajdi Hamza Al-Ghazawi - preacher started a popular new website "Al Minbar.
35) Saudi Sheik Muhammad al-Munajjid (1962 - ) - well-known Islamic scholar, lecturer, author, Wahhabi cleric.
36) Saudi Sheikh Abd al-Rahman al-Sudayyis - imam of Islam's most holy mosque, Al-Haram in Mecca, holds one of the most prestigious posts in Sunni Islam. The Saudis boasted of having spent $74 billion a€?educatinga€? the West that Islam is a Peaceful Tolerant Religiona„?. 43) Mazen al-Sarsawi - popular Egyptian TV cleric comments in 2011 on what Muhammad said about IS&J. 46) Sheik Taj Din Al-Hilali - Sunni, Imam of the Lakemba Mosque, former Grand Mufti of Australia & New Zealand, Ia€™m not sure of his education but he is on this page because he was the highest religious authority there for almost 20 years.
47) Imam Anwar al-Awlaki - American imam, became a leading figure in Al Qaedaa€™s affiliate in Yemen. Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi (1971- ) - First Caliph of the new Islamic State (ISIS, ISIL) created in 2014.
If youa€™ve been through this site then you dona€™t need Raymond Ibrahima€™s explanation why the a€?religious defamationa€? laws being called for internationally in 2012 would ban Islam itself and its core texts (One & Two) if they were applied with the same standard to all religions.
If Islamic doctrines are inherently violent, why isna€™t every single Muslim in the world violent? 10) Sheik Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi (1928 - 2010) - Grand Sheik Al-Azhar University, Cairo 1996 - 2010.A  Grand Mufti of Egypt 1986 - 1996. A student can complete their internship at our community clinic or take advantage of other externship opportunities, including externships in China.
Flexible scheduling allows a student to complete their studies while continuing to work if needed. Our campus is one of the most complete facilities in the United States which includes an Outpatient Clinic, Herbal Pharmacy with over 400 Chinese herbs, library containing approximately 7000 items and an on campus bookstore. Homeopathic individualized medicines versus fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression: double-blind, randomized non-inferiority trial. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. We shook hands and Hitler said, pointing to a book that was lying on the table: a€?I had a chance to read your al-Tazkirah.a€? Little did I understand at that time, what should have been clear to me when he said these words!
But only after leading his nation to the intended goal, has he disclosed his movementa€™s rules and obligations to the world; only after fifteen years has he made the means of success widely known. In 1922 he became President of the Supreme Muslim Council where he had the power to appoint personally loyal preachers in all of Palestinea€™s mosques, making him indisputably the most powerful Muslim leader in the country.2 Exiled, eventually to Germany from 1937 - 1945 where he was Hitlera€™s close associate. He founded the political party Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1952 as an alternative to the MB, and remained its leader until he died in 1977.
90-91), Irana€™s Ayatollah Khomeini himself married a ten-year-old girl when he was twenty-eight. English translation in Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. The 2 largest standing Buddha carvings in the world from the 6th century were blown up by the Taliban in 2001. Ahmad AlA­Tayyeb - Grand Sheik of Al-Azhar University, was President of Al Azhar for 7 years, was Grand Mufti of Egypt. Career spanned more than 65 years, joined SAIS faculty in 1949, then created the first graduate program in the U.S on the modern Middle East. Islamic Education, Darul Uloom, Karachi, now hadith and Islamic economics instructor, sat for 20 years on Pakistani Supreme Court, he is one of the most respected Deobandi scholars in the world who authored over 60 books, an expert in Islamic finance who was quietly terminated or resigned in 2008 from the Sharia Supervisory Board of the Iman Fund, formerly the Dow Jones Islamic Index Fund (sharia finance). Al-Azhar University in The Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, Shariah degree Damascus University, influenced by Sayyid Qutb and knew his family while in Egypt, lectured for years at Saudi Arabiaa€™s King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah until 1979. Although acquitted by an Egyptian court for complicity in the 1981 slaying of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, he has bragged about issuing the fatwa that approved the killing. He meets frequently with Crown Prince Abdullah and other senior members of the ruling family. But if the standard is how violent a reaction it provokes from the offended people, then only a€?defaminga€™ Islam will be banned.
Including all his references, they amount to a mountain of evidence that shows the consensus on IS&J in all 5 schools since the 7th century, especially in the absence of any book full of contrary opinions from authorities with the stature of the examples you have seen. If they had, it would be easy to demonstrate with the kind of evidence you see here, from whatever era that was.
He founded the political party Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1952 as an alternative to the MB, and remained its leader until he died in 1977.A  Its stated goal is jihad a€?in clearly defined stagesa€? against existing political regimes, and their replacement with a caliphate. Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, UNIFESP (Federal University of SA?o Paulo, Brazil), Av Rouxinol, 1041 cj.
Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper.
Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. After the war he was wanted for crimes against humanity, but returned as a war hero to the Middle East, and remained Grand Mufti at least 10 years after WWII.
Hizb reportedly now has secret cells in 40 countries, outlawed in Russia, Germany, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and many others, but not in the USA where they hold an annual conference, and ita€™s still a legal political party in UK. Extremely influential Sunni jurist, sharia scholar based in Qatar, memorized the Koran by age ten. Chairman of the board of trustees atA Michigan-based Islamic American University, a subsidiary of the Muslim American Society, which was claimed by the Muslim Brotherhood as theirs in 1987.
Goma€™a was #7 in the book co-authored by John Esposito featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims, and he is widely hailed as a Moderatea„?.
He was the program's director until his retirement in 1980 and University Distinguished Research Professor until his death at 98 years old.
Deputy Chairman of the Jeddah based Islamic Fiqh Council of the OIC, and is a member of ECFR, whose President is Sheik Qaradawi. OBL was enrolled there from 76-81 where they probably first met; Azzam eventually became his mentor. In fact 3 times Pulitzer Prize winner and Middle East Experta„? Thomas Friedman wants to give a Nobel prize to him even though he is an Islamic supremacist. There is much more than those 2 books, here are reading lists with books full of more evidence from Muslim and non-Muslim accounts of institutionalized IS&J for over 1300 years. University Dogma takes for granted that a majority of jurists and ulama scholars, past and present, taught against IS&J, but no one says who and where these people are, and exactly what they said about relations between Muslims and non-Muslims. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. He is remembered as the godfather of Palestinian terrorism nationalism - Professor Edward Said praised him as a€?the voice of the Palestinian people.a€? The History Channel made a film about him. Former Hizb-ut-Tahrir member Ed Husain, in his 2007 book The Islamist, says: The difference between Hizb ut-Tahrir and jihadists, is tactics, not goals. Qaradawi was #6 in the book co authored by Esposito in 2009 featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims.
Similarly, when Muslims and the Western heirs of the Enlightenment speak of tolerance they have different things in mind.
Internationally recognized as one of the world's leading authorities on Islamic law and jurisprudence, modern Arab and Iraqi history, and politics. Even though he is not a sharia scholar, he is on this page because that is mostly what his The Calcutta Qur'an Petition (1986) is - quotes of Koranic commentaries by famous sharia scholars, in an attempt to ban the Koran in India. If you have any examples, please send documentary evidence so I can add it to the Tiny Minority of Extremists page, coming up next.
In late 1979, it became the first acupuncture school in the United States to be approved by the State Medical Board and first to be authorized by the State Department of Education to offer certificates of study and grant degrees in Oriental Medicine. There is a need for large-scale longitudinal data on treatment utilization and outcomes, stress, emotion, and pain.
The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
They simply deny that it is a principle of Islam that jihad may include wars of aggression.
Mashriqia€™s book Tazkirah (a commentary of the Quran) was nominated for the 1925 Nobel Prize in Literature. What is the good of us (the mullahs) asking for the hand of a thief to be severed or an adulteress to be stoned to death when all we can do is recommend such punishments, having no power to implement them? Because of his huge influence, and to understand the significance of his connections with Moderatea„? American Muslim leaders that you will see in the Muslim Brotherhood page, you must understand what believes. Samra University is also a founding member of the Council of Colleges of acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. Fouad Ajami said "Professor Khadduri was one of the pioneers of Middle Eastern studies in the United States. Randomized long-term trial of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type-1 diabetes. In 1930 I sent him my Isharat concerning the Khaksar movement with a picture of a spade-bearer Khaksar at the end of that book.


According to prosecutors, the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center (WTC), which killed six people, was part of the conspiracy. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters.
The intention of Mohammed, in what he said of jihad, may have been misunderstood and misrepresented. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light.
Islam says: Whatever good there it exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword!
Founded the Shaybani Society of International Law, and was a founder of the Middle East Institute, and the University of Libya, where he became dean in 1957. Patients are recruited from web sites for patient advocacy and health enhancement programs.
Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Therefore this long-term study was undertaken to assess the efficacy, safety and acceptability of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetic patients. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. Until the newer conceptions, as to what the Koran teaches as to the duty of the believer towards non-believers, have spread further.. Methods: In this 2-year randomized clinical parallel design study, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled and divided in 2 groups. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. Group I (n=12) received usual care (ie, diet, exercise, and insulin), and group II (n=12) received 500 mL camel milk in addition to diet, exercise, and insulin. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype).
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.
Previous studies have found that between 30% and 60% of pediatric neurology patients have used CAM at some point in their lives.
A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Whereas, the effect of vitamin C on conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumor cells has been documented, the mechanism of vitamin C induced increase in tumor cell response to PDT is unclear.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. In this report we demonstrate the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 significantly increases its apoptotic activity in tumor cells. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. Interestingly, we observed that the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 only and not its addition to a prior photo-exposed mixture to MC540 is critical for its enhanced sensitivity. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. These findings provide impetus to the approach in developing ROS generating small molecule compounds with potent apoptosis inducing activity. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers.
These data could have implications in the use of vitamin C in photo-sensitizer-mediated reactions with the view to favorably tailoring the cancer cell milieu for efficient apoptotic execution. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Many patients are still not discussing their CAM use with their doctors and are using CAM alongside their conventional medicines, thereby increasing the likelihood for potential interactions. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. One limitation of this study is that our ability to determine between-site differences is limited by the difference in sample size.
Electrodermal measures as clinical markers: Jing-point electrical impedance in adolescent women with chronic pelvic pain. Consequently, skin electrical measures at Jing points are commonly obtained and interpreted for diagnostic purposes. Denise Adams, University of Alberta, 1047 RTF Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada. The objective of this study is to determine whether electrodermal measures at Jing-points are associated with clinical outcomes in adolescents with chronic pelvic pain in a randomized, sham-controlled acupuncture trial.
Methods: We recruited 18 adolescent women aged 13 to 22 years of age suffering from chronic pelvic pain and laparoscopically diagnosed with Stage I-III endometriosis. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. Using a Hibiki-7 device, normalized electrical impedance values were obtained at all 24 Jing-points for each treatment session. Phase II: CAM research networks in Canada and the US will notify CAM providers of this study, so they may alert patients.
Left-right asymmetry and measures for statistical dispersion (standard deviation and Gini coefficient) of Jing-point impedance values were calculated.
This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Parents or legal guardians may self-identify and reply on behalf of patients under 18 year of age if they meet the criteria for Phase I. With a generalized estimating equation method, we evaluated the association between the electrodermal-derived measures and clinical outcomes while accounting for treatment designation and time. Phase III: The methods for phase II were utilized but CAM associations and training organizations were substituted for CAM research networks. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. The majority of the cases involved the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve quality of life. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Preliminary analyses indicate that, over time, subjects in the active acupuncture arm were more likely to have reduced left-right asymmetry and statistical dispersion of Jing-point measures compared to subjects in the sham-control arm. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. Further analyses with multivariable models will be performed to assess whether this difference is statistically significant for each electrodermal measure.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. The chiropractic care of children with otitis media: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation and meta-synthesis. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 N Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. Key words were otitis media and related words (ie, acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, ear infections, etc) AND chiropractic.
A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with a meta-synthesis of the literature with a focus on chiropractic management and the application of a whole systems research (WSR) evaluation. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
Results: Our systematic review revealed 20 articles consisting of 6 case reports, 5 case series, 1 retrospective cohort, 2 prospective cohorts, 2 reviews of the literature, 2 commentaries, 1 survey study and 1 prospective, parallel-group, observer-blinded, randomized feasibility study. Due to the lack of higher-level research design, a meta-analysis of the literature was not possible. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. This included the use of otoscopy and tympanogram to provide objective pretreatment and comparative outcome measures. Eighty-nine percent of respondents reported treating pediatric patients; patients under the age of 17 made up 12% of chiropractic and 20% of both naturopathic and osteopathic patients.
Activator, Gonstead, Toftness, Chiropractic Biophysics, and Diversified Techniques were utilized with an emphasis on the upper cervical spine (the C1 or C2 vertebral bodies). Approximately two-thirds of both osteopaths and naturopaths disagree or strongly disagree that immunizations are safe compared to one-third of chiropractors. One paper described utilization of cranial technique, 2 papers described a dietary intervention, and 2 papers utilized soft-tissue massage to augment spinal manipulative therapy. Fifteen studies were amenable to the WSR evaluation resulting in a score of 7.06 from a maximum of 11. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The immunizations of most concern to the 3 professions included MMR, varicella, influenza, DPTP, and hepatitis.
The most common reasons for concern were related to safety, including that vaccines may contain dangerous ingredients, may produce side effects, and may be linked to future problems such as neurological damage. Conclusion: This systematic review highlights the need for more higher-level research designs in addition to incorporating new methodologies (ie, whole systems research) reflective of the holistic and vitalistic clinical and theoretical framework of chiropractic. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor. The chiropractic care of children with enuresis: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation.
Significantly more naturopaths advised parents against vaccinations (27%), compared to 10% of chiropractors, and 12% of osteopaths (P=.0002).
Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 North Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063.
There was no significant difference between groups for those advising parents in favor of vaccinations (15% C, 14% N, 6% O) (P=.1143). Key words were enuresis, nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting as well as related words AND chiropractic.
A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with an evaluation using WSR evaluation.
Results: Our systematic review revealed 7 articles meeting the eligibility criteria for review. Four of the 7 papers involve case reports describing the care of children aged 8 to 14 years with primary complaints of nocturnal enuresis. Spinal manipulative therapy involved the use of Toggle recoil, Sacro-Occipital Technique, Activator Methods, Gonstead Technique, and Diversified Technique to address primarily segmental dysfunctions in the lumbosacral spine. We conducted a systematic review to assess the nature and severity of adverse events associated with pediatric acupuncture.
A large prospective cohort study (N=171) demonstrated improvement in wet nights per week from baseline following 2 weeks of care.
In a randomized clinical trial, within-group comparison of pretreatment and comparative rates of enuresis subjects demonstrated an improvement.
However, the study was fraught with research design issues such as randomization and biostatistics. Six of the 7 studies were amenable to WSR evaluation and resulted in a scoring of 7.33 from a maximum possible score of 11 points. One reviewer screened all articles, while the second reviewed all excluded articles to ensure that no article was inappropriately excluded. Full articles of potentially relevant references were retrieved and assessed by two independent reviewers. The use of Whole Systems Research provides promise in contributing to evidence-based practice and reflects the holistic and vitalistic chiropractic approach to patient care. Results: Seven thousand, two hundred sixty-two potentially relevant articles were identified. Eleven of these studies included adults as the majority of patients; for these studies the age of the patient experiencing the adverse event was never reported.
Most of the adverse events that have been identified in children were mild and included pain, bruising, and worsening of symptoms. The few adverse events rated as moderate or serious included one pneumothorax, 2 infections, and 2 cases of complications from needles left in the body. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Life University (Atlanta, Georgia). A 26-item questionnaire was sent to 9000 subscribers of an online newsletter from Midwifery Today Magazine. The first domain identified demographics (midwife credentials, age, years in practice, and place of practice).
The second domain queried participants regarding their formal and postgraduate training on the subject of chiropractic. The third domain attempted to identify their experience (ie, positive or negative experience) with chiropractic personally and professionally as it pertains to pregnancy and infant care.
The fourth domain asked their opinion about the safety of chiropractic care for pregnant and pediatric patients. The fifth domain surveyed their knowledge regarding the scope of practice of chiropractic for pregnant and pediatric patients. The respondent ranged in age from 41 to 50 years with practice experience ranging from 6 to 10 years. With respect to their training on chiropractic, 31% (n=57) reported receiving formal education (ie, during midwifery education) on the subject of chiropractic.


Fifty-five of the 157 who did not indicated receiving some education on chiropractic through continuing education seminars. With respect to the midwife responders’ experience with chiropractic, 95% (n=176) admitted to making a professional referral to a chiropractor with 73% (n=137) having referred an infant to a chiropractor.
Ninety-two percent (n=171) reported being chiropractic patients with another 58% (n=124) presenting their child for chiropractic care.
Over 90% indicated experiencing a positive experience as patients and with their child’s care.
All of the respondents perceived chiropractic was safe for pregnant patients, while only 97% considered chiropractic safe for children. An overwhelming majority of the responders (98%) indicated that chiropractors work with birth professionals, while 92% indicated that they were knowledgeable about the role of chiropractic in prenatal care. Lastly, 75% indicated interest in learning more about chiropractic, with 86% wanting more evidence-based practice chiropractic. From the 809 articles reviewed, 18 articles met the full inclusion criteria and proceeded to data extraction. Identified adverse events include local pain or soreness, swelling, mild fevers, and skin rashes. Thus far, the majority of adverse events reported have been mild with few moderate or serious adverse events occurring in pediatric patients.
Total weight and body composition changes in response to weight reduction diets of varied protein content in midlife women. Age-related changes in body composition for women include loss of lean mass and gains in total weight, fat mass and central fat deposition. There is growing evidence that diets with low-to-moderate carbohydrate and fat content and increased levels of high-quality protein are effective for weight loss. Greater subjective satiety is reported by subjects following test meals containing whey protein compared to other protein sources.
The beneficial effects of whey protein on satiety, thermogenesis, and lean body mass protection suggest that whey may be a preferred protein source for weight loss treatment.
The specific aims of this study are to assess weight loss in subjects receiving energy-reduced dietary regimens and to evaluate parameters of weight and body mass change between the 3 treatment groups. Study Design: We are conducting a randomized, controlled pilot feeding study to evaluate the effect of different dietary protein sources on weight loss.
Endpoint measures include body weight and body composition data obtained at baseline and at 8 weeks for dietary treatment. The HP diet and the WP diet produced greater total fat loss and less total lean tissue loss than the CD. Conclusions: Preliminary data shows that across treatment groups, the high-protein diets conserved lean tissue and promoted reduction of fat tissue. Trials investigating TCM must be conducted with increased methodological rigor to be of value in evaluations. The single included study suggesting that acupuncture may be safe and efficacious in CFS is limited in applicability by the use of sham acupuncture as the control. Integration and interface between naturopaths and conventional rural care: empirical findings from a grass-roots research project.
The worsening epidemic of DM in the United States, along with the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and IGT, render the identification of promising interventions for these states a matter of some urgency. Jon Adams, University of Queensland, School of Population Health ,University of Qld, Herston, Queensland, 4006, Australia. While lifestyle interventions based on dietary pattern and physical activity can delay or prevent the onset of diabetes and reduce cardiovascular risk, adherence at the population level is severely limiting.
Pharmacotherapy offers promise for diabetes prevention, but with associated high costs, unacceptability to many patients, and potential toxicity.
In this context, the potential role of chromium (Cr), an insulin cofactor, in IGT is of great interest.
Proposed, therefore, is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial conducted at the Yale Prevention Research Center to investigate the effects of daily Cr for 6 months at 2 dose levels on serum measures of glucose tolerance and on endothelial function in adults with IGT, IFG, and IR.
The study is powered to detect a clinically meaningful effect of Cr supplementation at either dose on glucose control, and to compare the two doses for equivalence. The study will investigate effects of Cr on both measures of glucose tolerance (glucose, insulin, OGTT) and brachial artery endothelial function, thus combining serum measures with a physiologic test of Cr effects on the vasculature. The proposed study will generate much needed data regarding the efficacy of Cr in those at risk for type 2 diabetes and offers the promise of guiding practice, as well as directing future study. By contributing to knowledge related to potential diabetes prevention strategies, this study addresses one of the more pressing public health issues in the United States today.
Risk to human subjects in this study is a minor increment over minimal due to the administration of nitroglycerin as a control in BARS testing. Secondary outcomes: (4) It will show improved well-being, as measured by elevated melatonin and DHEA. Unlike many relaxation therapies, energy healing requires no participation by the patient, a feature that makes it particularly attractive in the hospital setting, where patients are often anxious, depressed, in pain, or sedated. Despite the increasing use of energy healing, few studies have looked at its benefits and even fewer at its underlying mechanisms of action. In this pilot study, we examined the effects of an energy healing modality known as Reiki on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, both of which participate in the stress response and stress-induced pain and disease progression. Subjects rested for 10 min before baseline heart rate and blood pressure were measured and blood was drawn to determine cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA levels, using commercial immunoassay kits. Subjects then received a 30- to 45-min Reiki or Pretend Reiki session followed immediately by post-session heart rate and blood pressure measurements and at 2h by blood draws. When asked whether they thought they were in the Reiki or Pretend Reiki group, about 70% of the participants reported that they believed that they had received a true Reiki session. This suggests that the beneficial effects of Reiki on physiology, as compared to the Pretend Reiki, cannot be explained solely by the placebo effect.
Issac Amponsah, Faculty of Pharmacy Kwame Nkrumah University of SC, Knust, Kumasi, 233, Ghana. Effects of ultra-low dilutions of sabal serrulata on human prostate cancer growth: mechanistic studies. Hakima Amri, Georgetown University, Basic Science Bldg, 3900 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007. Finally, serum protein differential expression was carried out using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Effect of mind-body medicine skills on elements of emotional intelligence in medical students.
Yet studies have reported that traits such as altruism and empathy tend to decline throughout medical school training. In an effort to foster medical student self-awareness and mindfulness, which may improve their EI, Georgetown University School of Medicine (GUSOM) offers an experiential course to undergraduate medical students in mind-body medicine skills.
The purpose is to expose students to a variety of mind-body approaches including meditation, imagery, as well as group sharing and listening generously for self-awareness and reflection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Mind Body Medicine Skills (MBS) course on perceived stress, mindfulness, and elements of EI including intrapersonal capacities (attention to feelings, mood repair, clarity of feelings) and interpersonal capacities (perspective-taking, empathetic concern, and personal distress in response to distress in others). The intervention group (n=30) was comprised of first year medical students who self-selected to participate in this elective. The control group (n=36) included students from the first year class who completed the surveys but did not take the MBS course. Four questionnaires were completed at the start and end of the spring semester by all study participants: the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), and a survey of EI developed by Stratton et al (2005) comprised of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index.
ANCOVA was used to compare the MBS and the control groups at the end of the semester, controlling for beginning scores. Patient perspectives of integrative and primary care management of back and neck paina€”qualitative findings from a randomized clinical trial. These conditions are additionally some of the most common reasons why patients use complementary therapies, often without dialogue with conventional care providers. The focus groups were conducted separately for those in the integrative vs the conventional treatment groups. The interview data were transcribed ad verbatim and analyzed utilizing inductive content analysis technique. Eliane Angst, UCLA Center for Excellence in Pancreatic Diseases, 675 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095. A significant reduction in cell numbers was seen with quercetin concentrations of ~30 AµM and a maximum effect at ~75 AµM. In MIA PaCa-2 cells a ~65% reduction in cell number was seen with 75 AµM of quercetin after 48 hours. Starved BxPC-3 cells treated with 75 AµM quercetin showed a ~95% reduction in cell number after 48 hours. Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin has a potent growth-inhibitory effect in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Additional experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism of growth inhibition and animal studies are underway.
Flovanoids may reveal to be potent anticancer drugs found in our daily food, leading to specific diet recommendations. These can be taken together to qualify as an academic minor in many of the conventional MA or PhD programs, often forming the basis of a thesis or dissertation required for the terminal degree.
In the fall of 2009, the university will launch a doctorate of nursing practice with a focus in integrative health and healing.
Georgetown University developed a concentration of CAM within its Masters in Physiology program in 2003.
We address the multicultural perspective, comparing data collected in Canada and Europe to those in the United States.
The reason for this is that results on the health-promoting effects of spirituality and religiosity cannot easily be transferred from the United States to countries with different cultural and religious backgrounds.
Thus, one has to recognize different concepts of spirituality, different attitudes towards its utilization, and objections against the implementation of it in a particular medical system.
In Germany, 3 colleagues have founded the Transdisciplinary Working Group on Spirituality and Health, and in Canada the Canadian Research Network on Spirituality and Health has been active for a couple of years. Data and approaches from these different networks will be combined into this symposium.Dr BA?ssing is an associate professor at the University of Witten, Herdeckea€™s Faculty of Medicine, where he directs the research group Spirituality and Health.
The effect of a€?acupuncture for losing weighta€? on the level of blood sugar: a survey on the mechanism. Hoda Azizi, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing, Beijing, 100029, China. Material and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 66 patients were included in case and control groups. Blood sugar was examined just before inserting needles and immediately after withdrawal of needles. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the mechanism of acupuncture in losing weight is significantly related to making an increase in BS.
John Balletto, Center for Muscular Therapy, Inc, 545 Pawtucket Avenue, Mailbox 304, Pawtucket, RI 02860-6046.
As with business startups that begin informally and successfully mature into larger enterprises, growth brings new organizational challenges, together with greater visibility and opportunity. The maturation of massage as a healthcare profession increases the need for a process to formalize the synthesis of massage therapy knowledge from clinical experience and research—to collect what we know and to make such baseline knowledge widely available to practitioners, consumers, and other healthcare stakeholders.
The present paper lays out the motivations and framework for creating massage therapy guidelines that are informed both by research and by clinical experience. It also acts as a report to the massage therapy profession and to other stakeholders about the work of the Best Practices Committee of the Massage Therapy Foundation since 2006. And it has the additional goal of providing a healthcare literature basis for future academic discussions of massage.
The discussion here is based on a definition from the Institute of Medicine and on research into the nature of expertise. Topics addressed include guideline creation, credentialing of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, definition of competence, and the increasing role of technology (that is, informatics) in managing training and task-necessary competencies. The roles of transparency and a wide and open peer review are emphasized as essential to the usability and credibility of guidelines. Health Canada issues consumer advisories regarding the safety of marketed health products, yet the criteria for issuing advisories have not been evaluated for consistency or objectivity. The Causality Algorithm used by Health Canada was used to rate degree of association between the adverse events (AEs) and the products. The Severity of Adverse Events Scale, developed by the National Cancer Institute, was used to determine the severity of the AEs. Most NHP AWRs were issued based on potential AEs from contamination and adulteration, whereas most of the AWRs for therapeutic drugs were issued due to actual AEs. Of the 6 NHP AWRs issued for actual AEs, 3 (50%) were unassessable for severity, whereas of the 28 AWRs issued for actual therapeutic drug AEs, 1 (3%) was unassessable for severity.
The origin of reports for NHPs tended to be from foreign sources or Health Canada, whereas reports for therapeutic drugs were mostly issued by Health Canada in conjunction with drug manufacturers.
The potential of a mistletoe (Viscum album L) extract to alleviate adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy: an in vitro study. Stephan Baumgartner, University of Bern, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, Inselspital, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the effect of a mistletoe extract on PBMC with and without concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and compared viability and replication of normal PBMC with that of a T-cell leukemia cell line.
The results motivate further preclinical and clinical investigations of mistletoe extracts as an adjuvant medication in cancer therapy to alleviate side effects of conventional therapy.
Stephan Baumgartner, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, University of Bern, Inselspital, Imhoof-Pavillon, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the potential of a commonly used plant pathogen–system, Arabidopsis thaliana infected with the virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae (pv tomato strain DC3000), regarding its response towards a homeopathic treatment.
Compared to Bion (a common SAR inducer used as positive control), the magnitude of the treatment effect of Biplantol was about 50%.
None of the other tested preparations yielded significant effects in the overall evaluation. The purpose of this study was to determine remedy effects on a common quantitative measure of complexity, the correlation dimension (D2), of human sleep electroencephalography (EEG). High Hostile subjects increased complexity at C3 and Pz, but decreased complexity at O2 during stage 3 sleep on CC. In the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects, CC caused significant increases in complexity at Pz and O1 during stage 3 sleep and at C3, C4, and Pz during stage 4 sleep.
CC increased complexity significantly at Cz, C4, and O2 during REM sleep in only the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not the objective measure of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings can distinguish verum homeopathic remedies from placebo in human subjects. NV produced more marked effects on increased shifts in sleep stages, with a growth in effects from night 22 to 23. This study examined the effects of olfactory administration of a polycrest homeopathic remedy Sulphur on heart rate variability (HRV).
The Sulphur was given at dilution factors used for preparing 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies (1 potency per session, with potency order randomized), but for each potency, the test solutions were succussed to different degrees (stirred without shaking, 10, 20, or 100 succussions). Homeopathic remedies increase spectral electroencephalographic power during sleep in healthy young adults. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of verum vs placebo homeopathic remedies on spectral qEEG measures of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings. Evaluating a nonlinear dynamical model for human flourishing: Relationship of PANAS positive-to-negative-affect ratio and global health and well-being. The purpose of the present study was to compare global physical health (GPH) and well-being ratings of young adults whose P:N mood ratios fell above vs below the Losada line. Despite higher (MCSD) scores in PF, a small sex and age difference between groups, ANCOVAs controlling for MCSD, sex, and age still showed statistical significance of the above PF vs PL group differences. Gurjeet Birdee, Osher Research Center Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, Suite 22-A West, Boston, MA 02215.
We identified the prevalence of CAM modalities used and the characteristics of users among the pediatric population.



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