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Treatment options may consist of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or any combination of these treatments.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses anti-cancer drugs to kill or stop the growth of cancer cells. Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy radiation beams to eliminate cancer cells or stop them from growing.Radiation therapy consists of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy or internal radiation therapy. External beam is a treatment option that uses localized high energy radiation beams to eliminate cancer cells and keep them from growing.
Brachytherapy uses a radioactive substance, usually in the form of seeds which are placed directly into or near the cancer which helps to shrink the tumor.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Cancerous tumours have the ability to spread beyond the original site, and if left untreated, it may invade and destroy surrounding tissues. Stromal ovarian cancer develops from connective tissue cells (the cells that fill the ovary). If you have never had children or been pregnant, your risk of developing ovarian cancer may increase.
In many cases, women with cancer of the ovary in the early stage do not display any symptoms. Bleeding from your vagina in-between periods or after menopause (This is not a common sign for ovarian cancer. You may be advised to go for further tests depending on the symptoms that you have and the results of the initial tests. CT or MRI scan of the lower abdomen can provide details of the internal organs structure and help to determine the extent of the disease.
Blood tests to assess your general health and to check if the cancer has affected the function of your liver or kidneys. Note: Even with the above tests, the only way to confirm the diagnosis of ovarian cancer is through surgery.


Surgery is required for diagnosis and to determine the extent of the disease (staging).Ovarian cancer surgery is preferably done by a gynaecological oncologist to achieve a desirable outcome. This is the removal of the uterus with cervix (total hysterectomy), both ovaries and the tubes (bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy), the fat ‘apron’ in the abdomen (omentectomy) and lymph nodes (lymphadenectomy). Occasionally, it is possible to develop blood clots in the veins of the leg, pelvis or in rare cases, in the lungs. During any major operation involving the pelvic organs, there is a small risk of injury to the bladder and bowel. In rare cases, wound breakdown (dehiscence) may occur and re-suturing of the wound maybe required. Despite treatment, there is a risk that cancer may recur and further treatment may be required.
Access our Conditions & Treatments sections for related topics on Ovarian Cystectomy - Removal of Ovarian Cysts. Having a family history means that you have one or more blood relatives with breast or ovarian cancer.
Or they may be second-degree relatives (aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, and grandparents), or third-degree relatives, which includes first cousins. Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape Ovarian Cancer »Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of cancer death from gynecologic tumors in the United States. Sometimes, cells break away from the original (primary) cancer and spread to other organs in the body via the bloodstream or lymphatic system. This type of cancer develops from one of the cells that surround the exterior of each ovary. Most women who get ovarian cancer are 50 years old and above, but younger women can get it too.
If you have had breast cancer, colon cancer, or cancer of the uterus (womb) or rectum, your risk of getting ovarian cancer may increase. These tests are more likely to be needed if you have symptoms such as constipation or urinary frequency which may indicate that the cancer has spread to these areas.


The pathology slides will be reviewed by a panel of gynaecologic cancer experts, including the medical oncologist at the Gynaecological Cancer Centre (GCC)’s weekly Tumour Board Meeting. When these cells reach a new site they may continue to divide and form a new tumour, often referred to as “metastasis”. Therefore, a more extensive operation is needed to remove as much of the cancer as possible.
In rare cases, there may be internal bleeding after the operation, making a second operation necessary. Our physiotherapist will visit you after your operation to advise and assist with your mobility. Recommendations for any further treatment will be made by your doctor and will be discussed with you and your family. To reduce the risk of blood clots, you will also be given injections to thin your blood during your stay in the hospital. You will be referred to a medical oncologist for advice on chemotherapy treatment (Please refer to the Chemotherapy brochure). Ova released by the ovaries travel through the fallopian tubes to the uterus, where they may or may not be fertilized by the male sperm.Cancerous tumors are malignant.
The ovaries can develop benign tumors, as well as malignant tumors or cancers.In the process called metastasis, malignant tumors may encroach on and invade neighboring organs or lymph nodes, or they may enter the bloodstream and spread to remote organs such as the liver or lungs. However, the five-year survival rate drops to 20% when the tumor has spread to the upper abdomen.In the United States, about one in 56 women develops cancer of the ovary.



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