Save energy questions worksheet,can you get cold sores not on your lip,herpes outbreaks before periods video,cough remedies 2 year old - You Shoud Know

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One interesting anomaly in the LHC run-1 was a hint of Higgs boson decays to a muon and a tau lepton. Stephanie DeMarco interviewed me a few weeks ago for an article she was writing about the science in the TV show Agent Carter (season two). NGC 3115, also known as the Spindle galaxy, is the nearest example to us of a lenticular galaxy - a strange hybrid of the more common spiral and elliptical galaxy types. In summary, we are entering a golden age of astronomical observation, with lots of high-quality detailed data available.
Phil Stooke describes a research trip to the Regional Planetary Image Facility at the USGS in Flagstaff, where he discovered Jack Schmitt's proposed plans for a farside landing site for Apollo 17. A guide to interesting stuff going on in space science, space exploration, and space advocacy.
In my dreams I am always saying goodbye and riding away, Whither and why I know not nor do I care. NASA and Bigelow Aerospace weren't able to get the space station's newest module up and running this morning. Various bits of good news concerning my former students Alissa Crans, Derek Wise and Jeffrey Morton. Derek Wise did his thesis on Topological Gauge Theory, Cartan Geometry, and Gravity in 2007. From left to right ita€™s Derek Wise, Jeffrey Morton and Alissa Cransa€¦ and then two more students of mine: Toby Bartels and Miguel CarriA?n A?lvarez. When some stars much more massive than the sun reach the end of their lives, they explode in a supernova, fusing lighter atoms into heavier ones and dispersing the products across spacea€”some of which became part of our bodies. Neutrinos are well known for being hard to detect because they barely interact with other particles. Typically, all the nuclear fusion in a star happens in its core: Thata€™s the only place hot and dense enough. Core-collapse supernovae are rare and extremely violent phenomena, sometimes outshining whole galaxies at their peak. However, 24 neutrinos from the 1987 supernova showed up in particle detectors (built for studying proton decay). Supernova research really took off in the 1980s with growing computer power and the realization that a full understanding of core collapse would need to incorporate a lot of complicated physics. Currently, both detailed and simplified approaches are needed, until researchers know exactly what physical processes are involved deep inside the dying star. The worlda€™s current neutrino experiments are poised to catch neutrinos from the next event and are connected by the Supernova Early Warning System.
No time for a full post today, so Ia€™ll just share this intriguing picture I found on the interwebs of two great figures from very different fields: Jazz trumpet legend Louis Armstrong and pioneering quantum physicist, Niels Bohr. When I first saw this I assumed it had been photoshopped, but Ia€™m reliably informed that the picture is genuine and that it was taken in Copenhagen in 1959. For a few days at the beginning of May, astronomers around the world watched a webcam feed in a mix of excitement and trepidation.
Figure 2: SimulatedA spectrum of a Trappist-1 planet in the infrared wavelengths observed by JWST, assuming an atmosphere broadly similar to that of Earth. The authors first produced a theoretical A spectrum of the Trappist-1 planetsa€™ atmospheres (Figure 2). Simulated JWST spectra for the three Trappist-1 planets after, from left to right, 30, 60 and 90 transits. I've written an article 'On the Relativity of Redshifts: Does Space Really "Expand"?' which has appeared in Australian Physics (2016, 53(3), 95-100). I'm trying to make the characters somewhat expressive, since you, the book's reader, will be spending a lot of time with them. The recent arXival by Takashi Goda of Computing the variance of a conditional expectation via non-nested Monte Carlo led me to read it as I could not be certain of the contents from only reading the title!
In the era of extremely large telescopes, let's take look at the opposite end: the extremely little telescopes. Accepted to be published in the peer reviewed proceedings of the Australian Space Research Conference. In the era of extremely large telescopes, leta€™s take look at the opposite end: the extremely little telescopes. Then, as the stars KELT focuses on are so bright, a plethora of other methods to characterize the planet are available. The Letter of Agreement of 1996 stipulates that Wiley should not increase the net price more than 5% in any two year period with the authora€™s permission.
John David Jackson was obviously a generous man: the royalties for this book were divided among his four children (including my correspondent Ian). I dona€™t remember how much I paid for my copy, but I dona€™t begrudge the amount because ita€™s an excellent book. For the record, my textbook on Cosmology (co-authored with Francesco Lucchin) was also published by Wiley. I received this news from the RSS today that all the RSS journals are turning 100% electronic. How Herbalists can Integrate with Integrity - Herbalists are one of the last health care modalities that remains unlicensed. Plant Walk -On this walk we would meet local plants and discuss the importance of botanical characteristics (an examination of their individual parts), the plantsa€™ relationships with other plants, ethical and practical ways of wildcrafting species we see, plants from other areas that have similar uses, and real-life clinical applications.
GI Tract Protocol - The GI tract protocol can be used for normalizing varied types of chronic digestive problems.
Hispanic Herbalism - The Hispanic healing traditions of California, incorporating the herbal use of other cultures within the Latino experience.
Guerilla Herbalism - Street herbalism through helping the homeless, impoverished, and under insured, often under dangerous conditions. Giving Back - Rosemary Gladstar, renowned herbalist and founder of United Plant Savers, talks at length about the importance of giving back to the natural world that provides the plants we use for medicine, and that imparts the wisdom needed now more than ever in these trying times. An Ecology of Healing: Health as Wholeness and Balance - Taught by Kiva Rose and Jesse Wolf Hardin, this class will be an in-depth exploration of healing as the bodya€™s natural effort to be whole and in balance. Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Kiva Rose) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating.
Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Jim McDonald) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating. Clinical Skills - Learn to evaluate energetic conditions (hot, cold, damp, dry, tense, relaxed etc.,) by complexion, tongue and pulse examination and simple questions. Herbs for the Muscular & Skeletal Systems - Herbal treatment of locomotor injuries, problems of aging, arthritis, gout, lyme disease and more.
I am so excited to be registered for the following course and thought I would share the information with readers. Join Herbalist, Nutritionist, and food lover, Darcey Blue French of Brighid’s Well Herbs for a 6 week online intensive course on the energetics of food, true nourishment, nutrition, relationship with place and food, nutritional healing and more. May 3, 2010 - June 21, 2010*Learn about the ways traditional healing systems such as Ayurveda and Chinese Medicine see food energetics, and use food as healing tools on a day to day basis. Darcey Blue French is an herbalist and food lover, who has over the years explored various ways of eating, interacting with food and preparing food. Due to the fact that I am working on my last three weeks of the semester while my husband is on a business trip,A  I have decided to re-post articles worthy of being passed along.
For those who are not familiar with the name,A  Paul Bergner is the director of the North American Institute of Medical Herbalism in Boulder, Colorado whichA  offers introductory, advanced, and clinical training in medical herbalism and clinical nutrition in the vitalist tradition. For those interested in more information,A  please check out the websites above you will find a wealth of information. The process for making HFCS is to chemically strip the sugars off of the starch in corn, freeing them up.A The process of making of agave nectar is similar (this is not agave sap), but the sugars are chemically stripped off of inulin starch, inulin being a fructo-oligosaccharide, having fructose as the dominant sugar in the chain, so the agave nectar might be 80-90% free fructose instead of 55% like the HFCS in soft drinks.
I like to think that my childhood was unique but honestly there are a great number of folk out there who grew up in a very similar manner to me. There is a point to all of this.A  Herbalism is newer to me than the natural family living.
I honestly am not sure of the answers but I thought I would throw the question out there as it is rumbling around in the back of my brain.A  What have you been thinking about today? Nutrition plays a vital role in a healthy nervous system but before you even think about what foods to eat, you should look at your eating patterns.A A  Are you skipping meals while taking in large amounts of stimulants or sugars? B Vitamins are also important to a healthy nervous system but it is important to note that there is too much of a good thing.A  Taking large doses of B vitamins (specifically B12)A  can lead to anxiety attacks and panic disorders. As I examined the packets, I continued to like what I was reading and is there ever there a lot to read.A  These might be the most informative seed packets I have ever run across! All-in-all it seems like a good company and I plan on spending a good share of my gardening budget at their website. A lot of herbalists talk of using herbal infusions to support your body during and illness or perhaps as an alternative to a nutritional supplement in the form of a nourishing infusion. They are quite useful; I have been making herbal preparations, for years now,A  with good results. You don’t hear many of them mentioningA  spaghetti sauce as an decoction although the acidic base of tomato sauce is wonderful for drawing minerals out of foods.
Keep in mind I am not talking about the watered-down, additive-laden prepared foodstuff you buy at the the megamarket.A A  I am talking of preparations you make yourself. I don’t remember exactly when it occurred to me that soups and broths are really just giant pots of herbal goodness. I realized that I don’t know that I ever have put our spaghetti sauce recipe on the blog, so I though I would use it here as an example of the herb to food ratio that is health-producing. Beverages don’t have to be the boring preparations many people think of as medicinal infusions, either. There is an added benefit of incorporating these beverages into your daily diet.A  I have experimented with many different ways to get little ones to eat their herbs.
I also dona€™t like using them from a sustainability standpoint.A  I dona€™t want my well-being to be dependent on any industry and it would be rather hypocritical of me to talk a good game about local sustainable food systems when half my nutrients are arriving on a boat from China. For the next couple of weeks, I am going to post about different ways eating and cooking with herbs can help to improve your health. Such process is forbidden in the Standard Model by the conservation of A muon and tau lepton numbers.
As you know, I did a lot of work for them on the science, some of which I've mentioned here, and we spoke about some of that and a lot of interesting other things besides. Well, in the current theory of galaxy evolution they represent the end of the line for spiral galaxies like our own Milky-Way.
2: The four panels (from top to bottom) show us the velocity, the velocity dispersion, the velocity skewness, and the velocity kurtosis (dona€™t worry about that one) respectively. Instead of using the spectral features to probe stellar motions, they can also be used to tell you something about the other properties of the stars.
3: The top panel shows how old the stars in the galaxy are, demonstrating that the disc is relatively young. And the parting is sweet and the parting over is sweeter, And sweetest of all is the night and the rushing air.

I have three glorious planetary portraits to share today, sent to me by amateur astronomer Jean-Luc Dauvergne.
However, the core of a dying star is a remarkably dense environment, and the nuclear reactions produce vast numbers of neutrinos.
In turn, the nuclear fusion supplies enough energy to keep the core from compressing under its own gravity.
The last relatively close-by supernova appeared in the sky in 1987, in the neighboring galaxy known as the Large Magellanic Cloud. These neutrinos were likely born in nuclear reactions deep in the exploding star's interior and confirmed theoretical predictions from the 1960s, when astrophysicists first began to study exploding stars. While some stars may collapse directly into black holes instead of exploding, astronomers see both supernova explosions and their aftermaths (the most famous example being the Crab Nebula).
They carry energy away from one part of the dying star, but they may also transfer it to the stalled-out shockwave, breaking the stalemate and making the supernova happen. They involve particle physics, strong gravity as described by general relativity and nuclear physics, all mixed up with strong magnetic fields. Both methods use tens of millions of hours of computer time, distributed across multiple computers working in parallel. But in the absence of a nearby supernova, massive supercomputer simulations are all we have. The authors of today's paper suggest one possible use for the giant new telescope: Searching for signs of life on other planets. JWST will be the largest space telescope to date, and is scheduled for launch in late 2018. One by one,A technicians at NASAa€™s Goddard Space Flight Center were carefully removing eighteen hexagonal covers, revealing the huge, golden primary mirror of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).Scheduled for launch in 2018, JWST will be the largest space observatoryA built to date.
The various coloured lines show the spectrum for different amounts of ozone, ranging from 100 to 0.000001 times the amount in Eartha€™s atmosphere. At the wavelengths observed by JWST, the best biomarker to search for is ozone, which produces the strong signal seen at 9 microns in Figure 2.
The temperature of the planets is uncertain, so the red and blue lines show the predicted result for hot and cold planets respectively. A very subtle detail of the behavior of neutral B mesons has been recently measured, in search of deviations from Standard Model predictions - or for a confirmation of the model.A First off I should give some background on what ATLAS is, and what neutral B mesons are. The short paper considers the issue of estimating the variance of a conditional expectation when able to simulate the joint distribution behind the quantity of interest.
There are actually two KELTs: KELT-North at Winer Observatory in Arizona, and KELT-South at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Larger, more precise telescopes, can be used to photometrically follow up future transits to precisely measure the radius of the planet.
Jackson with another about the greed of academic publishers caught the attention of one Ian Jackson (son of the aforementioned Professor) and prompted him to forward me some correspondence between his father and the publisher of the famous textbook, Classical Electrodynamics (published by John Wiley & Sons). A month or so ago I found out from the physics Editor that the US net price was $87, a big jump from the last number I knew. You should always remember, however, that the author of a textbook typically only gets a small percentage (usually~10% ) of the net receipts. A representative of the publisher explained to me that their pricing strategy involved trying to keep the revenue constant in time, so that as sales went down the price went up.
But I do not buy it: publishing speeds will remain the same as driven by the reviewing part, I do not see where the contents are increased, and I cannot seriously read a journal article from my phone, so this range of electronic devices remains a gadget. Using your powers of concentration, visualize a white light flowing from the palms of your hands and from your heart center, which is situated just in front of your breastbone.
When you start to feel this power flowing in you, then say out loud the girls’ names. This will be a combination storytelling class as well as practicalities of gathering plants.
This will lead into Skullcap’s specific indications and contra-indications illustrated with colorful case histories, as well as the ecology and specifics of a number of western Scutellaria spp.
Many clients have compromised GI tracts from a fast food vegan or other extended elimination diets, protein deficiencies, or multiple nutritional deficiencies. California Hispanic herbalism differs from the Mexican or Tejano, or Southwest traditions due to the various native and foreign cultures which helped form it.
Special focus will be placed on of the body as a dynamic ecosystem instead of a battlefield. Jim and Kiva will explore the underlying elements of traditional western herbalism, including sense-based herbal energetics, primary herbal actions and ways of integrating these essential components into an effective healing practice. Join Jim McDonald in an exploration of the fundamental role of diaphoretics in immunity, and how they can be used to support and enhance the body’s vital response to infections from influenza to the common cold. Although Mercola is a little distasteful in his sensationalism, what he says in this case is true. Even though digestion of the disaccharide to the monosaccharides take some time and acts as a partial brake, because the extracted sugar is very concentrated, compared to eating a naturally sugary food, the glucose and fructose surge in the system.
A  So it is with a little bit of bemusement that I watch the latest explosion of the back-to-the land movement because I really never left it.
A A  I giggle when we make homemade macaroni & cheese to take someplace and it is viewed as some sort of accomplishment because in my family that is pretty standard fare.
A  IA  suppose I started the path about fifteen years ago although I have only been studying seriously about six years (around the same time I started blogging).
A  How do we keep the message of the websites of today from being lost in a internet archive in the same way the poster above was lost in a file cabinet? Bring to a boil; then lower heat and simmer for about 30 minutes, until the broth is thick. A  I thought I might offer a bit of advice as to how to eat your way to a healthier nervous system. The fun doesn’t stop on the outside though, so be quite careful when opening your first Botanical Interests seed packet. A  My Trionfo Violetto Pole Beans outgrew and outproduced my Kentucky Wonder Beans.A A  I think my Dwarf Blue KaleA  might still be alive out there under the piles of snow. You also don’t hear hot sauceA  tossed around as an herbal preparation but these are both excellent examples of ways you can incorporate more herbs into your diet. A A  It was probablyA  have been shortly after Darian became a vegetarian and I made my first batch of homemade vegetable broth.A  I know I definitely had a handle on it by the time I was making garlic broth to use in soups.
While I am sure that in cases where a blood test has shown there to be a deficiency, supplements can be useful to catch the body up.A A  I prefer to avoid the deficiency in the first place. A This is one of the reasons that I tend to focus on using herbs and foods that I can grow or wild-craft in my area. A When you dona€™t eat properly, your body does not find the nutrition in the food you eat, it will find the nutrients someplace in your body such as your bones, muscles or brain matter.A  A This is especially true of protein which your body will leach from your muscles or brain matter and vitamins and calcium which your body will take from your bones. Neutrino masses violate individual lepton numbers, but their effect is far too small to affect the Higgs decays in practice.
Well, her article appeared in Signal to Noise magazine, a publication all about communicating science, and it's really a nice piece. An S0, or `lenticulara€™ galaxy is a strange hybrid of the more famous spiral-type and elliptical-type galaxies.
They look a bit like spiral galaxies, with a thin disc of material surrounding a central bulge (a bit like a pair of fried eggs stuck back-to-backa€¦), but lack the prominent spiral arms and ongoing star-formation that are typical of spiral-type galaxies. The bands stretching left and right are the galaxy disc, while the central blob is the galaxy bulge (Fig.
For example, some features are only strong in young stars, so their strength in a given pixel tells you how many young stars are in that pixel. The bottom panel shows how chemically enriched the different parts of the galaxy are, clearly showing that the bulge is quite distinct from the disc (Fig. In particular, the sheer level of detail in the data is precisely what we need to get enigmatic galaxies like NGC 3115 to spill their secrets.
But when a star heavier than eight times the mass of our sun exhausts its nuclear fuel and fusion halts, the core collapses catastrophically.
Even if a supernova exploded close enough to observe in detail (while being far enough to be safe), we can't see deep inside to where the action is.
Ita€™s not the only hypothesis, but currently ita€™s the best guess astrophysicists have, and most of the large computer simulations seem to support it so far. In the meantime, those simulations could still teach us about the extreme physics of dying stars and what role neutrinos play in their deaths.
The authors find that, as long as the planet has more than one-hundredth the amount of ozone in Eartha€™s atmosphere, then it has a chance of showing up in the spectrum. ATLAS is one of the big multi-purpose experiments of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the machine that discovered the Higgs boson in 2012 and which is poised to search for new physics for the next two decades, studying proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV in the center of mass. Having telescopes in both hemispheres allows the KELT team to achieve complete coverage of the sky over the course of the year. Precise spectroscopic follow-up can be used to measure the radial velocity (RV) variations of the host star, giving a measure of the planeta€™s mass.
By knowing that the list price is closely 1.3 times the net, I could look at my records of the single copy list price on Wileya€™s web site to find that they had increased the price by 5% at least once and probably twice beyond what was permitted by our agreement. My book is now very much out of date so I can understand why the sales have fallen off, but I find it hard to believe that the same is true of an enduring classic. I deeply regret this move on which, as an RSS member, I would have appreciated to be consulted as I find much easier to browse through the current issue when it arrives in my mailbox, rather than being t best reminded by an email that I will most likely ignore and erase. This class explores some of our options as herbalists to bring our unique set of skills and medicines to a wider audience. Symptom pictures range from full-blown chronic fatigue symptoms to multiple food sensitivities and brain fog. Included are foundational elements of working with the whole person and the whole plant rather than isolating or compartmentalizing either human or herb. Special attention will be paid to the differentiation and use of diaphoretics that stimulate, relax or do both at once. The four pillars of evaluation and treatment - 1) energetics, 2) organ systems, 3) action and 4) specific indications.
In nature typically in a piece of fruit, the sugar is a mixture of sucrose (glucose bound to fructose), free glucose, and free fructose.
The glucose enters the controlled glycolysis pathway, but the fructose bypasses it, and floods the Krebs cycle and the related fat-building pathway in large amounts, symbolically like a -flood- into those pathways below the control point in glycolysis. A  You need to eat enough to provide your body with the foods you need.A  It is almost impossible to do this with two meals a day so your body begins to crave foods that will give it that quick energy fix. There is nothing quite so satisfying as a healing soup simmering away slowly on the stovetop, while the flavors and properties of the herbs flow gently into the food.
A Dona€™t fight with yourself (or your family) to entirely give up a questionable food substance, just dona€™t abuse your body with it and use the healthiest form of the substance possible.
A A vast majority of health complaints in this country; fatigue, mental fogginess, depression, etca€¦ are caused by your bodies natural response to incomplete nutrition. On the other hand, new particles do not have to respect global symmetries of the Standard Model, and they could induce lepton flavor violating Higgs decays at an observable level.

For more on this, see the Astrobites Guide to Galaxy Types, or indeed (if I can include a shameless plug) the first few paragraphs of a previous article, How to Grow a Galaxy. Like the ellipticals, they are a€?red and deada€™ with an aging population of red giant and red dwarf stars and no star formation (usually).
Researchers program equations that govern the behavior of the ingredients inside the core of a star to see how they behave and whether the outcomes reproduce behavior we see in real supernovae.
The result is a core-collapse supernova: a shock wave from the collapse tears the star apart while the core shrinks into a neutron star or black hole. However, some of the most energetic supernovaea€”known as hypernovaea€”dona€™t seem to abide by the same rules, so ita€™s possible something other than neutrinos are responsible. However the other two planets are much more promising, with clear ozone feature after just 30 days. The variance requires a third simulation of x, which the author seems to deem too costly and that he hence replaces with another unbiased version based on two conditional generations only. Combining radius and mass gives us the planeta€™s density, a handle on the planeta€™s bulk composition (is it a gas giant, or is it rocky?). And as I consider the production of the journals the prime goal of the Royal Statistical Society. It will draw heavily from my 5 years working at a mixed modality (conventional and holistic) free clinic in my hometown as well as other places I have volunteered.
Humans have no natural mechanism to deal with this, so the liver does 3 things, start making a lot of of fat and, if chronic, increasing the enzymes that manufacture fat, reduce the production of ATP via the Krebs cycle, and become resistant to the effects of insulin which would otherwise tell the liver to stop releasing glucose into the system. A A  EvenA  though that changed a bit when my parents moved us to town, my family hung on to a great deal of that lifestyle. Unfortunately in our society,A  candy bars and coffee are far more available than a leafy green salad or a whole-grain snack.A  You have to plan a bit more to provide yourself with healthy alternative but it is completely worth the effort.
If youa€™ve ever seen the famous a€?Hubble tuning forka€™ diagram (see Figure 1), youa€™ll know that S0a€™s live at the end of the a€?handlea€™. What wea€™re seeing is a spiral galaxy which has used up or lost all its spare gas, but which hasna€™t been involved in some kind of violent collision with another galaxy (which would have destroyed the delicate disc structure and left a classic elliptical galaxy): ita€™s the galactic equivalent of an aged retiree. There are many ingredients, which makes the simulations extraordinarily complicateda€”but one type of particle could ultimately drive supernova explosion: the humble neutrino. The explosion leads to more nuclear fusion and the spread of nuclei into interstellar space, where it can eventually be used in making new stars and planets. Astronomers have therefore suggested that searching for oxygen, along with other a€?biomarkersa€? such as methane and ozone, in the atmospheres of planets beyond our Solar System could be the key to uncovering alien life. The authors get the best result for the furthest out planet, Trappist-1d, with not just ozone, but also carbon dioxide seen after 30 days.
I start mine as two or three planes hinged together, and then go from there, subdividing until I'm done. KELT has a large field of view, allowing for observations of a myriad of stars simultaneously. And as I read that only 25% of the members had opted so far for the electronic format, which does not sound to me like a majority. A large piece of this class will be devoted to answering attendeea€™s practical questions about their personal situations and how they can bring their skills forward. If we would fill our bellies with fruit we would still only get a relatively small amount of free fructose. Current scientific A thinking on the adverse metabolic effects of sugar, the cluster of diseases that appear when the sugar trade emerges in a region, is that the overfeeding of the fructose pathway and the resulting consequences are responsible for the insulin resistance and obesity. Most of it seems much like sucrose, 45 percent glucose and 55 percent fructose, not all that different. A  Once you address your eating patterns, you can begin to look at the nutrients your body needs to properly support your nervous system. Bee pollen is an amazing nutrient which I should devote a whole blog entry to, but I do worry about our dwindling bee population and the availability of this nutrient.A A  Consequently,A  I use it sparingly and with a great deal of respect for the creatures who created it in mind. NGC 3115 is not only nearby, ita€™s also nearly edge-on (wea€™re looking sideways at the thin disc, rather than seeing it from above). Other features are sensitive to the metallicity, which just means the amount of elements other than hydrogen and helium that are found in the stars (thata€™s right a€“ everything else is a a€?metala€™ to an astronomer).
If we digest starch that has fructose in the chain of sugars in the starch, that is really slow.
The problem is that in HFCS, the fructose is -free- it does not have to be split from sucrose, and is not bound to fiber. Together this merely corresponds to a 2.5 sigma excess, so it's not too exciting in itself. This makes it ideal for studying the motion of the disc, for reasons which will become clear. This nets you Figure 3, the top panel of which is a map of the stellar ages (it neatly shows that the disc is relatively young (only nine billion years old!) while the bulge formed its many, many stars early in the life of the universe. But the good news is this: last fall, he got a tenure-track job at Concordia University St Paul!
Intriguingly, each of these planets orbit near to the habitable zone, the region of space around a star where the temperatures are suitable for a planet to have liquid water on its surface. Is Trappist-1d then the ideal target for a search for life with JWST?The authors point out a hitch in the plan.
For this purpose, the KELT team has built a vast network of partners from other observatories all over the world (see Figure 2). The result is that in the Krebs Cycle, the entrance of glucose into the cycle is highly regulated by enzymes, when ATP is adequate to high, if forms a brake on the glycolysis pathway, but fructose, on the one hand, enters the cycle one step below the control point.
However, taken together with the B-meson anomalies in LHCb, it has raised hopes for lepton flavor violating new physics just around the corner. Ita€™s an interesting galaxy in a number of other ways, with sharply defined structures and a supermassive black hole with the mass of a billion suns.
Meanwhile, the bulge is clearly rather chemically enriched, whereas the stars in the disc are more similar to our own sun. Whether or not the Trappist-1 planets actually have water is already being activelyA discussed.To see if JWST could be used to find biomarkers on the Trappist-1 planets, the authors turn to spectroscopy. To get the full simulated spectrum, the transit will need to be observed 30 times each by two of JWST scientific instruments. Once the KELT science team has detected enough transits to accurately predict when the next transit of a given planet candidate will happen, they call up the KELT follow-up network to see if their prediction is correct, and to further characterize the planeta€™s orbit. Historically, anthropologically, evolutionarily, we didn’t need to evolve a control on the fructose metabolic pathway.
A few years ago, the lead article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition proposed the introduction of unbound liquid fructose into the food supply as -the- cause of the epidemic of obesity and diabetes that began to manifest around 1980 and continues to expand today.A Free liquid fructose appears to be benign or even beneficial because there is no spike of glucose, or even of insulin after ingesting it. A For this reason, the CMS excess inspired a few dozen of theory papers, with Z' bosons, leptoquarks, and additional Higgs doublets pointed out as possible culprits. As such, it makes a spectacular target for the superb MUSE instrument (thata€™s the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) attached to the VLT (Very Large Telescope a€¦ but Ia€™m sure whoever named it was being ironic. This distinction between the stars in the bulge and the disc is typical of spiral galaxies, so seeing it in a lenticular galaxy supports our picture of these as aged spirals.
The technique would be to observe the system as each planet transits (passed in front of the star), splitting the light into its component colours, or wavelengths.
Trappist-1d has a (roughly) 18 day orbit, and JWST will only be able to see the system for about 100 days a year. If the natural pathway for glycolysis is like water rushing down a white water canyon, with a dam at the bottom to prevent flooding, the natural fructose pathway is like a small stream that enters -below- the dam with no control on it. There is instead a spike of fat in the form of triglycerides, but no one notices that (only fasting TG are even measured in routine lab tests).
Although most of the signal would come from Trappist-1 itself, a small amount of light would shine through the (hypothetical) atmosphere of the planet.
I just find small telescopes, and their capability to do interesting science so fascinating.
And as the liver adapts to habitual use of sugar or fructose, -then- insulin resistance is increased and insulin and glucose rise to higher levels than before and the individual becomes pre- or full blown diabetic. MUSE is, quite simply, breathtaking in its ambition, giving astronomers the ability to map vast regions of the sky in reasonable resolution, but more importantly yielding a detailed spectrum at every single pixel. The molecules in that atmosphere would each absorb light at specific wavelengths, leaving aA distinctive mark on the spectrum. The second planet, Trappist-1c, wouldna€™t take as long, but is less likely to be habitable.Is that it then for biomarkers? Point it at a galaxy like NGC 3115, and if it cana€™t tell you everything you need to know about it, nothing can (wea€™ve featured MUSE data before). The accuracy of the new measurement is worse than that in run-1, but nevertheless it lowers the combined significance of the excess below 2 sigma. Todaya€™s paper uses data from the instrumenta€™s commissioning run, meaning ita€™s really an opportunity to showcase the instrumenta€™s abilities.So how, exactly, does MUSE tell us so much? The authors finish by pointing out that searches for close-by systems like Trappist-1 is ongoing, and closer systems to Earth may soon be discovered. Statistically speaking, the situation hasn't changed much, A but psychologically this is very discouraging.
The key is in the spectra a€“ the measurement of how much light is emitted at at any particular wavelength.
Galaxy spectra are the sum of the light from all the stars in the galaxy, or in this case covered by a single MUSE pixel (because ita€™s so close, NGC 3115 is about 1000 pixels across, so this gives a pretty impressive resolution). Individual features in the spectrum a€“ absorption lines, for example a€“ will be shifted from their expected wavelengths by doppler shift (see e.g. Because stars in one part of the disc will be moving towards us and the stars in the other half will be moving away (after we subtract off the motion of the galaxya€™s centre of mass, anyway), this means we can measure the wavelength of those features in each pixel to figure out how fast the disc is rotating (this is why it was important to find an edge-on disc). Within each pixel, some stars will be moving away from us and others will be moving towards us, so sharp, narrow features in the spectrum get broadened when you add the light from all those stars together.
In a small pixel, this motion has much less to do with the rotation of the galaxy, and much more to do with the random motions of the individual stars. If the galaxy is nicely ordered (as in spiral galaxy arms), the stars in a small region all move in lockstep, and so the features are narrow. The mean value (where the bell curve peaks) tells you the velocity shift, and the variance (the width of the bell curve) tells you about the velocity dispersion.
Now, it turns out you can go one step further and modify the Gaussian by stretching one side (skewing it), or flattening the top a€“ doing this has a real physical meaning, and we can measure the skewness (which will turn out to be important in NGC 3115) and the kurtosis (the flattening a€“ which isna€™t so important, but which I include just so I can write a€?kurtosisa€™).
The authors measure these four things in every single pixel and produce the maps shown in Figure 2.
More subtly, right in the middle the map makes a a€?butterflya€™ shape above and below the disc a€” the skewness reverses.
The authors suggest this might be a sign of a breakdown in the disc into a central bar structure (see this for why thata€™s interesting; googling a€?galaxy barsa€™ will get you nowhere, I can tell you).

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