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Most commonly known as freeze drying, lyophilization is a dehydration process used to preserve a perishable or biological material. The lyophilization process is slow and can take days depending upon the samples and the freeze drying conditions. The most common accessories that provide heat to samples when freeze-drying are heated product shelves. Many end users do not realize that when freeze-drying with flasks and manifolds, heat still enters the samples. The longest freeze dry runs will occur when the sample is placed on unheated product shelves within a chamber or placed inside the freeze dryer’s condenser. During the primary drying phase (first phase) of freezing-drying heat can be added to your sample to sublimate the water out of the sample.
If you do not know the eutectic temperature, it is best to add heat slowly and observe the sample as you gradually add more heat to each subsequent run until you determine the maximum amount of heat that can be added safely to the sample. It is difficult to control the heat that is transferred to the sample when lyophilizing in flasks on a manifold.
Putting a flask inside another larger flask with an air gap in between the two flasks is another way to provide insulation to limit the amount of heat that is transferred to the sample.
How a sample is frozen will not only affect the quality of the final freeze dried sample, it will also affect the length of the lyophilization process. Spreading the sample out to increase the surface area as well as forming a thin layer of ice will speed the sublimation process. If a shell freezer is not available, it is recommended to slant freeze samples in flasks to increase surface area as much as possible. At vacuum levels lower than .200 mbar, there are not enough molecules present in the system for good heat transfer.
After all of the free water molecules are sublimated in primary drying, secondary drying begins. New end point detection accessories are available on some models of freeze dryers to determine the end of the sublimation process for samples in flasks. By better understanding the lyophilization process and employing these suggestions, hours or even days can be saved when freeze-drying.
It’s true that the SteamScrubber and FlaskScrubber are each loaded with great features and high quality construction. The SteamScrubber operates much like a home dishwasher – water is pumped through a spray arm on the bottom of each rack and from a third spray arm mounted to the top of the washer. Thus, the SteamScrubber is best suited to wash standard laboratory equipment such as beakers, utensils, pans and other normal-shaped items found in the laboratory. The FlaskScrubber moves water through individual spindles, allowing for water to spray directly into narrow neck glassware. Additionally, the FlaskScrubber also utilizes the rack mounted and roof mounted spray arms found in the SteamScrubber washer. You can take advantage of the FlaskScrubber’s injection cleaning while simultaneously washing regular glassware items. Please log on to our NEW Glassware Washer Configurator Tool to design your own SteamScrubber or FlaskScrubber for your laboratory.
Second, review the answers with a Labconco Application Specialist, and we will make the best product recommendations based upon your answers. This information is essential to determining how deep the hood needs to be to house your equipment. Applications that use extra-large equipment, such as 50-gallon drums, or applications that require equipment to be wheeled into the hood via a cart would require a floor mounted hood. These include (but are not limited to) airflow monitors, electrical outlets, compressed air, laboratory gas, vacuum and cold water fixtures.
If you do need base cabinets, do you need acid storage, solvent storage or non-chemical storage?
Every fume hood needs a blower, and it is often misconceived that a blower comes attached to a fume hood.
Will there be a dedicated blower (exhaust fan) for this hood, or will it connect to a central exhaust system? If you already have a blower, and it is sized appropriately, you can stop right here: Give Labconco a call and we can finalize your fume hood selection! Built-in blowers are easier to install (and therefore less expensive), but they can be noisy and they put the ductwork under positive pressure, so they should be reserved for non-hazardous applications, short duct runs and instances where a remote blower cannot be installed (such as a mobile lab).
Remote blowers, though more complex to install, can be sized for the specific situation and keep the ductwork under negative pressure for safer operation.
Will the duct go directly to the roof, or does it need to make some turns before reaching the roof? Finally, the exhaust stack should include a zero-pressure weathercap (not a gooseneck, mushroom cap or anything that would block the exhaust from discharging in a vertical, up direction), and should terminate at least 10 feet above the roofline to allow the fumes to reach the airstream and not be returned into the building’s air handling equipment. Labconco was a sponsor of the 65th Anniversary Greater Kansas City Science & Engineering Fair (GKCSEF) presented by Science City at Union Station.
95 Schools were represented this year, and the fair comprised 847 projects from 1148 student participants from across our metro. The titles of some of the projects that were presented will give you a good indication of just how creative these young scientists and engineers can be. Have you ever baked delicious cupcakes only to ruin them while attempting to pull them from the baking dish?
UPDATE: The Kansas City Star reported on the winners, already performing cancer research in a lab outfitted with multiple Labconco Biological Safety Cabinets.
As is the case with all categories of laboratory equipment, the longevity of your freeze dryer depends on how you use it (application), how often you use it (frequency of use) and how well you care for it (maintenance).
While it is true that some freeze dryers continue to lyophilize effectively for decades, the average life span of a freeze dryer in today's laboratory environment is approximately 10 to 15 years.
First and foremost, ensure your sample is compatible with your freeze dry system before you use the unit. Certain acids should not be used with bare stainless steel and should only be used with PTFE models. A low maintenance option, the scroll pump, is a new offering, which does not use oil at all. In some cases, secondary acid or solvent traps can be used to extend the life of your vacuum pump by providing an additional barrier between the lyophilizer and the pump.
Dry ice traps are also available if you don't have the appropriate temperature differential between the eutectic temperature of your sample and the collector temperature. Last but certainly not least, make sure to change the oil in your vacuum pump every 1,000 hours (or sooner if your application warrants).
Note that some pumps, such as hydrocarbon free scroll pumps, can pull a deep vacuum for freeze drying without using oil.
Regardless of the sample used, you must rinse and wipe down any components that may have come into contact with chemicals to reduce the risk of damage. The vapors can then pass through the condenser and into the vacuum pump where they can do damage. Note that if a sample starts to melt back in-process, simply make adjustments so that is remains frozen or remove it from the system entirely. Overloading your freeze dryer can make sessions last longer or even cause them to be wholly unsuccessful. The instantaneous load capacity rating is the quantity of vapor a freeze dryer can accommodate at one time. When freeze drying multiple, large volumes, make sure the condenser temperature does not rise shortly after the sample is loaded. This article talks about a few things labs can be mindful of in order to keep their bills in check, including a special shout-out to Labconco for the Intelli-Sense Multi Speed Blower. So instead of going with rules of thumb, check out how laboratory equipment can work towards real energy efficiency. A vacuum atmosphere in the concentrator lowers the pressure level so that evaporation will occur at low temperatures and the samples will not be damaged from heat. Cold traps are needed to create a closed system, meaning all of the solvents that are being evaporated are collected in the cold trap. If a rotary vane (oil) vacuum pump is being used with the concentrator, a cold trap is required to protect the vacuum pump by collecting the liquids and vapors before they reach the vacuum pump.
If the lab would like to lyophilize in addition to concentration then a cold trap is needed as well as a vacuum pump that can produce a sufficient, deep vacuum. If a cold trap is not being used when concentrating large volumes a glass trap should be inline before the vacuum pump to collect any liquids that are condensing in the vacuum tubing before they reach the vacuum pump.
Labconco offers an extensive selection of centrifugal concentrators with each model designed for specific applications. During the development of the Protector Echo Filtered Fume Hood, the design engineers decided to challenge the Echo with not one, but four different third-party containment tests. Why? It’s simple, really - to ensure containment was going to live up to the Labconco standard. Instead, it is a filtering fume hood that will filter out the contaminated air and exhaust the clean air into the laboratory, making it very energy efficient. It was designed with superior containment in mind, using all of Labconco’s highly engineered high performance fume hood features.
All of the features that make Labconco’s ducted fume hoods effective provide the same protection on the Protector Echo. During independent testing*, the Protector Echo Hood was challenged well beyond the SEFA-1† standards.
The Echo was subjected to both the standard ASHRAE 110 test using Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas test while attached to a canopy, as well as the modified ASHRAE 110 test with no canopy connection, using Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) to replace the SF6. And to go above and beyond, the NIH protocol was used – which means that during the test with a canopy, the SF6 release rate was increased to six liters versus four liters per minute in the standard ASHRAE 110 test, the hood was filled with paint cans and boxes and rapid walk-bys were incorporated. In all scenarios, the Protector Echo allowed 0.00 ppm average level of tracer gas outside the fume hood. This allows us to conclude that for those customers who cannot duct out of their building, or for those who want to save on energy costs and use filtered fume hoods in lieu of or alongside ducted fume hoods, this enclosure will present a safe alternative. Safety in the workplace is important regardless where you clock in every day, but it's especially important to master when your professional environment regularly contains hazardous particulates, harmful chemical vapors or radionuclides. Even basic microbiological work has some associated risks, as oftentimes it is not only necessary to protect the person sitting at the face of the cabinet but the science taking place inside on the work surface. That just scratches the surface, so we decided to dig a little deeper and get the input of an outside industry expert to talk about the true meaning of creating a culture of safety for biosafety in laboratories and how that relates to leadership. He has testified in front of Congress about infectious diseases and, in 2014, prepared the clinical staff at Emory Healthcare to respond to the first cases of Ebola on American soil. What type of connection does your science require—are we talking recirculated A2 or thimble connected A2?
From a big picture perspective, we look to make sure the cabinet is certified, it is functioning properly and it passes a smoke test. The risk assessment list goes on and on, but having effective, tested and validated SOPs is critical throughout the life of the cabinet. These technicians are dealing with long hours at the bench, and you have to consider posture, arm position and a number of other behaviors that can affect how safe the work actually is.
Adequate preparedness is critical in the workforce, and that's a leadership responsibility. Q: Can you explain in greater depth the role of ideal leadership in the laboratory and how that relates to safety?
Guidelines and policies bring us together, but being together and doing together are very different things.
Sean Kaufman spoke before Congress on safety in the laboratory as it pertains to the anthrax incident of June 2014 at the Center for Disease Control.


For more of what Sean has to say about the importance of biosafety cabinet ergonomics, energy savings and efficiency access his latest webinar. You know that your process will require an evaporator, but how do you decide which one is right for your application? The volume of your sample will be an important factor in determining the evaporator that will accommodate your requirements. The number of samples that you need to evaporate at one time will determine which evaporator is most appropriate for your application. The condition or state of the final sample is a definite determinate of which evaporator is the best solution for your samples. When it comes to selecting a vacuum pump there are a number of options for choosing the best pump for your application. There are four main types commonly used in laboratories for freeze drying (lyophilization), evaporation and concentration. Traditional Rotary Vane (RV) Vacuum Pumps are often used because they can have a lower up-front cost, are smaller than other types, and can be used with multiple applications. Any solvents that are not trapped or recovered before they enter the RV vacuum pump can condense in the pump oil and damage the inside of the pump. Rotary Vane vacuum pumps reach deep ultimate vacuum levels and have high displacement capacity. Diaphragm Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that operate using a pulsing motion that opens and closes valves to move air.
While they can have a higher up-front cost, they do not use any oil so operation and maintenance costs are significantly lower than pumps that require oil. Ultimate vacuum levels of these pumps are not extremely deep and displacement capacities are much lower than other types of vacuum pumps. Combination Vacuum Pumps, also known as Hybrid Vacuum Pumps, have both a Rotary Vane and Diaphragm pump together in the same vacuum pump.
So while there may be a higher up-front cost than an RV pump, the operation costs are lowered as less replacement oil is needed and less time is lost changing the oil.
Combination pumps are recommended for freeze drying corrosive or volatile samples as they can be used with acidic samples and those containing harsh chemicals such as TFA, acetonitrile, HBe and Nitric acid. Scroll Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that use two spiral scrolls to compress air and vapors and move them toward the exhaust.
Because the scrolls are made of metal, even on chemical- or corrosion-resistant models, only samples with acids below 20% are recommended.
Scroll pumps are recommended for freeze drying as they can be used with aqueous and solvent samples including acetonitrile.
No matter what type of pump you’re using, one of the most important things to remember about vacuum pumps is that whatever goes in the pump will come out! Labconco offers multiple vacuum pump options and many vacuum pump accessories including the new Scroll Pumps.
A Type B2 BSC experiencing a remote exhaust failure can pressurize the work zone, pushing contaminated air into the laboratory. An A2 can be ducted to handle odors and non-hazardous chemistry and it is easily adapted to exhaust systems. Type A and Type B BSCs cannot be retrofitted, altered or otherwise made into the other type of cabinet.
This information is provided to educate and inform life science and biosafety laboratories about their new options in selecting Class II BSCs for varying applications and operations. The Active Protection Protocol engages only in emergency building exhaust system failures and provides safety to the BSC operator while they complete their emergency shut down procedures.
During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSC must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds.
During a remote exhaust failure the Axiom can protect an operator for up to 5 minutes while they complete shutdown procedures and secure their laboratory assets. MISINFORMATION: In regard to ventilation, laboratory building requirements today cannot be easily altered. TRUTH: Scientific laboratories and their mechanical systems are specifically designed to handle changes in laboratory airflow volumes and pressures.
FABRICATION: In laboratory design, the ventilation requirements for both supply and exhaust are calculated for pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load. TRUTH: The balance of a scientific laboratory is based on pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load in accordance with ASHRAE requirements.
Even simple VAV systems can automatically adjust for this change based on programmable pressures, and even simpler versions are controlled using a PC interface program. Moreover, it allows facility and laboratory management to maximize the usefulness of their existing laboratory space, eliminating the need to operate both Type A and B BSCs for varying or alternating uses. The Axiom can be tied into almost any existing appropriate building exhaust system (with sufficient CFM reserve).
MYTH: The inlet relief valve opens in the event that the building exhaust system pulls too much air through the BSC. Air is not pulled through a Type C1 by the exhaust system, conversely the exhaust system on a Type B BSC is required to pull air through the BSC.
BENEFITS: Acting like a shock absorber, the inlet relief valve is an adaptive technology that balances and maintains negative pressure by allowing a small volume of room air to bleed into the transition plenum. The inlet relief valve is part of the system that allows the Axiom to operate in either an A-mode or B-mode and makes it flexible enough to work on most building exhaust systems with sufficient CFM capacity in reserve. TRUTH: During building exhaust failures, both Class II Type A and Type C BSCs positively pressurize ductwork. A Type C BSC, such as the Axiom, prevents this positive pressurization from lasting longer than 300 seconds (or 5 minutes); limiting exposure to hazardous chemical vapors. BENEFITS: Existing Standards and equipment manufacturers all agree, positively pressurizing chemically contaminated ductwork under normal operation is not recommended.
The Active Protection Protocol that positively pressurizes duct work is an emergency response mode – not an operational mode. If a facility wishes to not have their ductwork positively pressurized, then the program can be set to operate for zero seconds. MYTH: Cleanability at the grille, work surface and sump under the work surface is negatively impacted with the additional plenum in comparison to traditional BSCs with one large work surface and no obstacles underneath. BENEFITS: The plenum under the Chem-Zone can easily be removed for cleaning by using the lift knob. Yes, the Axiom uses paired internal exhaust and supply blowers to provide proper inflow, down flow and positively pressurized exhaust that is similar to a Class II Type A2; therefore, it can be used as a room recirculating BSC. FABRICATION: Since the Axiom has an internal exhaust motor blower, there is risk of fire or explosion when using vapor forming volatile chemistry inside the BSC. The Type B cabinets that are suggested to be safer for use with volatile chemical vapors have electrical outlets on the BSC interior, at the source of evaporation, where air is moving at a much slower rate. During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSCs must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds. TRUTH: With all applications handling hazardous materials a risk assessment must be completed. BENEFITS: Before the Axiom, selecting Biosafety Cabinets followed this risk assessment process of determining the difference between hazardous chemicals and hazardous chemistry. If a laboratory is using chemistry of any reasonable level with its microbiology now or in the future, the C1 should be selected.
The product shelves of most Tray Dryers are microprocessor controlled, and the shelf temperatures are automatically changed according to a program that has been set and stored.
It is very difficult to transfer heat through an air gap and even more difficult when the air gap is under vacuum. The eutectic temperature (triple point) is the temperature at which your sample only exists in the solid phase. If the eutectic temperature is unknown, developing the optimal method will require many trial and error runs until the critical temperature is determined. At vacuum levels above .200 mbar, there are too many molecules present and this will slow down the sublimation rate. Set the vacuum level in the freeze dry system at .200 mbar to maximize the sublimation rate.
Because ending a run too early can cause a sample to melt back or result in a collapsed cake, the tendency is to error on the side of caution and extend the lyophilization run further than necessary. Because of evaporative cooling, the sample temperature will be lower than the shelf temperature. The multi-directional spraying arms move as much as 112 gallons per minute throughout the washer chamber, ensuring powerful scrubbing of water to the entire chamber. Once wash and rinse cycles are complete, items are dried by air forced through the wash arms and a floor-mounted blower.
After wash and rinse cycles, air is forced through each spindle, in addition to the spray arms, for fast drying of tough-to-dry glassware.
There are so many options to choose from and so much information to gather in order to make an informed decision.
When you have answered all seven questions, you will have successfully established the criteria necessary for choosing a fume hood system. Sponsoring this science and engineering fair allows us to pursue our mission to promote scientific discovery starting right here at home in Kansas City, where Labconco has had its roots since 1925.
For this event, students worked with the scientific method and its cousin, the engineering method. It’s a wonderful way to integrate engineering and science in a familiar, science fair-like environment. A good rule of thumb is to plan for your most challenging sample and choose a system based on that need. Systems that reach -84°C are ideal for lyophilizing samples with low eutectic temperatures (like those that contain acetonitrile).
The good news is that performing regular pump maintenance can help solve the problem, both reducing immediate downtime and increasing unit life in the long term.
If you've chosen a scroll pump, make sure to change the scrolls after every 40,000 hours of use. If it's not, a large volume of the sample will evaporate, thereby producing a high initial vapor load. Or, in worst-case scenarios, liquid could be sucked directly into the pump, causing even more damage.
This is a different measurement than the ice holding capacity or the 24-hour collection rating. Equipment such as a single fume hood can use the equivalent energy of three and a half single family homes per year [1] making energy efficiency a priority for labs. This blower is meant for use with small labs that want a night set-back option for their fume hoods, and do not have the resources to sustain a VAV system. Biological samples are heat sensitive thus the heat that drives the evaporation process must be limited.
Centrifuges spin samples at variable rates creating G forces that separate samples according to density. To ensure you are getting the best CentriVap for your needs, simply use the Scout™ Lab Equipment Selector on the Labconco website.
These tests ranged from the standard ASHRAE 110 containment test, to a challenging modified containment test with adverse conditions to truly test its limits.
It's with this eye toward protection that laboratories have rightfully turned to employing the use of biosafety cabinets, allowing their technicians to properly and safely handle biosafety agents requiring BSL 1-3 containment. Sean's approach to the biosafety industry is truly safety-centric, and his knowledge has been called upon in various high profile circumstances including the 2001 Anthrax attacks and SARS outbreak.
He then traveled to Nigeria and Liberia to prepare healthcare workers there to do the same.


When you look at a biosafety cabinet, the first and most basic thing you have to do is determine what you're going to be using it for.
If all those are in check and you've chosen the appropriate equipment, the biosafety engineering aspect has been done for you.
Leaders need to train them how to choose appropriate personal protective equipment and develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) that answer real questions. In my opinion, by the way, the cabinet should be broken down and cleaned at the end of each night. When there are standard, easy to follow checklists in place for routine operations, some of those processes can be streamlined and the risks minimized. However, the minute they come in contact with a human exhibiting human behaviors, that person better be trained or the cabinet could risk losing its protectiveness. Even if they were to follow all of them, leadership still has a responsibility to the workforce. Everyone has to be on-board with safety in order for it to work, and that starts at the top.
Some evaporators can accommodate a wide range of sample sizes while others are designed for a very specific size of sample.
Vacuum pumps are available in different types that offer varying displacement capacities and ultimate vacuum levels.
RV pumps use oil to ensure a tight seal, lubricate the working parts and remove heat to cool the rotors. It’s necessary when using an RV pump to collect the evaporated vapors upstream of the pump. It is recommended that the oil in these pumps be checked regularly and changed approximately every 3,000 hours of use.
While there are systems that automate oil changing, time is still lost while the pump is out of use for the maintenance. Diaphragm pumps can handle highly viscous liquids and be used with a wide range of samples but the applications are limited to those requiring higher ultimate vacuum levels.
Therefore, almost any type of sample, even those containing a combination of solvents and acids can be used with these pumps, making them a good choice for both evaporation and concentration.
In a combination pump the diaphragm pump keeps the oil of the RV pump under negative pressure to reduce or eliminate vapors going through it and condensing in the oil. The ultimate vacuum level and displacement capacity with combination pumps is similar to those of RV pumps. While they can have higher up-front costs, the lifetime operation costs are much lower because they don’t require oil and very little maintenance is needed. By eliminating the oil, the hydrocarbon-free design means these pumps are environmentally friendly as well. Compared to diaphragm pumps, scroll pumps can reach deeper ultimate vacuum levels and have higher displacement capacities. They may be used with concentration applications also, however the cost tradeoff may make another type of pump more attractive. Even with filters, you need to take other precautions when samples include potentially hazardous materials. If you’re unsure which vacuum pump is the best for your application, our Application Specialists are always here to help.
Though similar in airflow to a B1, the Type C1 does not require special considerations when handling hazardous chemistry, nor does it require a dedicated exhaust system. The Type C1 adopts the strengths of the Type A and B BSCs while addressing their limitations and is cross functional. It will be designated something other than a Type A or Type B, will be defined as such, and upon completion will be recognized by NIH, CDC, CFIA, and PHAC. Type B2 cabinets are commonly selected out of an over-abundance of caution related to a microbiology lab’s use of chemicals considered to be hazardous, not out of risk assessment determining that the application is using hazardous chemistry.
However, since the B2 must have a dedicated exhaust system, the cabinet is forever committed to its installation. This is possible because the cabinet does not exhaust 100% of its air and does not need a dedicated exhaust system. Though there are laboratory balance considerations, modern laboratories outfitted with VAV and lab balance mechanical systems can easily handle the volume of air this entails.
If the Axiom’s installation is changed, all of these requirements would have to be recalculated and physically changed. This flexibility makes it possible for a laboratory to save over 50% of operational costs compared to Type B BSCs (over $50,000 compared to the life time operating costs of each Type B2 BSC).
One Axiom does the job of both Type A and B while costing the institution only the price of a single BSC. The inlet relief valve is used to ensure that the exhaust transition plenum is kept under negative pressure in B-mode – maintaining containment of hazardous chemistry in the duct. The inlet relief valve is open all the time when the Axiom is operating with proper building exhaust in B-mode. What’s more, positive relief valves shunt chemically contaminated air back into the laboratory. ANSI Z9.5 for Laboratory Ventilation only briefly mentions Class II BSCs in the ventilation (section 5) and merely describes the types of connections and requirements for manifolding (ganging) BSCs with hoods and general exhaust.
These large VAV mechanical systems are significant enough in volume to absorb the volume of air being moved by an Axiom with the Active Protection Protocol engaged. It is designed to bridge the gaps in safety, flexibility and engineering that exist among current BSC types. For the A2, A2 with canopy, B2 and C1 – users simply work inside the dished work surface. When using chemicals, this is where the operator MUST work – an operational requirement sure to cause fatigue, mistakes and injuries.
A back wall mounted latch can be used for hands-free assist by holding the Chem-Zone work surface out of the way during cleaning.
However, the large volume of the air moving through the exhaust system keeps most chemical applications in a BSC well below ignition levels. For the purpose of selecting the correct BSC type, this risk assessment must determine one thing: is the chemistry being used hazardous or not? Chemical and biological risks are addressed with the chemical containment of a type B, the flexibility of a type A and remote exhaust failure dynamic protection exclusive to the Axiom.
Increasing the amount of the sample that is in contact with the glass sides of the flask, will increase the heat transferred to the sample and will result in a faster lyophilization rate. If your frozen sample goes to a temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, it will begin to melt. The more heat you apply the faster the process, however your sample must remain below its eutectic point during primary drying. If a sample in a flask is melting back (getting too much heat) simply, insulate the flask with foam to slow the heat transfer down.
As the front moves through the sample, the sublimating water vapor must pass through the dry cake that is formed behind the ice front, as it is being evacuated from the sample to the condenser. If there are no molecules present around a sample, it is difficult to effectively transfer heat. With sample temperature probes and heated shelf temperature probes, end point can be detected when the sample temperature becomes equal to the shelf temperature. Finally, do the fixtures need to be factory installed, or will the installer handle that at the job site by using field-installed kits? Once the duct penetrates the roof, a final 90-degree elbow will be needed to turn the duct horizontal, then three to five feet of straight duct is needed between the elbow and blower. Labconco is a company that engineers equipment for scientific laboratories, so GKCSEF couldn’t possibly align more perfectly with our mission. In these instances, consider staggering the loading so samples are started at varying intervals. Especially when there are multiple users of a single system, keeping a maintenance log of oil changes and compressor cleanings can help ensure none of these crucial tasks are neglected. In a vacuum atmosphere pressure levels are lowered and liquids boil or evaporate at lower temperatures. Concentrators spin samples at a fixed, low-speed that creates just enough force to keep the liquid samples in tubes or microplates so a vacuum can be applied to liquids without losing any samples. You can spend thousands and thousands of dollars on a cabinet, but all the control can be negated in an instant with inappropriate behavior. That's how we have instances of individuals coming out of biosafety cabinets and contaminating other areas of their laboratories. Determining whether your sample is heat-sensitive or not will help narrow down which evaporation method is best for your specific scenario.
RV pumps work especially well for aqueous samples and solvents with high boiling points whose vapors can be easily trapped before they reach the pump. The valves are often made of polytetrafluoroethylene making the pump resistant to corrosives and less susceptible to damage from vapors.
This design keeps the oil cleaner and allows for less frequent changing – oil lasts up to 10 times longer between changes compared to RV pumps.
Because the diaphragm pump is incorporated into the design, these pumps are better at handling acids and solvents than RV pumps. Scroll pumps handle water vapor better than most types of pumps and make significantly less noise during operation. A B1 BSC cannot operate without exhaust and therefore will always require the infrastructure and cost associated with moving expensive tempered air. Type B2 BSCs also heavily tax exhaust systems with large volumes that can exceed 1,200 CFM – this can cost over $100,000 per BSC to operate over its life.
Meanwhile, the BSC continues to operate as well, allowing operators to continue their work without forcing a shutdown. During which the Type C1 Axiom provides an audible alarm, visual alarm – describing the alarm occurrence, and provides a countdown timer to BSC shutdown.
This does not mean that hazardous chemicals are being used; rather that the chemicals being used are of a concentration and volume that would require a chemical fume hood. Room temperature variances will certainly affect the required length of time to freeze dry. Knowing the temperature your sample cannot go above enables the greatest amount of heat to be added to the sample without experiencing melt back. By increasing the surface area, more sample is in contact with the flask resulting in better heat transfer to the sample.
The less cake the water vapor must pass through, the faster the molecules will sublimate, resulting in a faster run. Because the majority of the water in the sample has already been sublimated, the sample temperature can rise above the eutectic point without melting back. Just be advised that the drying time may be a little slower as the SteamScrubber does not support forced air-drying through spindles. Typically the evaporation process will involve a vacuum pump if a sample is heat sensitive, so the boiling point can be significantly lowered under the decreased pressure. Does your method involve taking your sample to dryness, or do you need to stop the evaporation before the sample is dry? And who hasn’t needed to improve their search strategy for a vector-like quark at some point?
The goal of pre- freezing is to form large crystals with a slower freezing rate while making sure the sample does not separate in the longer pre-freeze process.



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