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A capsid is constructed from identical subunits called capsomers, which are made of protein.
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Host RangeA cell has to have a specific structure or receptor on its surface for a virus to be able to attach to it.
Animal virus replication is MORE complex than phage replication because host cells are more complex2.
Most DNA viruses bud off of the nucleus and most RNA viruses multiply and are released from the cytoplasm.
Larry Brilliant telling the fascinating tale of the eradication of smallpox:Cowpox Cowpox virus, from the genus Orthpoxvirus, is another poxvirus that causes human disease through zoonosis.
EpidemiologyCowpox virus has been found only in Europe and in adjacent parts of the former Soviet Union. Despite its name, the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus are rodents, from which it can occasionally spread to cats, cows, humans, and zoo animals, including large cats and elephants.
Transmission to humans has traditionally occurred via contact with the infected teats of milking cows. However, currently, infection is seen more commonly among domestic cats, from which it can be transmitted to humans. Symptomatology and OutcomeInfection with cowpox virus in humans produces localized, pustular lesions at the site of their introduction into the skin.


The lesion is similar to that caused by vaccination, although the inflammatory response is greater.
The lesions in humans usually appear on the hands: on the thumbs, the first interdigital cleft, and the forefinger. Pathology and PathogenesisThe pathology of the skin lesions caused by cowpox virus is similar to that of smallpox. The most significant pathological feature of cowpox is the presence of two types of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies: irregular B-type inclusion bodies, and numerous large, homogenous, acidophilic, A-type inclusion bodies. Management and PreventionHuman cowpox usually responds to treatment with antivaccina immunoglobulin. Usually, the lesions regress spontaneously.Identification and isolation of animals infected with cowpox can help decrease the incidence of human infections. Attention to the newly emerging prevalence of cowpox virus among domestic cats and subsequent, directive action can also help reduce the number of human infections. Monkeypox Human infections with monkeypox virus, from the genus Orthopoxvirus, were first observed in West and Central Africa during the early 1970s, after smallpox had already been eradicated in this region.
Although the signs and symptoms of monkeypox are very similar to those of smallpox, this virus is significantly different. This virus is a rare zoonosis found only in the small villages of the tropical rain forests of western and central Africa, with cases mostly reported in Zaire.
As a result of intensive surveillance efforts conducted by the World Health Organization, only 400 cases were reported worldwide from the time infection by monkeypox virus was first observed in 1970 to the time when surveillance ceased in 1986.Monkeypox virus is believed to be transmitted through direct contact with wild animals killed for food, such as squirrels and monkeys.


Incubation period Incubation period is between 10-14 days, usually 12 days.Pathogenesis and PathologyVery similar to smallpox where the virus replicates in lymphoid tissues, however, the viral entry occurs by small lesions and it may also occur via respiratory tract. Prevention and ManagementVaccination with smallpox vaccine immunizes against monkeypox, but it is not justified since the disease is so rare.
In the United States, Vaccinia vaccination is recommended for laboratory workers who directly handle cultures or animals infected with monkeypox virus.
Management for monkeypox involves effective surveillance efforts such as those undertaken by the World Health Organization prior to 1980. An important thing to remember is that unlike smallpox, human monkeypox has a lower capacity for human spread. The bumps may be pink, pearly-white, or the same color as the rest of the skin in the affected area. Often the infection goes unnoticed, but child may have a low-grade fever and a bright red rash on the cheeks.
This virus can be more dangerous in children with immunodeficiency or sickle-cell anemia, because it destroys red blood stem cells.The adeno-associated virus (A-AV) is another example of a defective virus that cannot replicate in the host cell without function of a helper cell.



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