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There are a few types of cancers, which are mainly gender-specific and originate in the organs related only to that specific gender. The cancerous cells not only damage the tissues but also kill other live cells and form a lump of dead cells called tumor.
The cancerous cells develop primarily in the lining of the cervix and later spread gradually. Various medical examinations like the biopsy, computed tomography scan (CT scan), magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI scan) and X-rays are available worldwide to examine your internal body thoroughly. Fertile Hope: Gynecologic CancerFertility sparing surgery may be an option for early-stage cervical cancer. Cervical Cancer cancer treatment and surgery India offers information on Cervical Cancer Cancer Doctor India, Cervical Cancer Cancer treatment and surgery Hospital India, Cervical Cancer Cancer treatment and surgery Abroad, Cervical Cancer Cancer causes, symptoms, Risk factors, treatment and surgery. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers that affect a woman's reproductive organs.
Thanks largely to Pap test screening, the death rate from cervical cancer has decreased greatly over the last 50 years. You may not experience any cervical cancer symptoms — early cervical cancer generally produces no signs or symptoms. In general, cancer begins when healthy cells acquire a genetic mutation that turns normal cells into abnormal cells. Cervical cancer most commonly begins in the thin, flat cells that line the bottom of the cervix (squamous cells). What causes squamous cells or glandular cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer isn't clear. Many sexual partners : The greater your number of sexual partners — and the greater your partner's number of sexual partners — the greater your chance of acquiring HPV. Cigarette smoking The exact mechanism that links cigarette smoking to cervical cancer isn't known, but tobacco use increases the risk of precancerous changes as well as cancer of the cervix.
If you experience any unusual signs and symptoms that worry you, make an appointment with your doctor. When cervical cancer is detected in its earliest stages, treatment is more likely to be successful.
Pap test During a Pap test, your doctor brushes cells from your cervix — the narrow neck of the uterus — and sends the sample to a lab.
HPV DNA test Your doctor also may use a lab test called the HPV DNA test to determine whether you are infected with any of the 13 types of HPV that are most likely to lead to cervical cancer.
The HPV DNA test isn't a substitute for regular Pap screening, and it's not used to screen women younger than 30 with normal Pap results. If you experience signs and symptoms of cervical cancer or if a Pap test has revealed cancerous cells, you may undergo further tests to diagnose your cancer. Examine your cervix : During an exam called colposcopy, your doctor uses a special microscope (colposcope) to examine your cervix for abnormal cells. Take a sample of cervical cells : During a biopsy procedure your doctor removes a sample of unusual cells from your cervix using special tools. Remove a cone-shaped area of cervical cells : A cone biopsy (conization) — so called because it involves taking a cone-shaped sample of the cervix — allows your doctor to obtain deeper layers of cervical cells for laboratory testing. If your doctor determines that you have cervical cancer, you'll undergo further tests to determine whether your cancer has spread and to what extent — a process called staging. Imaging tests : Tests such as X-rays, computerized tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) help your doctor determine whether your cancer has spread beyond your cervix.
Visual examination of your bladder and rectum : Your doctor may use special scopes to see inside your bladder (cytoscopy) and rectum (proctoscopy). Stage 0 : Also called carcinoma in situ or noninvasive cancer, this early cancer is small and confined to the surface of the cervix.
Stage II : Cancer at this stage includes the cervix and uterus, but hasn't spread to the pelvic wall or the lower portion of the vagina.
Stage III : Cancer at this stage has moved beyond the cervix and uterus to the pelvic wall or the lower portion of the vagina. Stage IV : At this stage, cancer has spread to nearby organs, such as the bladder or rectum, or it has spread to other areas of the body, such as the lungs, liver or bones. Treatments for invasive cervical cancer often make it impossible to become pregnant in the future. Treatment of cervical cancer that's confined to the outside layer of the cervix typically requires treatment to remove the abnormal area of cells. Cone biopsy (conization) : During this surgery, the doctor uses a scalpel to remove a cone-shaped piece of cervical tissue where the abnormality is found. Laser surgery : This operation uses a narrow beam of intense light to kill cancerous and precancerous cells. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) : This technique uses a wire loop to pass electrical current, which cuts like a surgeon's knife, and remove cells from the mouth of the cervix. Cryosurgery : This technique involves freezing and killing cancerous and precancerous cells. Hysterectomy : This major surgery involves removal of the cancerous and precancerous areas, the cervix and the uterus.


Cervical cancer that invades deeper than the outside layer of cells on the cervix is referred to as invasive cancer and requires more extensive treatment.
Surgery Surgery to remove the uterus (hysterectomy) is typically used to treat the early stages of cervical cancer.
Hysterectomy can cure early-stage cervical cancers and prevent cancer from coming back, but removing the uterus makes it impossible to become pregnant in the future. The tumors also spread to other parts of the body through the lymph nodes or bloodstream and create another group of tumors in the areas they spread.
Endocervix is located very close to the uterus while the exocervix (also known as ectocervix) is located adjacent to the vagina. HIV infected patients are more prone to the disease as infection damages the tissues and infects the body cells much easier as compared to a non-HIV person.
The infected cells are pre-cancerous initially and take much time to develop into the cancerous ones. Some of the advanced treatment techniques like chemical therapy radiation therapy and surgery are available to get rid of the disease partially or completely. If you are experiencing pains in your bladder or pain during urination, you must consult a physician. Please download the latest version of the Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, or Windows Internet Explorer browser.
Check out our new infographic to get the facts and see the history of a preventable cancer success story! Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cases of cervical cancer. In a small group of women, however, the virus survives for years before it eventually converts some cells on the surface of the cervix into cancer cells.
Still, every year more than 11,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer, and nearly 4,000 die of cervical cancer, according to the American Cancer Society.
However, it's certain that the sexually transmitted infection called human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a role. However, if you have an HPV infection and your immune system is weakened by another health condition, you may be more likely to develop cervical cancer. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that girls have their first visit with an obstetrician-gynecologist between ages 13 and 15 to discuss sexual activity and ways to prevent sexually transmitted infections, such as HPV. Regular screening for cervical cancer and precancerous changes in the cervix is recommended for all women. This is the precancerous stage, when the abnormal cells (dysplasia) exist only in the outer layer of the cervix and haven't invaded deeper tissues. Like the Pap test, the HPV DNA test involves collecting cells from the cervix for lab testing. Most HPV infections in women of this age group clear up on their own and aren't associated with cervical cancer. If your doctor identifies unusual areas, he or she may take a small sample of cells for analysis (biopsy).
During one type of biopsy — punch biopsy — your doctor uses a circular knife to remove a small circular section of the cervix. For many women — especially younger women and those who have yet to begin a family — infertility is a distressing side effect of treatment. In most cases, preserving fertility is more successful than trying to restore fertility after treatment. Hysterectomy is usually done only in certain selected cases of noninvasive cervical cancer. Treatment for cervical cancer depends on several factors, such as the stage of the cancer, other health problems you may have and your own preferences about treatment. Radiation therapy can be given externally using external beam radiation or internally (brachytherapy) by placing devices filled with radioactive material near your cervix.
Radiation therapy can be used alone, with chemotherapy, before surgery to shrink a tumor or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs, which can be used alone or in combination with each other, are usually injected into a vein and they travel throughout your body killing quickly growing cells, including cancer cells. The damage is irreversible and the only option to control them is to eliminate them by various treatments like the chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Glandular and squamous cells are a specific group of cells that cover the endocervix and exocervix respectively. But if the disease is not detected in the early stages or the abnormalities in the vagina and adjacent areas are ignored, these cells may get cancerous and develop tumors.
Having an intercourse or getting pregnant at an early age, consumption of contraceptives in small age, family medical history and hormonal contraception are also some other risk factors in getting prone to the disease. In some cases, the cells may even take years in transforming from pre-cancerous to cancerous stage. The pattern of treatment may vary from person to person depending upon the intensity of the disease and the person's response to the treatment. Cervical cancer can also occur in the glandular cells that line the upper portion of the cervix.


Most guidelines suggest beginning screening within three years of becoming sexually active, or no later than age 21. If untreated, the abnormal cells may convert to cancer cells, which may spread in various stages into the cervix, the upper vagina, the pelvic areas and to other parts of your body. It can detect high-risk strains of HPV in cell DNA before changes to the cells of the cervix can be seen. Other special types of biopsy may be used depending on the location and size of the unusual area of cells. If you're concerned about your ability to get pregnant in the future, discuss this with your doctor.
Simple hysterectomy is typically an option only when the cancer is very early stage — invasion is less than 3 millimeters (mm) into the cervix. Temporary side effects of radical hysterectomy include pelvic pain and difficulty with bowel movements and urination.
Side effects of radiation to the pelvic area include upset stomach, nausea, diarrhea, bladder irritation and narrowing of your vagina, which can make intercourse difficult. Low doses of chemotherapy are often combined with radiation therapy, since chemotherapy may enhance the effects of the radiation. The area where the above two types of cells meet is called as the transformation zone and most of the cervical cancers originate in this area.
Most of the cervical cancer cases are detected very late as the symptoms are hard to detect.
Poor immunity system makes you more prone to the disease as the body's resistance to infections is quite less.
Hence, you have a lot of hopes in getting rid of the disease if you examine your body regularly.
Unusual bleeding after menopause, sexual intercourse or during periods is another important indication of the cancer. Cancer or precancerous conditions that are caught at the pre-invasive stage are rarely life-threatening and typically require only outpatient treatment. A radical hysterectomy — removal of the cervix, uterus, part of the vagina and lymph nodes in the area — is the standard surgical treatment when there's an invasion of greater than 3 mm into the cervix and no evidence of tumor on the walls of the pelvis. Premenopausal women may stop menstruating as a result of radiation therapy and begin menopause.
Higher doses of chemotherapy are used to control advanced cervical cancer that may not be curable. In the presence of these malignant or cancerous cells, these tissues are unable to perform their basic functions of supplying blood and oxygen.
In many cases, the disease shows almost no symptoms until it progresses into an advanced stage. According to a study, the number of deaths related to the cervical cancer is consistently declining in some of the advanced nations like the United States.
Cancer treatments can affect fertility, making it difficult or even impossible to conceive. Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can break off from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body (metastasize). This means other risk factors, such as your genetic makeup, your environment or your lifestyle choices, also determine whether you'll develop cervical cancer.
Side effects of chemotherapy depend on the drugs being administered, but generally include diarrhea, fatigue, nausea and hair loss.
Most of the cases of this disease are related to sexually transmitted infection and a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the major causes. Insufficient supply of blood and oxygen affects the overall functioning of the organs and disturbs the co-ordination between various parts of the body. Adenocarcinoma develops in the endocervix while the squamous cell carcinoma develops in the exocervix.
The main reason is the availability of reliable techniques to diagnose the disease right in its early stages. Endocervical curettage, cystoscopy and intravenous pyelogram are some of the advanced tests you must undergo if any of the above symptoms are detected. Certain chemotherapy drugs may cause infertility and early menopause in premenopausal women. In this test, a thorough examination of the cells at the cervix is done for any abnormal changes in the cell behavior or cell pattern. Doing the Pap test regularly will benefit immensely in detecting and treating the pre-cancerous cells before they turn cancerous.



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