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I chose to present this one on financial flows over the others (on transport, energy, employment), since it has some very distinct features. The company with the catchy name ‘Useful Simple Projects‘ is “a design led consultancy [that works] with organisations and on major urban development projects to develop sustainability strategies, and identify opportunities for innovation”.
Here is a Sankey diagram they did for an energy strategey study for University College London’s Bloomsbury Campus. The numbers in grey show the carbon emissions in tons of CO2 linked to the energy consumption (most likely using characterization factors for electric energy production in the UK and for provision of natural gas). This one is from the report ‘Low Carbon Scotland: Meeting our Emissions Reduction Targets 2013-2027 – The Draft Second Report on Proposals and Policies’ available on the Scottish Government website. The Sankey diagram visualizes “By Source and End User GHG emissions transfers for Scotland in 2010 (Mt CO2e)”. For those wondering (like I did!), ‘LULUCF’ is for ‘Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry’. While monochrome can be soothing for the eyes at times, this one definitely hurts my aesthetic sense: Too many shades of grey, arrows overlapping, pasted together from rectange it seems. While some of you might think of their favourite lunch time snack, in the UK the term WRAP refers tp the ‘Waste & Resources Action Programme’, an independent not-for-profit company. In that year, apparently, 212 Mt of material were disposed of as waste (orange arrow), while only 47 Mt were recycled. Friends of Earth have published this Sankey diagram produced by ‘Information is Beautiful’ on their webpage on July 6. The diagram is based on data from Department of Energy and Climate Change, DUKES 2011 and Energy Saving Trust 2012. One interesting thing about this energy flow Sankey is that it distinguishes between “Thermal” (yellow) and “Renewable” (green) sources of electricity.
Featured on Jo Abbess’ blog on ‘Energy Change for Climate Control’ recently was this Sankey diagram. A reader of the blog alerted me about a new report that contains Sankey diagrams for the United Kingdom’s 2007 and 2050 energy flows.
One must read all the assumptions made for the model to be able to interpret it, but you can see immediately that the “energy system in 2050 is signifcantly altered under the common assumptions presented in all-electricity scenarios. A great Sankey diagram by the research group made up from researchers from ICEPT (Imperial Centre for Energy Policy and Technology) and Centre for Environmental Strategy at the University of Surrey. And the latest figures - published by the respected Energy Information Administration - show CO2 emissions from energy consumption - the vast majority of Carbon Dioxide produced. A reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions is not only the goal of environmentalists but also of pretty much every government in the world. The map, above (you can get it as a PDF file here) is produced by Guardian graphic artists Mark McCormick and Paul Scruton. But that is only one way to look at the data - and it doesn't take account of how many people live in each country. But what can we say about this data and how close we are to the collective targets in the Kyoto agreement? But only looking at carbon dioxide emissions doesn't give us the total for all greenhouse gases.
So we'll have to wait until the UNFCCC publishes the results of global greenhouse gasses collated data before we can draw any firm conclusions about meeting the Kyoto agreements. To see our content at its best we recommend upgrading if you wish to continue using IE or using another browser such as Firefox, Safari or Google Chrome. China announced on Friday it will phase out incandescent light bulbs within five years in an attempt to make the world's most polluting nation more energy efficient. The planning agency said China will save 48 billion kilowatt hours of power per year and reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by 48 million tons annually once the bulbs are phased out.Several countries plan to phase out traditional light bulbs. Due to the scarcity of fossil fuels, such as lowering reserves and disruption caused by conflict, and growing concern over climate change, renewable energy is increasing. I have chosen to study this area as I have recently been researching photovoltaic cells for a job interview, and also have keen interest in polar exploration, and the effect climate change is having on the environment. Recently, alternative methods of producing PV cells have been discovered, which may reduce the environmental impact of PV cell production, along with the cost. Once produced and installed, the running costs of the photovoltaic cells are negligable (Alsema, Frankl, Kato, 1998, p. As yet there is little data regarding recycling or re-use of decomissioned systems, so for the purposes of this article it will be assumed that the equipment is scrapped after reaching the end of its usable life. The average uk household produces 6 tonnes of C02 each year, domestic energy makig up 27% of the total UK energy consumption.
Reseach into the environmental cost of producing photovoltaic cells, particularly with regards to green house gas emissions is often reffered to as the "payback" or "energy Pay-back time (EBPT) of the cells.
Figure 2: Energy Pay Back time comparison for Photovoltaic Cells (Alsema, Frankl, Kato, 1998, p. Alsema (1998, p.6) also predicted that with advances in technology, these values would reduce by 1-2 years by 2010, and further by 2020.
Whilst the life cycle of photovoltaic cells is 25 -30 years, the lifetime of the batteries, charge controller and inverters are nearer to 10 years (Lewis, 2009, p. By minimising the information content of the deisgn, installation could be made easier, and such would reduce costs, enabling more customers to use PV cells, which would, in turn, encourage economies of scale, thereby further reducing the cost. Based on the research above, it seems that although a significant amount of energy is required for the manufacturing process, the production processes do not yet justify the guilt free reputation of solar energy. There are many initiatives currently taking place in cities across the UK that are helping to spread the tide of sustainability and make our cities more energy efficient.

According to the Energy Saving Trust, almost half of the UK’s carbon dioxide emissions, the predominant greenhouse gas that is the cause of climate change, comes from the things we do everyday. From the point of view of our built environment in the UK, energy efficiency is now the order of the day.
Furthermore, the Energy Company Obligation (ECO) has been put in place, with money funded by large energy companies as part of a mandatory government obligation, to further help those who are in financial difficulty and in the most deprived areas of the UK, to make energy efficient improvements (insulation, boiler upgrades etc.) to their homes. An Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) is now obligatory for any property that is to be put up for market, whether commercial or domestic. In the commercial sector, increasingly stringent legislation from Europe regarding new builds is helping to ensure that future properties are built to higher, energy efficient standards and this will help safeguard the future of our built environment, in relation to continued, sustainable urban growth. The city of London is currently undergoing many sustainable and energy efficient initiatives. The Velodrome has achieved a 31% reduction in carbon emissions over 2006 building regulations. Foundations for the Aquatics Centre, Handball Arena and the Olympic Stadium have used concrete with more than 30% of recycled materials.
At least 20% of the precast concrete units for the Olympic Stadium and Aquatics Centre seating terraces, temporary bridge decks and Handball Arena come from recycled aggregate. This is a great example of how London has openly embraced sustainability before and after the games and is a testament to the success of the event on many levels. The Greater London Authority (GLA) is also committed to improving London’s energy efficiency as a whole.
There are a number of ways that the GLA feel energy efficiency in the nation’s capital has and is being improved.
Making sure all new developments help reduce carbon emissions. A 2009 study by Southbank University concluded that the London Plan has already delivered significant carbon emission reductions in new developments.
Working in partnership with London’s businesses to address their energy efficiency challenges. Waste reduction in London is another area that is currently on the sustainable agenda and there are many initiatives in place to tackle this very real issue. Let’s hope that Boris can help turn this into a reality and along with all the other energy efficient technologies and improvements underway in London at the moment, as well as those planned for the future, our nation’s capital will act as a shining example for the rest of the UK to follow. Climate change is a problem that will not just go away and it is up to our government and big business to lead the way in making the relevant changes and policy decisions, so that the populous will follow suit and see the importance of this increasingly more urgent global issue. Energy Performance Certification (EPC) can seem to be yet another cost for Landlords and Home Sellers. From 1 October 2008 all homes being let will be required to have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC). Due to the streamlined, efficient procedures Landlord-EPC have in place for producing Energy Performance Certificates (EPC); we can keep costs to a minimum and pass them on to you our client.
By having an EPC produced now you could shorten the period from your tenant leaving to the rental property being placed back on the market. You can choose from various formats; for delivery and display of the energy Performance Certificates which will suit your marketing particulars and needs. Landlord-EPC is based within the North-East of England and cover Tyne & Wear, Newcastle, Sunderland, Durham and Northumberland. The model is used to visualize certain data characterizing an economy, such as value streams, jobs or energy. UCL has a low carbon strategy for the next years and this study helps them to review their goals. Absolute figures are given for the different sources at the top in the diagram, and for the amount of energy “left after production” (328.3 TWh).
There is also another Sankey diagram in the original PDF that shows the consumption of energy in private homes. 2050 scenarios and heat delivery in the UK) and was prepared by University of Surrey and Imperial College for the Combined Heat and Power Association (CHPA).
In particular, final energy consumption in 2050 will be reduced by 46% against 2007 figures under the assumptions used in the CCC 80% CO2 reduction scenario”. It shows a world where established economies have large - but declining - carbon emissions.
You can't tell this from the notes on the data, but the EIA confirmed to us this was the case. 1, 2012, the country's main planning agency said.It will extend the ban to 60-watt and higher bulbs on Oct. The United States is to ban the making and sale of incandescent light bulbs beginning in 2012. Over recent decades, solar cells have improved greatly in terms of cost and efficiency, and is quickly approaching a viable alternative to fossil fuels. In the past conducted surveys for the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and the Kew Gardens Millenium seed bank project, measuring the effect of climate change. Silicon is not natuarlly occuring in it's pure state and so must be extracted from silicion dioxide quartz, by heating the quartz in an electric arc furnace and applying a carbon arc to the substance, this process releases the oxygen as it combines with the carbon to create CO2, and leaves a molten silicon with a 1% impurity. These methods include, thin film cells, which are cheaper and continuously manufactured, and non-silicon based modules, which are not affected by silicon supply shortages (Lewis, 2009, p. EBPT is a measure of the time taken for a PV cell to produce an equivalent amount of energy to the amount expended to produce the system. Subsequent research has shown Alsema's study, while not taking into account some factors, has proved an accurate, if cautious estimate. Over the lifetime of the PV cell, solar energy produces less CO2 than traditional fossil fuels, and as such solar power is a more environmentally friendly option.

All this is with a view to reaching our 2050 climate targets of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gasses (Climate Change Act 2008), throughout the UK. This includes transportation, how we use the energy in our homes and businesses, how we dispose of waste and many more day to day processes we take for granted. The Green Deal is now well underway and is helping domestic property owners make their homes more energy efficient with the help of government funded loans for those that qualify. An EPC Certificate provides invaluable information on the energy efficiency of a property and the amount of carbon dioxide emissions that a property is creating. For example, The London Waste and Recycling Board has a fund of ?73m to promote and encourage activities, resulting in less waste being produced and increase the development of infrastructure in waste management, that will help convert London’s waste into both new products and renewable energy.
London is moving forwards at an increasing rate, as are many other cities in the UK and hopefully with continued collaboration, we can all benefit from the new tide of energy efficient progress. Landlord-EPC believe we have a market leading pricing structure, with highly competitive fees. We will work with you quickly, smoothly and efficiently to certificate your home, rental property or housing stock with the required Energy Performance Certificate (EPC).
If you have an exisiting tenant and there are no plans for them to vacate the property; there is no legal obligation to have an Energy Performance Certificate commisioned.
Throughout your housing stock being assessed and certificated you will be looked after by an account manager who will be directly responsible for your Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) instructions. Make sure to read the description below figure 8 on page 16 of the report if you want to learn more.
No actual numbers given for each flow, but the different types of monetary flows in relation to each other and their rough dimensions permit to interpret the diagram. The UCL campus has a cogeneration plant, so heat (green arrow) can be produced and distributed by district heating grid.
So mainly it is the (non-)efficiency of the production expressed as relative percentage figures that is shown. It was originally published in Annex H of the 2009 Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics (DUKES) published by Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC). Note that the overall primary energy demand is significantly lower, but power generation almost doubles compared to the current situation. One fo the aims is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 55% of the 1990 levels by 2012 collectively forcountries starred on this list. Solar Grid Parity (SGP) is the point at which, if current trends continue, the lifetime cost of photovoltaic cells becomes equivilent to the cost of mains electricity (Lewis, 2009, p. The impurities are dragged to one end of the material using the floating zone technique and the impure section is then removed, leaving purified silicon which is then used as the basis for the PV cell ("How Solar Cell is Made", n.d. Solar Radiation from the sun occurs at 1000 Watts per day, in optimum conditions ("How Solar Cells Work" n.d. Figure 2 shows Alsema's findings, published in the year 1998, and gives estimates for 2007. Colin Bankier and Steve Gale (2006) compared studies and drew the conclusion that EPBT can be shown to be between 2 and 8 years, dependant on climate conditions. If the design principle of maintaining independance of functional requirements could be applied, the components could be replaced or upgraded without the need for replacing the entire system, hence increasing the efficiency the energy needed to manufacture the system, this would reduce EBPT time and cost of production.
With new technologies, the effieciency and lifespan of PV cells seems set to improve meaning solar energy will be an increasingly viable option. The information from these certificates has helped to create a huge database, giving an overview of how energy efficient our nation’s building stock actually is. Contact Landlord EPC to discuss your Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) needs and a quick, easy individual quote.
Throughout your housing stock being certificated you will be looked after by an account manager who will be directly responsible for your Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) instructions. Interestingly, since this is meant to depict monetary flows, the direction of the arrows is inverted: goods-receiving countries have liabilities, so the flow is from right to-left (upstream). This, combined with the dwindling supplies of fossil fuels, will increase the appeal of renewable energy. Often billed as 'clean energy', refering to the lack of fossil fuel burning required to produce the energy, alternative energy sources are regarded as an eco-friendly solution, however, often the environmental cost of producing the means of generating the energy is not considered.
As solar power increases in popularity, manufacturers will be able to harness economies of scale, thus bringing production costs down further.
Lighting is estimated to account for about 12 per cent of China's total electricity use, it said. This article analyses the environmental impact of materials and processes used in the construction of photovoltaic cells, also known as solar panels, and compares the energy savings of the renewable energy produced to the energy consumed in the manufacture of the cells. Photovoltaic cells can make use of silicon that does not meet the requirements of the semi conductor industries, so some of the CO2 emissions can be offset as they would have been produced in the initial processing (Alsema, Frankl, Kato, 1998, p. In the UK is typically 1,100 W per year, studies have shown that electricity costs tend to be higher in cloudy areas, such as Denmark, Germany and Belgium (Lewis, 2009, p.
We may also see a rise in the number of solar power plants in areas which receive reliable sunlight, such as north Africa. Xie said the potential for energy savings and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is huge. 52) this may be due to a higher dependancy on artificial light and heat, when compared with sunnier, warmer climes, as found in the mediteranian,with the exception of remote areas with a sunny climate, such as Hawaii, where transportation costs mean that the price of electricity is high, making solar energy a more attractive prospect.

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