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I covered writing US business letters, but I know we have a number of readers in the United Kingdom too – or readers who might want to write to companies within the UK. Just as with the US examples, I’ll break the letter down into the main elements, working from the top to the bottom.
Your address, also known as the “return address”, comes first (leave this off if you’re using letter-headed paper). In the UK, the day comes before the month, and it is fine to put “st”, “nd” or “th” after the day’s date, eg.
Beneath this, you should put the recipient’s name and address, just as it would appear on the envelope. You may want to include a subject for your letter — this is often helpful to the recipient, especially if they receive a lot of mail. After the body of text, your letter should end with an appropriate closing phrase such as “Yours sincerely” or “With best regards”, and a comma.
Leave several blank lines after the closing (so you can sign the letter after printing it), then type your name. Subscribers get access to our exercise archives, writing courses, writing jobs and much more!
I notice that on both your US & UK examples, you have the subject line following the greeting. How do you correctly format a greeting to an addressee who is unknown, using To Whom it may Concern? My understanding is that in the US, a reference line MAY be placed after the address, but that this is optional (and usually used for eg. The subject line is also optional but in all the examples I’ve seen, it appears directly above the body of the letter (US and UK).
However, after a couple of comments on this, I’m suspecting that the reference line after the address is far more common than online examples have led me to believe!
I’ve been looking for a well-mannered way of opening and closing emails to equal-level colleages, higher-level colleages (Directors, VPs and such), clients, and friends.
Please could you research correct email etiquette for the different classes of email and report on them? Back in Australia, I attended a professional writing course which outlined a very similar formal letter structure. This is one of the best post i even seen today, many thanks for this and i was bookmarking your site.
However I do like to watch language and writing evolve and am always open to change, even if at first glance it doesn’t seem for the better!
Yours sincerely is if you do NOT know the person or, have used their formal title such as Dear Mr. Christian names CAN be used in a business letter, particularly if you have corresponded previously.
Over formalising letters creates a mechanistic view and therefore implies that there is not a person attached. It is very frustrating to see all these rules that have been invented by whomeve over the years.
If my English teacher could see what has happened in the electronic age he would be firing [black]board rubbers (erasers to those cousins in USA!) at all of us and spinning in his grave – God rest him. In British English, as in French, abbreviations whose first letter is the first letter of the affected word and whose second letter is the last letter of the affected word do not take a full stop after the second letter.
However, should an abbreviation take the first letter and another letter before the last letter instead, a full stop should follow the abbreviation.
In response to Andre Routh’s post of 14 May 2009, I can heartily recommend the closing that Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding used in his famous letter. Goodmorning, please I want to address a letter to my boss through my manager requesting for a leave of absence.
I was always told that this format was addressed to the company so a general Dear Sirs was acceptable and the for the attention of was not classed as addressing it to a person so yours faithfully was correct, I’d be interested in your oppinion on this. I wonder how the greeting should go if you’re writing to someone who is already a Sir, for instance Sir Paul McCartney or Sir Patrick Moore. Wouldn’t it have been better to get a British person to write the letter, or at least check it. While it seems the boffins have various opinions how things are done, at least I have been given a good head start in letter formatting.
My understanding is that the subject line should come after the salutation, since you address someone first, and then tell them what you are contacting them about.
The most important thing, surely, as many people have said, is to get your point across clearly and successfully. Dixie suggests we focus here on the following three business letter layouts which are used quite widely: Full, Modified and Indented Block.
Each of business letter layouts merits its own page, so go to the Full Block Business Letter page to read about it in more detail and also to see a list of major elements of a business letter.
Dixie thought that she needed to mention though that some critics feel that this layout looks a little crowded. The Modified Block style's return address (Dixie reminds you that you use the return address only in case there is no letterhead), date, complimentary closing and the signature line are at the center of the paper, or rather to the right of center. Dixie invites you to go to the Modified Block page on her site where you can try out a modified block format generator, see additional business letter elements and even practice writing a business letter in modified format. Talking about letter layout one has to mention long letters because their formatting has quite a lot of peculiarities. Dixie invites you to visit her Multiple Page Business Letter page to see more details about formatting such letters. Whichever layout you are using to format your business letter, try to leave 1-1.5" margins.
This frame Dixie is talking about in some cases can be a little lopsided, as the most important are the top and left margins (in case you need real badly the space occupied by the 'too wide' margins). If your business letter is not too long (like has about two or three sentences), start it between 6-12 lines from the top of the page.
Some letterheads also use inscriptions on the left edge of the paper and sometimes (least common, and least convenient in Dixie's expert opinion) on the bottom, and Dixie wants to remind you to leave space for those. This cute widget allows you to check the meaning of any word on this site just by double- clicking it. Beberapa minggu yang lalu kami bertemu avid geocache David Bryan, dan dia diperkenalkan ke dunia menakjubkan di sekitar kita bersembunyi.
Bayangkan sejarah olahraga kedua Inggris, bukan jasa Alan Wells, David Wilkie, Gavin Hastings, Sir Chris Hoy, Liz McColgan, Sam Torrance, Sir Ian McGeechan, Stephen Hendry atau Duncan Ferguson dipahami. Sensus Biro memperkirakan ada sekarang sekitar 230.000 pasangan gay menikah di AS, dibandingkan 60 juta pernikahan tradisional antara seorang pria dan seorang wanita.
Biro Sensus juga mengatakan pasangan gay (menikah dan tunggal) membuat sekitar 700.000 rumah. Tetapi bahkan jika semua 700.000 pasangan gay akhirnya menikah (sangat tidak mungkin), ini akan berjumlah hanya sekitar satu persen dari pasangan. Ini bukan api tiga alarm jika Anda seorang tradisionalis yang percaya pernikahan hanya bisa antara seorang pria dan seorang wanita. Menurut Centers for Disease Control, kurang dari 3 persen orang Amerika mengidentifikasi diri mereka sebagai gay, lesbian atau biseksual. Semua kontroversi ini lebih pernikahan gay tampaknya banyak basa-basi tentang sangat sedikit. Masalah tentu saja adalah bahwa kiri liberal ingin memaksa tukang roti dan fotografer berpikiran Kristen tradicionalista- (di bawah ancaman denda dan penjara) untuk berpartisipasi dalam pernikahan gay. Tentu saja, itu adalah layak disebut bahwa semua 19 gol ini pada tingkat yang lebih tinggi ditandai (League Two) dan bermain sedikit lebih dari selusin kali dalam satu League (tanpa musim lalu mencetak gol). Hal lain yang perlu diperhatikan, dan tanda zaman, mungkin, bahwa masih ada kesenjangan tiga tahun antara mantra TFWG, tidak satu pemain klub meninggalkan yang ada di sini pada lulus pertama. Connell, sekarang 31, akan tahu bahwa ia ingin meninggalkan klub pada pertengahan mantra pertamanya dan musim soliter dengan kami. Real Clear Politics rata jajak pendapat menunjukkan sekarang Jeb dengan keunggulan 1,5 poin atas Scott Walker pemilih Republik amoung nasional. Tapi dengan ID nama tinggi Jeb harus mengkhawatirkan bahwa Bush menunjukkan bahwa hanya 16,5 persen pemilih Partai Republik ingin dia sebagai kandidat mereka.
Tapi mari kita menambahkan potensi orang GOP untuk Jeb Bush jika semuanya istirahat sepanjang jalan.
Jika Jindal menarik diri atau tidak berjalan, Jeb bisa mendapatkan setengah orang, tetapi hanya setengah dari 1,3 persen. Jeb tidak mungkin bahwa salah satu Ted Cruz , Ben Carson , Rick Perry atau Rick Santorum memilih apakah atau tidak untuk pergi berjalan. Sepertinya pesawat mutlak Jeb Wize suara untuk pencalonan Partai Republik adalah 43,85 persen.
Ingat, ini adalah asumsi bahwa suara akan mendapatkan setengah Huckabee, Rubio orang setengah dan setengah Jindal orang, mereka keluar dari perlombaan -. Aku akan sangat murah hati dengan Jeb memberinya 43,85 persen suara dalam primary Partai Republik sebagai udara. Salah satu cara Jeb mungkin bisa mengumpulkan cukup representatif untuk nominasi adalah jika bidang GOP disimpan penuh calon konservatif membagi suara konservatif. Smart beras Energi umumnya meninggalkan sedikit kesempatan untuk langkah nama pengakuan, dan saya terkejut bahwa mereka berputar-putar isu hewan. Aku mengambil setiap mensponsori setiap balapan yang saya bisa mendapatkan tangan saya untuk lima tahun ke depan, karena masyarakat melihat perjudian, selusin kali sehari, tujuh hari seminggu dan semua peristiwa utama adalah nama perusahaan saya.
San Francisco Giants mendapat berita malang hari ini bahwa fielder kiri Nori Aoki akan keluar tanpa batas di fibula kanan patah. Jika Giants ingin berhenti kehilangan tanah di tempat pertama Los Angeles Dodgers Liga Nasional Barat, mereka harus mempertimbangkan pemain luar untuk memenangkan aa waktu dekat. Granderson telah membukukan 12,2 persen tingkat padat berjalan, disesuaikan untuk Park WRC + 112 dan 10 home run pada tahun 2015. Nah, Grandy sangat adalah efektif terhadap pukulan tangan kanan, 13,8 persen tingkat berjalan dan subur memukul 132 WRC +. Tidak seperti dalam perdagangan masa lalu Mets-Giants, tidak mungkin Sandy Alderson juga menghapus Carlos Beltran -for- Zack Wheeler kudeta -esq. Statistik (games melalui 23 Juni 2015) informasi pembayaran dan diperoleh melalui mantan FanGraphs dan Cot.
Perdana Menteri Sheikh Hasina kemarin menekankan pada pengembangan teknologi informasi dan pelatihan yang tepat dari pemuda, masalah pengangguran dengan cara outsourcing kesepakatan. Tapi O’Donoghue dimainkan pada dampak pukulan, mengilap dengan kinerja yang meyakinkan di komisaris kamar. Jika Anda memiliki pertanyaan O ‘Donoghue baik saja di sini, kita lihat apa yang membuat Prix Niel 24 jam setelah Leger (Anda akan melihat dalam video ini di posting saya sebelumnya).
Tapi pertarungan seharusnya diresmikan oleh manajer Doncaster dan gagal, menurut pendapat saya, untuk alam manusia sebagai segala sesuatu yang lain.
Butuh sedikit waktu untuk mendengarkan kesaksian dalam menggambarkan hasilnya membuat merugikan serius untuk kompetisi dalam proses. Selain itu, pihak berpendapat bahwa pembalap bukti tidak berpengaruh pada hasil tidak memenuhi Riders studi ini (memang?). Ketika saya mulai blog ini di lebih dari tiga tahun, itu karena aku baru saja meninggalkan pekerjaan penuh waktu saya untuk fokus pada menulis, dan aku butuh sesuatu untuk mendapatkan saya kembali ke kebiasaan menulis.
Aku punya beberapa masa sulit akhir-akhir ini ketika datang ke karir menulis saya, dan meskipun saya tahu saya akan mencapai tujuan saya, akhirnya, aku frustrasi. Dalam dua tahun terakhir saya telah menerbitkan dua kali seminggu, pada hari Senin dan Kamis. Kami telah melihat banyak putri Disney reimagined dalam cara yang tidak biasa dalam beberapa tahun terakhir.
Ini berarti bahwa saya telah lihat sebelumnya, karena saya sudah melihat film, jadi ini adalah kontak pertama saya dengan kata Cunting .
Kami sangat kreatif dengan kata-kata bahasa Inggris bisnis, tentu saja, seperti ungkapan klasik Pergi kotoran, sialan? Mungkin ini adalah jenis ketiga ing , produktif tetapi tidak biasanya hadir dalam jumlah kata? Tapi kita tidak berbicara tentang Cunting di sini (yang akan orang cunty atau seseorang yang berasal dari vagina – apa yang akan seseorang yang tidak lahir melalui operasi caesar sebagai Macbeth Macduff itu) Ini bisa menjadi benda atributif dalam anak Anda Cunting ?. Bahkan, cetak sumber tertua yang ditemukan sejauh ini adalah penerima Blatty dan Friedkin (keduanya Yankees), tapi adakah terkenal.
Buku ini, bagaimanapun, adalah bagaimana Google Books diterbitkan pada tahun 1957, dan bahkan tanggal ini masih kutipan awal tanpa ragu-ragu. Tapi mengapa, maka harus kita tidak juga Kirim assing dan monyet ini membuatku proyek kotoran ishma dan sebagainya?
Nah, dapat , tentu saja, jika orang menjadi lebih ayam sedikit muncrat kreatif dengan nya sumpah saya. Tidak bahwa ini adalah lebih buruk daripada pacar saya mengatakan kepada saya pada bulan Desember. Spyker STYLETTO Arkansas akan “membuat Anda Man” Sabtu ini, OH, Rocky burlesque Teater The Historic Texas! Menangkap Indah Spyker STYLETTO Sabtu, 28 Maret, Texas Teater bersejarah di Dallas” OH Rocky “olok-olok !!! Juga dibintangi akrobat udara seksi SMOULDERIN “Scully akrobat udara dan penyanyi Ups badut, drag chanteuse Maymay, olok-olok artis ALI Jagung Mariette dan HITAM Mariah Rocky Bayangan Cast LOS BASTARDOS, The Dallas Sekolah kucing olok-olok, dan banyak lagi! Mengharapkan rhinestones, fishnets, bulu mengkilap dan olok-olok dari over-the-top keindahan glamor, songstresses menarik superstar dan lebih, seperti yang kita merayakan seni striptis!
Ambil ini fishnets hitam dan merah tumit lemari dan bersiap-siap untuk menyaksikan makhluk paling seksi dan paling berbakat dari dunia di malam hari.
Orang-orang di SiriusXM OutQ mendiskusikan keputusan untuk mendapatkan disunat untuk menyenangkan pasangan Anda.
Pada musim sebelum Mariners Russell Slade Liga Dua play-off sisi rendah hati mencapai 18 selesai.
Sementara sisi Slade melemah menjelang akhir musim, sisi Grimsby Kota Paul Hurst lebih kuat dari musim telah berkembang.
Tapi Mariners Hurst dimasukkan ke dalam kinerja yang terhormat di Wembley pada tahun 2015 umumnya dianggap sebagai tim yang lebih baik pada hari ini mudah, telah mengambil kota dan tampak mengancam pada tahap awal. Juga, kontras dengan sembilan tahun lalu ada tanggapan yang berbeda dari para fans setelah final.
I’ll just be covering the formatting here rather than explaining again why each element is included, so you might want to read the article on US business letters first. If you’re using a window envelope, make sure it’ll show through when the paper is inserted. Try this letter writing exercise – it’s aimed at school-kids in the UK, but it’s good fun for adults too! I’ll do a little more research and update the US business letter article as appropriate. I learned lot from you and hope you continue your great post, kindly do visit my blog also and give some feedback. Punctuation should be open and everything including address and date should be left aligned.


You have used yours faithfully to close a letter that started with Dear Sir, or Dear Madam.
I, personally, also tend to include the reference in the subject line, since that way every bit of important information is in one place. Peck - PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE PAPYRUS OF NES-MIN: AN EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEADDetroit Institute of Arts Acc.
Here everything starts at the left margin, and Dixie delights in the fact that no tabs are needed. So, you need to use two tabs: one for the indented paragraphs and one for the return address (again, in case no letterhead is used), date, complimentary closing and signature line.
Dixie would like to draw to your attention the fact that a multiple page business letter does not have a closing line or a signature on the first page. Dixie suggests you imagine that the margins create a frame around your words, which makes your letter more appealing. We live in the world so crammed with information that a lot of people scan their mail and in the best case read something that catches their attention. In this case leave at least two, better three empty lines under it, and if the letter is short leave even more space and try to place the body of the letter in the middle of the page. Irish Lions tim rugby katakan adalah legendaris, lapangan golf penuh sejarah seperti St Andrews, Carnoustie dan Muirfield maupun tuan rumah Kejuaraan Terbuka untuk diizinkan Bagaimana? Jadi sekitar sepertiga dari pasangan gay yang berbagi rumah bersama-sama menikahi satu sama lain. Hal ini mengurangi gagasan bahwa ia hanya bisa berdiri di, meskipun di sisi lain dari tim, dan memang tim, adalah pernyataan yang lebih kuat, ketika ia adalah bagian dari sini sebelum. Dan ia menandatangani untuk Northampton pada Januari 2014 ketika ia memiliki pilihan antara pembuat sepatu yang tepat atau browser. Tidak hanya nama menetes, menetes pada hati nuraninya, yang ditransfer ke nama-nama semua pesaing saya, jadi tidak ada yang tersisa bagi mereka untuk memperkuat.
Dan Hunter Pence telah dinonaktifkan daftar sakit pergelangan tangan, Giants olahraga sekarang cahaya memukul outfield Malaikat Pagan , Gregor Blanco dan kru Justin Maxwell . Sebuah adonan kidal hit ketidakmampuan dari jenis mereka sendiri hanya diperparah dengan usia. Dan jika Mets bersedia untuk makan setengah gajinya, tiba-tiba, itu menjadi kontak Granderson … adil seperti. Tapi mungkin memperoleh muda, perangkat lega dipengaruhi seperti Hunter Strickland Granderson akan cukup. Aku akan menjadi yang terakhir untuk menyangkal bahwa pengendara memiliki hak untuk memblokir bagian pesaing untuk tidak pergi keluar dari jalan, tapi ini benar-benar berbeda secara fisik memaksa frame Anda di mana rivalnya. Ada sedikit hambatan keberhasilan jelas ATZENI, mungkin karena ia tahu realitas situasi dan tidak bisa percaya komisaris akan melihat kenyataan ini. Dan lihat, juga, pada Leger diputuskan untuk terus mencoba untuk menakut-nakuti ayat sederhana dalam dua tahap terakhir. Mereka menghadapi tidak hanya dengan apa yang tampak pada pukulan pertama disebabkan oleh kuda, tapi juru bicara O’Donoghue kepribadian menarik mendominasi ruangan, tidak hanya bertanya. Saya merasa bahwa saya masih memiliki kepuasan instan diri dan meningkatkan blog … Tapi mungkin aku tidak melakukannya sering.
Aku menghabiskan manapun satu sampai tiga jam di tiang, yang berarti bahwa setiap minggu aku hilang sampai enam jam dari waktu berharga yang bisa menghabiskan menulis proyek saya. Di antara banyak hal lainnya Aku pernah melihat mereka memutar sebagai Star Wars karakter, jenggot dan rekening Instagram dan karakter Batman. Akan harus kata Nonce vagina – mungkin Apakah vagina malam, teman atau kiasan Anda Cunt ke atau Anda pus saya tentang hal itu lagi? Bahasa Taboo adalah berarti menjadi pemberontak, dan sehingga dapat menjadi rumit untuk melanggar hukum dan harapan morfosintaxi biasa. Memang, itu adalah alasan yang baik untuk pergi mandi-Felcher sedikit monyet ishma kadang-kadang. Secara pribadi saya melihatnya sebagai hadiah terakhir yang Anda bisa berikan kepada pasangan Anda, tapi aku cukup bisa memahami dilema moral yang akan terlintas dalam pikiran Anda orang dipotong.
Setelah kehilangan tujuh pertandingan dan menggambar hari 8 tahun, kota yang hilang 3 dan menarik 3 setelah tanggal 1 Januari. Kami telah mengalahkan Cheltenham dua kali selama musim dan mungkin kepuasan adalah masalah. Bristol Rovers tidak senang naik menjadi 10 orang ketika Kota memimpin 1-0 seperti sebelumnya dan tidak ada proposal kota tidak berjalan bagi mereka. Setelah di bawah tempat promosi otomatis adalah untuk banyak musim, ada rasa perasaan bahwa kita pergi, setelah ia dilemparkan nasib kita di tangan kita begitu lama. Kemudian delapan enam belas hari pertandingan pertandingan di Stadion Millenium tidak dengan kami ketika musim berikutnya mulai di bawah arahan Graham Rodger. Namun hingga saat ini, ia melanjutkan jalan yang sangat berbeda dari yang dimulai pada tahun 2006, kami masih memiliki manajer yang sama untuk memimpin muatan saat ini. Most of us are comfortable with this business letter layout as it has traditionally been the most commonly used. Subsequent pages do not contain the letterhead (if there is a letterhead in the letter) and are printed on plain paper. Orang menyembunyikan sesuatu di seluruh dunia, dan seseorang mendekati mereka dengan koordinat GPS. Ini pasti akan banyak cuaca buruk dan tidak mengatakan, apakah kemenangan bagi tim Salmond adalah olahraga Inggris publik terus melihat Skotlandia pahlawan olahraga untuk melihat, menikmati dan merayakan dengan cara yang sama sebelumnya. Sepertinya saya bahwa biseksual lebih cenderung untuk menikah anggota lawan jenis yang lebih memilih kebanyakan anak-anak. Jadi itu tidak benar-benar adil Teruskan dikeringkan mengatakan setelah TFWG mantra – baru saja kembali ke apa itu sebelumnya.
Banyak pemain telah mencetak gol di masa lalu dan juga baik untuk apa yang kejuaraan sekarang, tetapi tidak cukup baik telah atau gol di Liga Premier (lihat Darren Huckerby). Hindari Northampton keturunan, namun catatan Connell 0 gol dalam 16 penampilan berkontribusi pemecatannya pada akhir musim. Mungkin di sini sedikit keberhasilan, mendukung dukungan, atau kurangnya minat di tempat lain bisa berubah pikiran.
Dan jajak pendapat terbaru menunjukkan Walker mengarah antara Partai Republik nasional dalam tiga tahap. Saya menduga bahwa lebih dari setengah dari ragu-ragu ragu-ragu antara kandidat hanya konservatif. Jika Anda ingin bertaruh pada sepak bola atau National atau Masters, perbedaan antara 2,9 dan 2,11 tidak banyak masalah.
Jika saya presiden utama, yang mengambil setiap kesempatan saya bisa mendapatkan sponsor, tapi sesama kompetitor saya diinterpolasi posisi setuju untuk ABP. Granderson telah membukukan 0,133 batting tingkat berjalan rata suram 4,3 persen, dan terhadap WRC + 9, kidal lemparan sejauh ini.
Tapi mereka lakukan, dan campuran keberuntungan O’Donoghue memantul kuda dan persetujuan tunduk bukti dengan komisaris polisi, ketidakadilan yang serius terjadi.
ATZENI, penumpang, taruhan, koneksi dipengaruhi oleh kombinasi disayangkan individu memenuhi Mr Nice Mr.
Kadang-kadang, pesan itu semua saya menulis hari berikutnya, tapi setidaknya saya adalah untuk mengasah kemampuan menulis saya dan pemanasan kreatif untuk ide.
Hal ini juga membantu, tentu saja, jika Anda berbicara tentang seseorang yang tidak biasanya menggunakan bahasa ini sama sekali. Musim itu penuh sesak satu waktu sehubungan dengan kedua antara tahun perjuangan di bawah meja.
Ada juga ketidakpastian tentang masa depan klub Russell Slade untuk perpanjangan kontrak pergi salah pada awal tahun. Dukungan Mariners 13.000 penggemar di dalam Wembley luar biasa dan meskipun kalah jumlah 2-1, positif disebabkan oleh terus paling kebisingan di menghadiri Konferensi Bermain-Off sejarah Final tertinggi. Itu adalah perasaan marah di antara banyak bahwa tim tidak terlepas dari ribuan penggemar untuk menghabiskan uang keras yang mereka peroleh (dalam beberapa kasus tidak diterima begitu keras) kota berbalik dukungan wisata ke Cardiff tim. Itu mungkin sejumlah orang kecewa, ketika kita melihat kembali 6-8 bulan, tapi konsensus umum tampaknya sekarang bahwa Hurst diperoleh retak lain itu. Instead subsequent pages usually contain a special header with the name of the addressee, the page number, and the date. Besides, the white space between the paragraphs provides a resting place for the reader's eyes. Demikian juga, ada setiap kesempatan yang Connell berada pada tingkat di konferensi, di mana mereka dapat dengan mudah melampaui, berbeda dengan Liga Dua, di mana ia menemukan lebih sulit untuk menemukan target. Karena mudah untuk membuat taruhan, dibayar segera, dan jika terjadi kesalahan, layanan pelanggan yang sangat baik. Bondi Beach, dalam perjalanan untuk menakut-nakuti kedua kalinya, memantul itu, membuat ATZENI untuk agresor. Itu juga injeksi penting kepercayaan – cara untuk membuktikan kepada diri sendiri bahwa saya memiliki hal-hal untuk mengatakan dan cara kreatif untuk mengatakan itu.
Dia mengatakan dengan senyum nakal, gatal sedikit di pipi, yang merupakan kutipan dari The Exorcist .
Tapi kami menempel ini karena SFYE (Standard mengambil baik bahasa Inggris) kata sifat akan vexative adalah apaan . Januari merasa lebih kuat dan lebih ekspresif menghabiskan waktu dari apaan , yang jelas SYNOTT.
Kota menghabiskan sebagian besar musim di tempat promosi otomatis, tetapi pada akhirnya menyelesaikan 4 setelah hanya 2 kemenangan dalam 9 pertandingan diperbolehkan Leyton Orient mencuri ketiga.
Apapun gangguan mungkin mungkin telah ada, pertandingan hari itu adalah non-starter, dalam pandangan kami, dan kami pergi tanpa sifat melawan.
Kinerja tim pada hari itu bahkan tidak melihat bayangan menampilkan di awal musim, dan satu-satunya perasaan setelah pendukung negatif.
Adapun pemain, delapan dari 16 Hari Akhir Konferensi perjanjian baru Play-Off sudah menandatangani kontrak dengan klub. In the picture below Dixie offers to your attention a sample of a multiple page business letter with a letterhead. Dia masih tanpa klub 24 jam sebelum musim sepak bola liga dan menendang-rapat dan itu, saya percaya, adalah dari Connell dianggap sebagai kesempatan untuk duduk di jendela untuk mencoba untuk menandatangani kontrak untuk mendapatkan lebih banyak di tempat lain. Kemampuannya pada bola dan hadiah untuk menciptakan gol dari apa-apa, kami berharap untuk menjadi jelas lagi. Dan itu trik – semua (saya, juga, pada awalnya) saya melihat efek lubang dan bukan penyebabnya. Tapi saya pikir ini akan baik bagi saya di akhir dan menempatkan saya di jalan untuk kebiasaan sehat menulis. Bagaimana Disney putri terlihat seperti jika orang berhenti reimagining mereka sebagai salah satu?
Maju kunci Michael Reddy harus diganti setelah kurang dari setengah jam dan gaya pemulih biasanya 4 tampak rapuh pada tahap awal.
Sejak akhir musim, fans berkumpul dalam upaya untuk memastikan tidak gagal suasana positif dari beberapa bulan terakhir dan telah terjadi gelombang anggota baru ke Mariners kepercayaan. Sebuah kesembilan (James McKeown) masih di bawah kontrak untuk musim lain dan sepersepuluh (Josh Gowling) memiliki oleh hilang cedera Wembley menandatangani kontrak baru.
Steve Guinan memiliki ketika salib-Nya berakhir di latar belakang bersih dan Steve Mildenhall layak kota menyelamatkan dicegah dari belakang 2-0 musim gugur.
Hal ini telah mengurangi harapan untuk musim baru dan hanya Reddy 10 pertandingan liga lain untuk kota tanpa mencetak gol sebelum ia bermain sendiri setelah gagal pulih dari cedera pinggul. Dan sebagian besar pemain yang mengambil klub untuk hari ini meninggalkan (Parslow, Hannah, Bignot, Jolley) di sana setelah rilis.
It doubtless would have been includedA in the tomb as a part of the group of documents mentioned. Jika hits tanah berjalan, kontak listrik dengan keteraturan, bunga atttacts dan pindah, maka itu akan membantu dengan kurangnya maju dan mudah-mudahan kita bisa di papan untuk mendapatkan poin dari proses. Kita tahu apa itu, dan Kate Warwick telah beralasan tentang hal itu di blog ini sangat assholing.
Kami tidak pernah benar-benar, meskipun berteriak penalti ditolak dan untuk memompa bola tinggi di daerah dalam langkah-langkah terakhir untuk mencoba untuk kembali digunakan dalam permainan. Jadi benar-benar, kami bermain musim depan dengan hanya enam dari enam belas yang berada di tim hari di Cardiff hanya beberapa bulan yang lalu. Hanya Nsiala Magnay dan belum membuat keputusan tentang masa depan mereka dan hanya Lenell John-Lewis harus membuat sejauh menolak tinggal lama di TFWG untuk klub lain. I also like the ‘sorry for the long letter but I haven’t had time to write a short one! These were not preserved "instead ofA the more usual Book of the Dead" but probably interred in addition to it.
Bagaimana bisa mengebor sampai apaan dan mungkin saja memberinya strain sedikit yang telah diputihkan dari itu? The notion that a civilization developed and maintained a complex writtenA language based on a system of pictures holds a fascination that is undiminished today. AlthoughA there were numerous examples of carved hieroglyphic inscriptions in the collection, for manyA years the DIA lacked an important example of ancient writing on papyrus. A few fragmentaryA pieces of text of late date, in terms of the history of Egypt, were all the museum had to show forA this important medium for the transmission of art, commerce, and religion. It has amply been demonstrated in the literature on the history of EgyptianA art that linear abstraction and the necessary skill in draftsmanship were the underlying principlesA and the basis for all of the visual arts in Egyptian civilization.In 1972 Richard A.
The pieces were treated and mounted in the museum's conservation laboratory and placed on exhibition in fragmentary condition. The hope persisted that a better-preserved and typical ink drawing or painted section from a Book of the Dead might be found for the collection, but it wasA not until 1988 that this was realized in a manner as welcome as it was totally unexpected. The object that was offered to the museum, the Book of the Dead of Nes-min, was a virtually complete example of a papyrus replete with carefully executed drawings of high artistic quality.To many people today, the Book of the Dead is considered the classic example of anA ancient Egyptian religious document. It is a text that is easily accessible to the general publicA because it has been translated and published in a number of versions, the most popular probablyA being that of Sir E. A far better modern comparison would be with the older formA of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, which was also a compilation of texts and prayers andA contained spells to ward off evil influences. Surprisingly, nothing ofA the kind is preserved in the most famous of all the pyramids from earlier in Dynasty 4 (26tha€“25thA centuries). During a period of decline after Dynasty 4, the kings of Egypt sought to insure theirA immortality through the addition of engraved prayers and spells to their tomb-pyramids. The daily recitations to be made on behalf of the king's spirit in the temple associated withA his pyramid are also included.Later, during the Middle Kingdom, particularly Dynasties 9 to 11 (22nda€“21st centuries), many of the prayers and spells originally reserved for royalty were somewhat "democratized" and were allowed for the use of members of the nobility.
Rather than being carved on the walls of tombs, these texts were written or painted on the inside walls of box-shaped coffins for the deceased, giving these the appearance of small tomb chambers (fig. 65.394The original Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom were supplemented with other material, often including spells to ward off hunger and thirst as well as specific evils or dangers that the spirit might encounter. These painted compilations of text and spells, for obvious reasons, have been named Coffin Texts. In their number and variety, the texts also add a great deal to our knowledge of the development of Egyptian religious thought, particularly concerning the rising importance of the god Osiris as the protector of the dead.Beginning during the New Kingdom, as a part of the development of religious beliefs, the new and expanded corpus of texts became available to a larger segment of the population, dependent, however, on what an individual was able to afford.
This last major phase in the development of funerary texts is the collection of prayers and spells popularly called the Book of the Dead (the proper title was something along the lines of the book of "going forth [from the tomb] by day").
It was traditionally written on papyrus, although selected passages are found on tomb walls and on some specific funerary objects, as will be discussed below.


It was often augmented by a series of illustrations or vignettes mainly related to the various "chapters" (more properly, "spells"). There exist a number of forms or compilations, varying considerably in completeness, that make up the Book of the Dead. Some examples were produced in the expectation of purchase, with the name and titles of the deceased to be added in designated blank spaces. In various forms, the Book of the Dead was in use in ancient Egypt for almost 1,500 years.It is a common misconception that the numbering system used in modern publications to designate the spells is ancient. On the contrary, it was devised by Richard Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, in the early nineteenth century.
The names assigned to the various spells are generally derived from the titles or labels used to designate them in the text. These were typically written in red pigment to set them off from the rest of the text, which was written in black ink, an example of the most ancient application of a visual differentiation that has come to be called "rubrics" (deriving from the Latin word for the color red) to designate headings in a religious text.The religious matter dealt with in the Book of the Dead is the result of a long evolutionary process and is extremely varied.
It includes hymns in praise of Re, the sun god, as well as other hymns or prayers addressed to Osiris, the ruler and judge of the spirits of the deceased.
There are several sections that deal with the concept of the spirit acquiring the freedom and ability to leave the tomb "by day" or in "triumph over enemies" and in various magical forms or manifestations. They also guard against dangers, as exemplified by serpents and crocodiles.We know the Book of the Dead mainly from examples written on papyrus, the most familiar material, but two of the spells were regularly inscribed on specific funerary objects. One of these is spell 30b, which is found engraved on a special class of amulet called a heart scarab.
This was traditionally made of green stone and intended to be wrapped on the mummy over the heart, which, unlike the other internal organs, was left in place in the body (fig. 73.81 The text of the heart scarab addresses the heart of the deceased and pleads that it not rise up and witness against the spirit and influence the weighing of the heart in the balance of judgment.
The other frequently found text is spell 6, which is written, impressed, or inscribed on shawabtis, the mummy-form funerary figures intended to magically supply the spirit with workmen (fig.
When it was acquired by the museum, it had been cut into twenty-four sections, generally separated at logical junctures that did not significantly harm the text or the drawings.
After acquisition by the museum, the papyrus was treated, some of the sections were reunited for the sake of visual clarity and continuity, and each of the parts was remounted and framed in a standard frame size.5Such rolls of papyrus have sometimes been found broken or otherwise spoiled by mishandling and unrolling without proper care. Only one vignette, a scene of four ibis-headed figures at four doors, appears to have been intentionally mutilated, as a complete figure has been removed. Otherwise, the condition of the document is generally good, although the top edge has suffered somewhat and has a ragged appearance. Nes-min had the title of Prophet (priest) of Neferhotep, a somewhat obscure Egyptian deity who was the object of a cult in the region of Hu (known to the Greeks as Diospolis Parva) in Middle Egypt during the late period.
He was also a priest of Amun-re at the Temple of Karnak at Thebes, and he counted among his other distinctions the rank of phyle leader, responsible for a contingent (or shift) of priests.
Thus his social status would have been such that he could afford a Book of the Dead of good quality and considerable size. It is known from the "colophon" he added to the Bremner-Rhind papyrus (discussed below) in the British Museum, London, that he had more than twenty priestly and other official titles to his credit. These include priesthoods in the service of the gods Amun, Khonsu, Min, Osiris, Isis, Nephtys, Horus, and Hathor, in addition to that of Neferhotep. We know little about the man Nes-min beyond the names of his parents, the titles he held, and the choice of religious texts he took with him to his tomb, but there is one additional and important bit of evidence about him provided by one of those documents.It was not the usual Egyptian custom to include the year, month, or day in a religious text such as the Book of the Dead, in contrast to personal letters or state, legal, and commercial documents, where a recorded date might have been important. The determination of a period or date for the execution of an example of a religious text is usually based on the linguistic, calligraphic, or artistic style. It is generally only when an individual is not only named but also can be identified with some certainty by titles and family relationships or some genealogical notation that a more exact date can be established for a particular document. Nes-mina€™s Book of the Dead, however, can be said to be as precisely dated as almost any funerary papyrus in existence. This individual is well known in the Egyptological literature because other papyri belonging to him have been identified and well published in the past.6 In the Detroit papyrus, Nes-mina€™s father and mother are mentioned by name7 as are some of his somewhat unusual titles, so that we can identify him with great certainty as the owner of two other papyri in the British Museum (BM10208 and BM10209), which give him some of the same titles and the same genealogy. Furthermore, he was the author of the so-called colophon of the Bremner-Rhind papyrus (BM10188).
These are the documents, consisting mainly of prayers, mentioned in the quotation at the beginning of this article.
The identification of Nes-min with this last papyrus is particularly important because it is dated to year 12 in the reign of Alexander IV, the posthumous son of Alexander the Great, or 306a€“305 B.C. The logical conclusion is simply that if Nes-min was a mature man alive in 306a€“305, his Book of the Dead was certainly made during the first half of the third century B.C. According to Mosher, the contents of the Detroit papyrus of Nes-min are somewhat typical for a Book of the Dead made late in Egyptian history, at the very beginning of the Ptolemaic Period. He has pointed out that this papyrus contains 148 of the 165 spells that had come to be standard in the Late Period codification of the corpus. He also observed that some of the texts are abbreviated, but that this is not to be considered a fault, because even some indication of a particular spell was deemed to be more effective than omitting it completely.The text of the document is written in hieratic script, a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, although some of the larger vignettes have texts written in a more formal hieroglyphic hand.
In the shape and simplification of individual signs, the cursive script shows the influence and limitations of the reed pen employed to produce it, but it was faster and easier to write and well adapted to a papyrus surface. The relationship of hieratic to the formal hieroglyphic style of writing is roughly comparable to that of modern cursive writing to block printing or printed type. He was a master draftsman with a command of Egyptian standard requirements and proportion and was immensely skilled in the handling of pen and ink, as is shown by the fine and consistent quality of line throughout the whole document.
The figures have been slightly abbreviated in a stylized manner for which parallels can be found in other papyri of the same time.The Book of the Dead of Nes-min is a rich collection of vignettes meant to accompany the various spells of the text. They range in size and complexity from large, multifigured examples to the smallest drawings accompanying short spells.
A number of them are exquisite little masterpieces in their own right and show the ability of the artist to capture the look and spirit of human and animal life within the strictures of the rules of Egyptian art. Among these, the drawings of birds should be particularly noted; the standard method of representing the various birds is adhered to but the individuality of types is recognized (see fig. 5).A The tiny drawings at the top edge of the papyrus, which act almost as a continuous frieze, contain many examples of meticulously detailed renderings.
These include the ubiquitous images of the deceased, priests and officiants, the gods, and numerous offerings for the good of the spirit of Nes-min.Of all of the vignettes included in any version of the Book of the Dead, probably the most familiar and most often reproduced is the Weighing of the Heart scene representing the individual judgment of the deceased (fig. 6).A Typically, as in the Detroit papyrus, the deceased is led into the Hall of Judgment by the god Thoth, the patron deity of scribes and writing, who is represented as ibis-headed. Nes-min is shown on the far right, accompanied by the goddess Ma'at, the female personification of truth and order, who is identified by the ostrich feather hieroglyph on her head. It is significant that Nes-min not only holds the same feather (twice) in attestation to his adherence to the notion of truthfulness but also wears an amulet of the goddess on a cord around his neck.
Before him he is able to witness the weighing of his heart in the scale against the feather of Ma'at. Jackal- and falcon-headed deities assist in the process of weighing, while a baboon, an animal sacred to Thoth, perches at the top of the scale. Ammit, the devouring monster, waits atop a shrine-shaped pedestal to consume the heart if it is found wanting in the balance.
He is accompanied by images of the "Four Sons of Horus," who emerge from a lotus blossom, symbolic of rebirth.
The whole action takes place under the attention of forty-onea€”or forty-two, the standard number, when Osiris is counteda€”assessors of the dead, each holding, again, the ostrich feather of Ma'at. The list of transgressions is so detailed and so revealing that it has been compared to the morality espoused in the commandments of the Judeo-Christian tradition or the moral strictures of other religions. In essence, it gives the modern reader a clear idea of what would have been considered a moral and correct way of life in ancient Egypt. The rubric preceding this lengthy passage tells us that it is to be uttered upon the spirit's arrival at the hall of justice, at the time of the weighing of the heart or the individual judgment.The drawing style in the Book of the Dead of Nes-min is well exemplified by the execution of this vignette of the Weighing of the Heart.
The individual figures appear to be tall and graceful and exhibit an inner coherence of form that tended to gradually weaken during the following Ptolemaic Period, although the treatment of some anatomical parts here prefigures the later style, particularly in some apparently awkward combinations.
The linear delineation of figures and parts of figures is done with great care, subtlety, and accuracy and in considerable minute detail. One rather curious peculiarity of the drawing style is the use of an "overlap" in which lines cross or intersect in a manner that almost suggests inadequate prior planning and the consequent necessity for overdrawing. This can be seen particularly in the arms of the figure of Nes-min as they cross his torso and in the detail of the column capitals of the architecture framing the scene of judgment. The overall design and arrangement were carefully thought out; the composition is well balanced, with adequate space allotted to each of the participants in the drama.
This distinguishes it from other examples of the Book of the Dead where text and figures vie for space in a crowded format.In most Books of the Dead of the Late Period, there are only a select number of vignettes done on a large scale.
These include the Weighing of the Heart scene discussed above and a few other formulaic images. A further example of such emphasis in the Detroit papyrus is the composite scene in which Nes-min is depicted carrying out a variety of agricultural activities in the two center registers (fig. 7).A On the right he cuts grain with a curved sickle and on the left drives cattle, which will tread on and thresh it. In the next lower register an earlier part of the cycle is depicted in which Nes-min plows the field and sows the grain. The accompanying text reads (in paraphrase), "I plow and I reap in the field of offerings and I am content with the gods." This is a part of the illustration for spell 110, an elaborate homage to the gods that seeks to guarantee the continued good of the spirit of the deceased. The stylized representation of farm activities was standard for this spell in the Book of the Dead and had no direct reference to the occupation of the deceased; nor were these images included to suggest that it would be his fate to labor as a common field hand in the next world. The agricultural cycle of plowing, sowing, reaping, and threshing was seemingly employed as a graphic image of the progression of the seasons, the cycle of beginning and completion, and the continuation of life in which the deceased aspired to participate for eternity.The variety as well as the quality of illustrations in this Book of the Dead is further exemplified by a vignette with two distinct parts (fig. The falcon-headed figure is Sokar-Osiris, a conflation of the qualities of Osiris and Sokar, a falcon-headed god of the necropolis. The goddess next to him is the personification of the West (Imnt), the land of the blessed. Sokar-Osiris is depicted with the typical mummy form and crown associated with images of Osiris. One of the interesting aspects of the grouping of these three figures is the result of a standard mode of representation found in all two-dimensional art of ancient Egypt. Although the goddess is shown as if she were standing behind the god, she is actually meant to be seen as standing on his right side and thus accompanying him in a position of equality.The left-hand section of this vignette contains three separate elements that generally appear together and accompany spell 148.
These are: the Seven Celestial Cows with the Bull of Heaven, the Four Rudders, and the Four Sons of Horus.
Through each of these somewhat disparate agencies, an appeal for the protection of the spirit is made or implied.
All of these elements are enclosed in an architectural framework resembling a shrine.Although this Book of the Dead was generally executed with care and skill, the artist has inconsistently treated the two ends of this shrine-like structure.
The right side may be unfinished, but it actually looks as if there was a change of design or a lapse of memory from one end of the enclosure to the other, so that the two ends do not match and possibly belong to different types of architectural structures. This was a relatively small mistake, hardly noticeable and hardly affecting the appearance of the composition, but it does underscore the notion that such texts were executed by fallible individuals.
Seemingly the product of a careful and meticulous craftsman, the Detroit papyrus is remarkably free of infelicities of design. As such, it can take its place with other important examples of the genre representing one of the last phases in a long tradition of religious literature that has been preserved from ancient Egypt.When the Detroit papyrus was acquired for the collection of the museum from the New York art market, it had virtually no provenance provided for it other than that it had been known by some Egyptologists to have been in Europe for a number of years.
In an effort to determine its recent history, a series of inquiries was made among scholars who have made a particular study of Egyptian papyri of the Late and Ptolemaic Periods, and no satisfactory information was obtained beyond a vague memory on the part of some who recalled it as being in an old German or French collection.
The connection provided by the "colophon" of the Bremner-Rhind papyrus may provide a suggestion of its possible modern history, if not solid evidence as to its source.R. Faulkner takes issue with the designation "colophon" for the notation presumably written by Nes-min on the Bremner-Rhind papyrus, since it does not actually date the production of the manuscript or identify the person who wrote it, as a colophon, by definition, is intended to.
10 The date given is the year in which this additional note was made in a handwriting completely different from the original text.
The long list of sacerdotal titles associated with Nes-min and the names of his father and mother in the "colophon" are of utmost importance for the identification of the precise owner of the Detroit papyrus. It is this genealogical evidence, as noted above, by which the Detroit Book of the Dead can be securely connected with the Bremner-Rhind papyrus.11The Bremner-Rhind papyrus is identified by the names of former owners, as is customary in museum nomenclature. Alexander Henry Rhind was a Scottish lawyer who traveled to Egypt for his health in 1855a€“56 and 1856a€“57.12 As did many other educated Europeans who went there for medical reasons, he undertook excavations in the Theban area (modern Luxor). Through excavation or purchase he acquired a large collection of antiquities, which he eventually bequeathed to the National Museum of Antiquities, now the Royal Scottish Museum, in Edinburgh.13 Rhind was very much ahead of his time in that he recognized the importance of recording the context and the finding locations of the objects he excavated.
After Rhinda€™s death, Bremner sold the papyrus that jointly bears their names, with others, to the British Museum. 15 Why these objects did not go with the rest of Rhinda€™s collection to Edinburgh is not clear, but the fact that an important papyrus such as the Bremner-Rhind was not included in the bequest suggests that there may have been otherwise unrecognized material in the Rhind collection that was excluded as well.
It is thus probable, but impossible to prove, that the Detroit papyrus was a part of the Rhind collection and may have been directed elsewhere, possibly to a private collector.
If this is true, it has remained unidentified as such, as the papyrus for the most part has gone unpublished for more than a hundred years.
It should be noted, however, that Faulkner said, Nothing definite is known of the provenance of the [Bremner-Rhind] manuscript, but the presumed last owner, the priest Nesmin who wrote the "Colophon," appears to have been a Theban, judging by the priestly titles he bore. Although there is no direct evidence bearing on the point, it seems probable that the papyrus came from his tomb, and it would be interesting to know in what circumstances a book which appears to have been written originally for a temple library came into the private possession of a member of the priesthood.16It would be as interesting to know where Rhind acquired the Bremner-Rhind papyrus and the other papyri related to Nes-min, since it is possible that the Detroit papyrus may have come from the same source. In 1964, in pursuit of material for her study of the two other papyri from the Rhind collection, F. In contrast to these monuments, it is to the papyri of ancient Egypt, as to the clay tablets of Mesopotamia, that we must turn to witness the earliest stages of the recording of human thought and memory in a portable form. Alessandro Roccati has used the material from the tomb of Nes-min as an example of care and concern for important texts to the point that they were included among the furnishings for the spirit of the deceased.
Limme, "Un 'Prince Ramesside' FantA?me," in Aegyptus Museis Rediviva: Miscellanea in Honorem Hermanni de Meulenaere (Brussels, 1993), 114 n. Budge, The Book of the Dead (The Papyrus of Ani), 1890, 1894, 1913 (with various additions and emendations).4For more up-to-date background material and translations of the Book of the Dead, see R. Haikal, Two Hieratic Funerary Papyri of Nesmin, Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca 14 (Brussels, 1970).W.
Herman De Meulenare, Seminarie voor Egyptologie, Rijksuniversiteit-Gent; it was verified by Malcolm Mosher. I offer my thanks to all of these scholars, but particularly to Carol Andrews, who was the first to point out the connection to me.12W. Uphill, Who Was Who in Egyptology (London, 1972), 247a€“4813Two instances of gifts of large collection of antiquities from Rhind are listed in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, but there is no indication about material going elsewhere.
Letter to author from the Department of History and Applied Art, National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, May 26, 1999 (DIA curatorial files).14Brian M.
BENSON IN EGYPT EGYPT IN TIN PAN ALLEY IMAGES OF CLEOPATRA IN FILM LESSONS FROM HISTORY MARGARET BENSON PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE RAPE OF LUXOR SONNINI PAPYRUS OF NES MIN THE PAPYRUS OF NES-MIN: AN EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEADDetroit Institute of Arts Acc. The pieces were treated and mounted in the museum's conservation laboratory and placed on exhibition in fragmentary condition.



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