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Please enable JavaScript in your browser to experience all the custom features of our site, including the ability to make a purchase. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. By attaching itself to a host cell, the virus may either kill or alter the cell’s functions.
Viruses can be transmitted in numerous ways, such as through contact with an infected person, swallowing, inhalation, or unsafe sex. The external barriers, such as the skin and mucous membranes, are the first line of defense. Viruses can affect any part of the body or body system, and can cause infections such as the common cold, flu, gastroenteritis, chicken pox or herpes. The common cold is a frequently occurring viral infection and usually includes symptoms such as sneezing, stuffy nose, sore throat and coughing. The diagnosis of a viral infection is usually based on the physical symptoms and the history of the illness. Both viral and bacterial infections cause sickness; however, there is a difference between them.
To contract a bacterial infection, pathogenic bacterium must gain access into the body through contaminated water, cuts, or contact with an infected person or contaminated objects. Human cells are vulnerable to viruses, and when the body is exposed to viral particles, the immune system will try to destroy these particles and eliminate them from the system.
A lowered immune system allows the virus to more easily attach itself to available cells, often bringing about general symptoms such as fever, chills, and muscle aches. Children often contract viral infections, as children spend time around other children who have colds, and this makes it more likely that the cold will be passed on to them. For younger children who cannot blow their nose, use a rubber suction bulb to suck drainage from both sides of the nose. Children older than four years of age may be able to suck on throat lozenges for sore throats. Children should drink extra water, fruit juices, or soups- avoid giving milk to infants for congestion reasons. The best way of treating human viruses will depend on the strength of the individual’s immune system, their overall health status, age, the severity of the condition, and the type of viruses involved. Minor illnesses caused by viral infections usually only require symptomatic treatment, while more severe conditions may require advanced medical treatment and sometimes even life-long treatment. It is important to remember that treating human viruses cannot be accomplished through antibiotics, and the unnecessary use of antibiotics can weaken the immune system, thus increasing the likelihood of contracting another infection. Over-the-counter painkillers and anti-inflammatories such as paracetamol or ibuprofen can reduce symptoms and fever, but can also have side effects, especially with long-term or excessive usage. Antiviral medication and immune substances such as interferons and immunoglobulins are sometimes prescribed for more serious infections. Antiretroviral therapy suppresses the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), even if there are no symptoms. Meditation, psychotherapy, and counseling may be of benefit when there are long-term consequences and psychological implications. Viral infections can last as long as two weeks, and after infection, it is important to get the immune system back on track.
Maintain a healthy lifestyle by eating properly, obtaining sufficient rest and exercising regularly. Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly – before cooking, eating or after visiting the toilet. Avoid contact with someone who has an illness that you may catch such as a cold, the flu, chickenpox, or measles.
Practice good personal hygiene by showering or bathing every day, washing your hair, and trimming your nails regularly. Brush and floss your teeth twice a day, and visit your dentist regularly to prevent infection and cavities.
Pop sponges and dish cloths into the microwave to disinfect them, as they harbor the most germs.
Eat protein and cooked vegetables at least twice a day as this helps to rebuild the immune system.
Increase your intake of nutritional supplements to prevent infections by helping to eliminate toxic substances, improve digestion, and balance body chemistry. Positive attitudes and healthy emotions also strengthen the immune system and help you to live longer and feel younger and healthier. If the above diagnoses are inconclusive or if a treatment regimen has already been started, a biopsy of the affected skin (i.e.
Spray tub and bathroom floor with disinfectant after each use to help prevent reinfection and infection of other household members. Wash feet, particularly between the toes, with soap and dry thoroughly after bathing or showering.
If you have experienced an infection previously, you may want to treat your feet and shoes with over-the-counter drugs. Dry feet well after showering, paying particular attention to the web space between the toes.
Try to limit the amount that your feet sweat by wearing open-toed shoes or well-ventilated shoes, such as lightweight mesh running shoes.
After any physical activity shower with a soap that has both an antibacterial and anti-fungal agent in it. Vitamin C can be effective in treating Viral Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds and Influenza).
An upper respiratory infection (URI) is a viral or bacterial infection that affects the nose, throat (pharynx), sinuses, and voice box (larynx). WebMD discusses upper respiratory infection in cats and includes symptoms, treatment, and prevention. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has not advanced as fast as HIV and hepatitis C therapy in recent years, but approval of new drugs has led to higher response rates. Not everyone with hepatitis B needs treatment, depending on the extent of liver damage and other factors.
Lamivudine, which is available in a generic formulation, is the least expensive treatment, but drug resistance is common. Treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has advanced dramatically in the past few years as direct-acting antiviral agents, or DAAs, have improved cure rates and shortened treatment duration.
The main measure of hepatitis C treatment success is virologic response, or reduction of HCV RNA. Sustained virologic response (SVR), or continued undetectable HCV viral load 24 weeks after completing treatment, is traditionally considered a cure.


Not everyone with hepatitis C needs treatment, but it is recommended for people with at least moderate liver damage, usually determined by a liver biopsy. The previous standard of care for chronic hepatitis C was pegylated interferon alfa-2a (Pegasys) or alfa-2B (PegIntron) injected once weekly plus a weight-adjusted oral dose of ribavirin.
In 2009, researchers discovered that the latter two factors are largely attributable to variations in the IL28B gene. Pegylated interferon causes notorious side effects, including flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, fatigue, muscle aches), depression, and low white blood cell count. The current standard of care for hepatitis C combines direct acting antivirals with the previous standard of care, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. In 2011, the FDA approved the first two DAAs for genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C, the protease inhibitors Incivek (telaprevir, developed by Vertex) and Victrelis (boceprevir, developed by Merck). In Phase 3 clinical trials of HIV-negative people, Incivek SVR rates were 79% for previously untreated people, 86% for prior relapsers, and 32% for prior null responders (those who previously had little or no decrease in HCV viral load).
So-called difficult-to-treat patient groups do not respond as well to hepatitis C therapy but may have a more urgent need for treatment.
NS5A replication complex inhibitors under development include daclatasvir (BMS-790052), ABT-267, and GS-5885.
Several experimental DAAs are taken once daily with treatment durations as short as eight weeks. Several DAA candidates have demonstrated good outcomes in combination with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin in Phase 2 clinical trials and are now moving into Phase 3 testing. Many people with hepatitis C are waiting for all-oral, interferon-free regimens, several of which (with or without ribavirin) are currently in Phase 2 or Phase 3 clinical trials. Regimens that combine an HCV protease inhibitor and a NS5A inhibitor appear especially potent.
Daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for 12 weeks cured about 80% of people with HCV subtype 1b, rising to 100% when ribavirin was added. In summary, hepatitis C treatment has improved markedly with the advent of direct-acting drugs. The Body is a service of Remedy Health Media, LLC, 750 3rd Avenue, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10017. Viruses are made up of the genetic material known as DNA or RNA, which the virus uses to replicate. Factors such as poor hygiene and eating habits can increase your risk of contracting a viral infection.
The body’s immune defenses are triggered when the virus enters the body, and white blood cells (lymphocytes and monocytes) begin to attack and destroy the virus. Although colds are a minor infection of the nose and throat, a cold can last from two days to two weeks. Stomach viruses can be spread through contaminated food or water and can cause viral gastroenteritis, meaning inflammation of the stomach and intestines (small and large). Chickenpox is an infectious disease; with most cases occurring in children under age 15, but older children and adults can also get it. A condition such as influenza, which is caused by a virus, is generally easy to diagnose because most people are familiar with the symptoms. Symptoms may vary depending on what part of the body is affected, type of viruses, age, and overall health of the affected person.
A viral infection is any type of infection that is caused by a virus, which is even smaller than bacteria and is encapsulated by a protective coating, so it is more difficult to kill than bacteria. One of the major differences between viral and bacterial infections is that a bacterial infection can be transmitted through inanimate objects such as door knobs and countertops, whereas viral cannot.
This also makes it easier for the virus to replicate, and thus advances symptoms until the immune system can fight the virus off. A child’s immune system is not as strong as adults, and their body is still learning how to fight viruses for the first time. A combination of treatment options such as conventional medicine, complementary therapy, and natural medicine can help to fight the infection, control the symptoms, and strengthen the immune response. They can be administered orally, intravenously, intramuscularly, topically, or by inhalation.
Eat foods rich in vitamins like oranges, carrots, kiwis, raisins, green beans and strawberries. Using condoms during sexual intercourse will reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. FDA-approved options include Baraclude (entecavir), Epivir (lamivudine or 3TC), Hepsera (adefovir dipivoxil), Tyzeka (telbivudine), and Viread (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate). A complete cure, meaning HBV clearance and development of protective antibodies, is uncommon.
Virologic response means suppression of viral replication, ideally reaching undetectable HBV DNA viral load in the blood.
Guidelines recommend that people with HIV and HBV co-infection should include dually active drugs in their antiretroviral regimen. This is now included in routine infant vaccinations and is recommended for many adults, including gay men, pregnant women, and people with HIV or hepatitis C. Viral load is typically measured after four weeks on treatment (rapid virologic response, or RVR), after 12 weeks (early virologic response, or EVR), at the end of treatment, and after finishing treatment. Treatment during acute infection (the first six months after infection) has a very high success rate, but most people do not realize they are infected this soon. Treatment duration is 48 weeks for people with difficult-to-treat HCV genotypes 1 or 4 and 24 weeks for those with genotypes 2 or 3.
In addition to HCV genotype, high pre-treatment HCV viral load, advanced liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, insulin resistance, and HIV co-infection are associated with poorer response.
People with the favorable "CC" gene pattern respond best to interferon, people with the "TT" pattern have the lowest response rates, and people with the "CT" pattern are in between.
Treatment-naïve people with good early viral suppression can stop treatment sooner (at 24 or 28 weeks), while others continue treatment through week 48. Victrelis SVR rates were 90% for previously untreated people and 66% for prior relapsers and partial non-responders (null responders were excluded). People with liver cirrhosis can be successfully treated with triple therapy including Incivek or Victrelis, but they have a higher frequency of side effects; studies of liver transplant recipients are underway. Non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors include setrobuvir (ANA598, Roche), tegobuvir (GS-9190), ABT-333, BI 207127, BMS-791325, and VX-222.
Other therapies under study for hepatitis C include the cyclophilin inhibitor alisporivir and pegylated interferon lambda, a new type of interferon that works as well as pegylated interferon alfa but with fewer side effects. Like antiretroviral therapy for HIV, combining medications from different classes improves effectiveness and lowers the risk of drug resistance. For example, a 12-week regimen of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir cured 90% to 100% of treatment-naïve people with HCV genotypes 1, 2, or 3.


People who do not respond to or cannot tolerate interferon have the most to gain from the new DAAs. The Body and its logos are trademarks of Remedy Health Media, LLC, and its subsidiaries, which owns the copyright of The Body's homepage, topic pages, page designs and HTML code. Colds are highly contagious and are spread by fluids from sneezing or coughing, which contain the infection.
Improper hand washing following a bowel movement or handling a diaper can spread the disease from person to person. Oral herpes causes sores around the mouth and face, while genital herpes affects the genitals, buttocks and anus.
Other types of viral infections may be harder to diagnose and various tests may have to be performed.
Viral infections involve a dormant virus getting into a living cell and re-writing the cell's genetic codes with its own. Another difference is that bacteria is a living microorganism and reproduces by dividing itself, while a virus will die if it does not have a host. Because viruses live within the body’s own cells, antiviral medications often have severe side effects. Continue to drink plenty of fluids, and go easy on sweets, as they make the body acidic and pathogens thrive in this environment. Walking 20 minutes a day, without over-exertion, can help keep the body healthy and get back into optimum shape after a viral infection.
Emtriva (emtricitabine) is also active against HBV, but has not yet been approved for this purpose. But most people can achieve viral load suppression, which lowers their risk of developing liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Biochemical response is normalization of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. But interferon can cause difficult side effects, and combining it with Tyzeka can cause peripheral neuropathy.
Sustained response can halt liver disease progression and lowers the risk of developing cirrhosis and liver cancer. Overall, about 25% of people clear HCV spontaneously without treatment, but the proportion is lower among people with HIV. The overall SVR rate for HCV mono-infected people is about 75% for genotypes 2 or 3, but less than 50% for genotype 1. People trying treatment again after previous non-response do not do as well as those being treated for the first time. These side effects may be severe enough that people avoid going on treatment, stop treatment prematurely, or lower their drug doses. Polymerase inhibitors, which interfere with copying viral genetic material, and protease inhibitors, which block construction of new viral particles, are familiar from HIV treatment. For many of these drugs, the IL28B gene pattern does not matter as much as it does for interferon.
Almost all genotype 1b patients -- even null responders -- were cured with a four-drug, oral regimen of ABT-450, ABT-333, ABT-267, and ribavirin taken for only eight weeks, as well as various three-drug combinations taken for 12 weeks.
Interferon-free combinations are now entering late stages of testing and some experts predict that the first such regimens may be available in two to three years. General Disclaimer: The Body is designed for educational purposes only and is not engaged in rendering medical advice or professional services. Unlike many other viral respiratory infections, the flu can cause severe illness and life-threatening complications in many people. Symptoms of gastroenteritis can include nausea with or without vomiting, diarrhea, low-grade fever and abdominal pain.
Genital herpes is known as a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and it is transmitted through sexual contact through the mouth and genitals. Viruses are not living organisms and need a "living" host in order to reproduce-otherwise it cannot survive. Common bacterial infections occur due to the invasion of pathogenic bacteria through the respiratory or digestive tract. Serological response refers to clearance of HBV antigens and development of antibodies (seroconversion). There are two types of HBV, hepatitis B "e" antigen (HBeAg) negative and positive, the latter being harder to treat.
NS5A replication complex inhibitors target an HCV enzyme that works in conjunction with polymerase. However, due to drug-drug interactions, these DAAs should not be combined with certain antiretrovirals. However, HCV subtype has emerged as an important factor, with subtype 1b being easier to treat than 1a. Faldaprevir, BI-207127, and ribavirin for 28 weeks cured 80% of genotype 1b patients, with a cure rate almost as high for those with cirrhosis. Some people will likely continue to need pegylated interferon for the foreseeable future, but adding DAAs will shorten treatment and increase the likelihood of a cure.
The information provided through The Body should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or a disease. Many people call gastroenteritis the "stomach flu", although this virus is not a strain of Influenza at all. Taking care of the immune system after a virus will not only allow for prime health but will help keep new viruses at bay. Conventional interferon and pegylated interferon alfa-2a (Pegasys) are also approved for treating hepatitis B.
In clinical trials, virologic response rates for Baraclude and Viread were 90% and 93%, respectively, for HBeAg-negative people, and 67% and 76% for HBeAg-positive people. The disease is usually mild and lasts 5 to 10 days, although adults and older children tend to get sicker from it. Like chickenpox, this virus will remain in the body forever; however, a person with herpes may continue to deal with reoccurrences or "outbreaks" for life.
Both drugs are generally safe and well tolerated, though tenofovir can sometimes cause bone loss and kidney impairment. Chickenpox in a virus that stays in the body forever and in most cases a person who has had the virus will likely never contract it again.



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