Urinary bladder cancer treatment in india,can i catch herpes with a condom on,recurrent herpes swollen lymph nodes,how do you get herpes if not sexually active female - PDF 2016

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In majority of the individuals, the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer is made at an early stage, thus making the chances of treating the cancer high. Treatment for urinary bladder cancer depends on the stage of the cancer and patient's general health and it includes: Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The type of the urinary bladder cancer depends on the bladder cell type where the cancer has originated. Squamous Cell Carcinoma: In this type, the cells of the bladder, due to recurrent irritation and infection turn cancerous. Transitional Cell Carcinoma: This type develops in the cells which are lining the internal side of the bladder. Adenocarcinoma: This type of urinary bladder cancer develops in the cells of the glands which secrete mucus in the bladder. White individuals are at a higher risk for developing bladder cancer when compared to other races. Certain chemical exposure, such as to arsenic, and other chemicals which are used in manufacturing of rubber, dyes, textiles, paint products and leather increases the risk of having bladder cancer.
Taking certain medications for diabetes, such as pioglitazone (Actos), for long duration increases the risk of bladder cancer. Treatment for previous cancer, such as with cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), which is an anti-cancer drug; or radiation therapy to the pelvis for treatment of other cancers, increases the risk of having bladder cancer. Recurrent or chronic urinary infections or cystitis increases the risk of developing squamous cell bladder cancer. A certain parasitic infection (schistosomiasis) increases the risk of bladder cancer in certain parts of the world. Having a family history of Lynch syndrome, which is also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), increases the risk of bladder cancer along with the cancer of colon, ovaries and uterus.
Having a family history or a previous history of urinary bladder cancer increases the chances of you having one. Hematuria, which is blood in urine, makes the urine appear bright red, dark yellow or cola colored. Cystoscopy helps in viewing the inside of the bladder and urethra by inserting a cystoscope which is a narrow tube through the urethra. Biopsy can be taken during cystoscopy and the collected tissue sample is sent for testing for cancer cells. Urine cytology where a urine sample is taken and microscopically analyzed for the presence of cancer cells. Intravenous pyelogram uses dye for highlighting the urinary system (ureters, bladder, and kidneys). CT (Computerized Tomography) scan helps in better assessment of the urinary system and its adjacent tissues. Stage I: In this stage, the cancer is confined to the inner lining of the bladder and has not spread to the wall of the bladder. Stage II: In this stage, the cancer is still restricted to the bladder, but has infiltrated the bladder wall.
Stage III: In this stage, the cancer has metastasized through the wall to the adjacent tissues. Stage IV: In this stage, the cancer has metastasized to the lymph nodes and organs like liver, lungs or bones. Treatment for urinary bladder cancer depends on the stage and the type of the cancer, patient's general health and patient's treatment choices. There are many surgical procedures available and the choice of the procedure depends on the cancer stage, patient's general health and treatment preferences.
Transurethral Resection (TUR) is a surgical procedure which is commonly done to remove cancer which is restricted to the inner layers of the urinary bladder. Segmental Cystectomy Or Partial Cystectomy comprises of removing the tumor along with a small part of the bladder containing cancerous cells. Radical cystectomy is where the entire urinary bladder along with the surrounding lymph nodes is removed.
Immunotherapy, also known as Biological Therapy, is a treatment where the body's immune system is enhanced or used to fight against cancer cells.
Radiation therapy involves the use of high-energy beams, such as x-rays, which are directed at the area of the body where the cancer is present, to kill cancer cells. Of these crystals, the three most common crystals to contribute to an obstruction include strutive, oxalate, and urate.
The Bladder Cancer is a sort of a cancerous condition which starts taking place in the bladder.
Breast CancerAccording to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), it is estimated that approximately 192,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the United States.
Ovarian CancerOvarian cancer treatment is the second most common form of gynecological cancer with an estimated 21,800 new cases expected to be diagnosed in 2010. It is estimated that there is 11,000 new cases of cervical cancer diagnosed in women the year of 2010.
The vulva consists of the opening of the vagina, the clitoris and the outer and inner lips.
There are approximately 43,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer are anticipated to be diagnosed this year.
A whipple procedure is used if the cancer is located on the widest part of the pancreas, also called the head. A distal pancreatectomy is performed when the tumor is located on the body and tail portions of the pancreas. 3) The final type of surgery that can be performed to treat pancreatic cancer is a total pancreatectomy, where the entire pancreas is removed as well as part of the stomach and small intestine, the spleen, the gallbladder and surrounding lymph nodes.
Colorectal cancer is the cancer of the large intestine, divided into two sections: the colon, is the first four to five feet of the large intestine, and the rectum, consists of the last several inches.
Options for small intestine cancer treatment are important as approximately 6,900 new cases of small intestine cancer will be diagnosed this year, making it a relatively rare form of cancer. The large intestine is divided into two sections: The rectum, which consists of the last several inches of the large intestine, and the colon, which is the first four to five feet.
A small pear-shaped organ that is responsible for storing bile, a fluid made in the liver that helps the body digest the fat from food that moves through the small intestine during the digestive process. It is estimated that around 22,000 new cases of brain or spinal cord cancer will be diagnosed this year. Approximately 36,500 new cases of oral cavity and oropharynx cancers are expected to be diagnosed this year in the United States, with more of these cancers diagnosed in men than women. Lymphoma is a broad category of lymphatic cancers with two major subtypes: Hodgkin's lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Esophageal cancer is estimated that there will be approximately 16,000 new cases of esophageal cancer, a cancer that affects the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach, diagnosed this year. Cancer of the nasopharynx, the area of the head where air inhaled from the nose travels to the throat and lungs, is referred to as nasopharyngeal cancer. These types of cancers include those of the oral cavity (lips, tongue, gums, inside lining of the mouth), the salivary glands (the area of the mouth that produces saliva that aids in swallowing), nasal cavity (including the sinuses), pharynx (a small tube that starts behind the nose and leads to the esophagus and trachea) and the larynx (referred to as the voice box). This type of urinary bladder cancer is more common in those parts of the world where schistosomiasis, which is a parasitic infection, is widespread.
Transitional cell carcinoma is one of the frequently occurring types of urinary bladder cancer in America.
Experts believe that DNA mutations in the cells cause uncontrollable and rapid dividing of the cells leading to build up of abnormal cells which result in cancer or tumor. Passing a special instrument via the cystoscope into the bladder to collect tissue sample or biopsy is known as transurethral resection (TUR). In this procedure, the surgeon passes a small sized wire via the cystoscope into the bladder. Segmental cystectomy is done when the cancer is confined to a part of the urinary bladder and can be easily removed without damaging the bladder function.
This also includes removing the seminal vesicles and prostate in men; and ovaries, uterus and a portion of the vagina in females.
Drugs used in chemotherapy for treating urinary bladder cancer may be two or more drugs used in combination. Like chemotherapy, radiation therapy can also be done after the surgery to destroy or kill any remaining cancer cells. There are a variety of different conditions described by the term FLUTD- but each is united by its localization to the urinary tract.The urinary tract, or renal system, refers to the organs that eliminate waste from the body and regulate the pressure, volume, composition, pH, and electrolyte and metabolite concentrations of the blood. Most cases of FIC involve issues with the bladder; however, recent research on the topic hints that complex irregularities in the nervous and endocrine systems are also currently included in the scope of FIC.
These minerals can mix to form urethral plugs and urinary stones of varying size and consistency.
Rhabdomyosarcoma are malignant tumors that form in the kidneys, bladder, or urethra of your cat. Depending on where the cancer is located and it’s size it is doctors may decide to perform one of two types of surgeries on the breast. It can be given externally, or internally, where the radiation is placed in a small tube and inserted into the breast through a tiny incision. If it is positive,  the cancer cell relies on the hormones estrogen and progesterone to grow. Chemotherapy is not selective to killing just the cancer cells, but also depletes other fast-growing cells in the body, which causes several debilitating side effects including liver, renal, and hematological toxicity.
In 2010 alone, an estimated 220,000 new cases of lung cancer will be diagnosed and 157,000 men and women will die from the disease. 2) A segmentectomy or wedge resection is a surgery where the tumor along with a small amount of the lung that surrounded the tumor is removed. Monoclonal antibodies are specially designed to bind to specific proteins that are found on the surface of colon cancer cells in order to destroy them. During the surgery, nearby lymph nodes also will be removed and tested to determine whether or not the ovarian cancer has spread to other parts of the body. However, at times radiation therapy is used to relieve pain associated with ovarian cancer but side effects are severe such as diarrheas, bowel adhesions, anemia and bowel perforation.
Radiation therapy also can be used following surgery to destroy any cancer cells left remaining in the surrounding area. In the uterus of a woman, there are two layers of tissue: the endometrium, is the inner lining the myometrium, is the outer layer of muscle. A radical hysterectomy, which includes the removal of the uterus, cervix, tissues surrounding the cervix and the upper part of the vagina and lymph nodes, also may be performed if the endometrial cancer has spread to the cervix. It also may be recommended as a first-line treatment for women who can not undergo surgery for one reason or another. The most commonly used therapies include carboplatin, cisplatin, doxorubicin and paclitaxel. The main types of hormone treatments used are called progestins, which use the female hormone progestin to slow the growth of the cancerous cells.


Typically, most cancers of the vulva are found on the outer lips and are rarely found in the other areas of the vulva.
Sometimes radiation therapy is given along with chemotherapy before surgery to try to reduce the size of tumors diagnosed at a more advanced stage. However, when it is used, it typically is given in combination with radiation therapy to try to shrink the size of the tumor before surgery.
This is used mainly to treat early-stage vaginal cancer and is not typically a treatment for more advanced cancers. If the vaginal cancer is located at the top part of the vagina, the cervix also may be removed, this is called a trachelectomy.
A gland found near the stomach secretes insulin and other hormones, the pancreas helps the body use and store energy that is created from food. During this procedure, the surgeon removes this portion of the pancreas as well as part of the small intestine and stomach. The colon is responsible for removing water and nutrients from digested food and turning it into stool, which is then passed to the rectum and eventually leaves the body through the anus. Additionally, radiation can be used to help to alleviate pain and other symptoms associated with colorectal cancer. Agents such as 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, irinotecan, leucovorin and oxaliplatin are five most commonly used agents to treat colorectal cancer, and can be used alone or in combination with one another. Avastin, Erbitux and Vectibix are three monoclonal antibodies that can be used in combination with chemotherapy or after chemotherapy has stopped working for colorectal cancer treatment. It is estimated that every year approximately 38,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed in men and 15,000 in women, making bladder cancer the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth most common in women. 1) transurethral resection (TUR), is used to treat early-stage or superficial bladder cancer. For superficial bladder cancer, the chemotherapy may be inserted directly into the bladder through a catheter. This type of therapy is usually given after TUR surgery for superficial bladder cancer in order to try to prevent the cancer from coming back. The small intestine, located between the stomach and large intestine, is of the body’s digestive process responsible for breaking down food to absorb necessary nutrients.
If only a section of the small intestine that contains the tumor is removed, the surgeon joins the ends back together. It can be given before surgery to shrink the tumor or after surgery to try to kill any remaining cancer cells.
The liver, which is the largest organ in the abdomen, is a very extremely important organ because it aids in the digestion of food and removes harmful substances from the blood. A substance is injected into an artery that is then carried to the tumor to block the blood flow necessary for the tumor to grow. It also is used to help alleviate pain when the liver cancer has spread to the surrounding bones. Because chemotherapy is not selective in only killing cancer cells, severe and debilitating side effects can occur in some people. Given as a pill, Nexavar is the first targeted therapy approved for the treatment of liver cancer. The colon is responsible for removing water and nutrients from digested food and turning it into stool. 2) a local excision, which is a procedure that removes the tumor and surrounding areas if the rectal cancer is only on the inside surface of the rectum and has not yet spread to the rectum wall. Monoclonal antibodies are designed to bind to specific proteins that are found on the surface of rectal cancer cells in order to kill and destroy them.
Since the liver also can release bile, the gallbladder is not an essential organ and many people have it removed due to the development of gallstones. First, it may be used after surgery to try to kill any gallbladder cancer cells left behind. A chemotherapy drug called 5-fluorouracil is often given at the same time as radiation to try to make both gallbladder cancer treatment options more effective.
This drug, given intravenously, works by preventing the growth of blood vessels needed for a tumor to grow. The three most common type of cancer diagnosed in children includes brain, central nervous system and leukemia. It can be given externally, meaning the radiation stems from a large machine, or internally, where the radiation is placed directly into the body in the area of the tumor. Since chemotherapy is not selective in killing just the cancer cells, it can cause several debilitating side effects including hair loss and nausea. It also can be used prior to surgery to try to shrink the tumor or used after to try to kill any remaining cancer cells in the surrounding area. It belongs to a class of drugs known as targeted therapies because it is designed to bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cells that are found on the surface of oral cancer cells.
If the cancer is located in the upper part of the stomach a total gastrectomy is usually performed.
Radiation therapy is also often given in combination with chemotherapy to help prevent the recurrence of stomach cancer. Studies are also ongoing to determine if giving chemotherapy prior to surgery, in order to shrink the tumor, also can help prevent the stomach cancer from recurring. Nowadays surgical procedures have made it possible for many patients to avoid amputation if the cancer is removed from the leg or arm. It is often used to treat chondrosarcomas since chemotherapy cannot be used to treat these types of bone cancers.
This type of cancer typically starts in the inner lining of the esophagus and grows outward toward the muscle layer.
Typically, lymph nodes surrounding the esophagus and part of the stomach also are removed. It may be used before or after surgery, as well as in combination with chemotherapy following surgery. It usually is only appropriate for a small number of people affected by naropharynx cancer. Approximately 39,000 new cases of head and neck cancer will be diagnosed in the United States this year and are more common in men and women over the age of 50. Depending on the size of the tumor, part of the tongue, jaw, pharynx and palate also may be removed, which may affect the ability to talk, swallow or chew. It also can be used prior to surgery to try to shrink the tumor or used after to try to kill any remaining cancer cells in the surrounding area.
It belongs to a class of drugs known as targeted therapies because it is designed to bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cells that are found on the surface of cancer cells. So, patient should do follow-up tests for many years after they are declared cancer free to catch any recurrence of urinary bladder cancer.
This test can also be done for treating urinary bladder cancer and is commonly done using general anesthesia. Women will suffer from premature menopause and infertility due to removal of uterus and ovaries. Chemotherapy drugs can be administered intravenously or directly into the bladder, which is known as intravesical therapy.
Some cases of FIC have been linked to the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and immune systems as well (Westropp & Buffington, 2004). Some materials are softer and easier to break apart or pass, while others will be too solid to pass and require surgery to remove. The first, a lumpectomy or partial mastectomy will only remove the area of the breast that is affected by the cancer. Some women who are diagnosed with stage-I ovarian cancer and still want to preserve child bearing function after may opt to have only one ovary or fallopian tube removed in hopes of still being able to become pregnant. Cervical cancer can be easily detected through regular Pap smears that women typically are given during an annual gynecological exam. Endometrial cancer is a cancer that starts in the endometrium, or inner lining of the uterus. The breast cancer drug, tamoxifen, also is used to stop the role that estrogen plays in encouraging the growth of cancer cells. For more advanced vaginal cancers that have spread to both the uterus and cervix, a hysterectomy is typically performed.
Cancer that starts in either the colon or rectum can be referred to as colorectal cancer or as colon or rectal cancer separately. The bladder is a hollow organ that stores urine, the liquid waste that is produced by the kidneys. In this procedure, the surgeon uses a special tool that is placed through the urethra to burn away the bladder cancer with an electrical current. For more aggressive types, chemotherapy typically is given intravenously (through a vein).
The name of the small intestine is a bit deceiving -- it actually is the largest part of the digestive system, reaching 15 to 20 feet in length. If the cancer has spread to other nearby organs, portions of these organs also may be removed.
Alcohol-related cirrhosis and liver disease associated with obesity and diabetes are the main causes of liver cancer.
It is used in people who are unable to undergo surgery or a liver transplant and works by stopping the cancer cells from dividing and blocking the growth of blood vessels needed for the tumor to grow.
Cancer that starts in either the colon or rectum can be referred to as colorectal cancer, or they also can be referred to as colon or rectal cancer separately, depending on where the cancer originates. 3) a resection, which is a surgery that takes occurs when the cancer has spread to the rectum wall. Additionally, radiation can be used to help to alleviate pain and other symptoms associated with rectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
Avastin, Erbitux and Vectibix are three monoclonal antibodies that can be used in combination with chemotherapy or after chemotherapy has stopped working to treat rectal cancer.
It is estimated that about 9,700 new cases of gallbladder cancer will be detected this year. Secondly, it may be given instead of surgery in patients who cannot tolerate surgery to remove the cancer.
Other chemotherapy agents such as capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, gemcitabine or mitomycin also are commonly used to treat gallbladder cancer.
In fact, leukemias make up about one-third of all childhood cancers, with the most common subtype affecting children being acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
In this procedure, the entire stomach is removed and then the esophagus is connected directly to the small intestine.
However, reconstructive surgery following the cancer removal may be necessary inn order to have full function of the particular limb affected. Once the esophagus is removed, a surgeon may reattach the top portion directly to the stomach or replace the area that was removed with a portion of the small or large intestine in helping eating and digesting as normal as possible.


Several types of cancer, including carcinomas, lymphomas, adenocarcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas can form in the nasopharynx. In these cases, reconstructive surgery may be necessary to help rebuild the areas that were removed. Chemotherapy is also done before surgery to shrink the tumor or after the surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
The shift can between a partial and a complete obstruction can happen suddenly and is vital to recognize for all cat owners, due to the dangers posed by a complete obstruction.In cases of total obstruction, the material blocking the urethra makes it impossible for the kidneys to filter toxins from the blood. Srutive stones can generally be dissolved before they cause a serious obstruction- while oxalate and urate stones tend to require more advanced procedures.Two procedures used to remove urinary stones in cats are a cystotomy, a surgery that entails opening the bladder to allow for the direct removal of the obstruction, and urohydropropulsion, in which a catheter is used to flush out the bladder with a saline solution. X-rays, ultrasound, and urinalysis may help to detect tumors in pets exhibiting these symptoms. The most common form is called non-small cell lung cancer, which accounts for about 85 percent of all cases. Most cases of cervical cancer result from the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is transmitted through sexual intercourse.
It is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system, an estimated 43,000 new cases each year.
The vagina is the area from the lower part of the cervix that extends to the vulva, which are the external female genitals. It is estimated that there will be 141,000 new cases of colorectal cancer (102,000 colon and 39,000 rectal) diagnosed this year.
2) a radical cystectomy, occurs when the surgeon removes the entire bladder, the surrounding lymph nodes, a portion of the urethra and any nearby organs that may also contain cancer cells. The most common type of cancer is adenocarcinoma, which is a cancer that releases fluids such as mucus.
Liver cancer treatment depends largely on the size of the tumor, how well the liver still works if it is affected by cirrhosis and whether or not the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
4) a pelvic extenteration, which occurs when the rectal cancer has spread to other nearby organs that also need to be removed. Unfortunately, most gallbladder cancers are not discovered until they have become more advanced and spread beyond the gallbladder itself.
If the cancer that was removed is in the early-stage of development, no further surgery may be necessary. A partial or subtotal gastroectomy is performed when the tumor is located in the lower part of the stomach.
2) Chrondrosarcoma, which forms in cartilage pads that align with joints at either end of bone, and usually are found in the shoulder, upper leg and pelvis.
Older adults are commonly affected by this disease; however, bladder cancer can occur in individuals from any age group. In this case, it is essential to seek emergency medical treatment for your cat as soon as possible- as the resulting imbalances can cause death within two days. For a definitive diagnosis, a histopathology- or microscopic examination of stained tissue- should be performed. During each of these two types, the surgeon will likely remove some lymph nodes under the arms in order to check to see if the cancer has spread from the breast. The remaining cases are classified as small cell lung cancer, which tend to grow more quickly.
Now, cervical cancer can be prevented through the use of two new vaccines approved to prevent HPV infections that cause cervical cancer. Endometrial cancer is considered an older woman’s cancer because it rarely is seen in women under the age of 40, the mean age of uterine cancer is 62 years old.
Additionally, a cancer that affects both the cervix and the vagina is considered cervical cancer, while a cancer that involves both the vulva and the vagina is considered vulvar cancer. For women, these nearby organs include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and part of the vagina.
Other types include sarcomas, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and lymphomas. In this surgery, the lower part of the stomach is removed and the remaining part is reattached to the small intestine. Generally, when a full obstruction occurs, cats will exhibit more signs of pain that reveal the severity of their condition through audible cries.The method of treating urinary obstruction varies depending on the type of material blocking the urethra. Because each type of stone has a different mineral composition, the prevention methods for each type of stone is different. In this procedure, the gallbladder, portion of the liver, surrounding lymph nodes, the common bile duct and the pancreas may also be removed.
In many cases, the obstruction is composed of minerals that have formed hard stones or soft plugs in your cat’s urinary tract.
For instance, struvite stones can typically be dissolved in cases where they are not currently obstructing the urethra. Each of these possible factors has the potential to alter the genetic regulation of cells; these genetic alterations prevent the genes from regulating cell death, causing the unnatural growth of tissue. They can be papillary and non papillary.Bladder Cancer can be caused when you smoke too much cigarettes.
These obstructions can be caused by many different minerals accumulating; depending on their composition, they can be treated in a variety of different ways.
Special formulas can also make the urine more acidic in the hopes of dissolving struvic stones.Once the stone is obstructing the kidney, however, it must be removed.
To prevent each stone from forming, controlling the pH of your pet’s urine can become a routine task. One type of cancer, nephroblastoma, develops as a result of abnormal kidney tissue growth while in the womb. This cancer at times can also take place when you go through radiation treatment and even when you are been attacked by a sort of bladder infection.
Renal nephroblastoma in cats is uncommon but highly malignant, often spreading to the lungs and liver. Both FIV and FeLV are retroviruses, meaning that the way that they replicate is more likely to cause mutations, which makes them difficult to treat.
Unlike struvic stones, the best way to dissolve urate stones is to increase the pH of your cat’s urine to make it more basic, resulting in a pH greater than 7. Even in the veterinary field today, it’s not uncommon for antibiotics to be abused when the urinary tract is irritated.
Pandora syndrome: Rethinking our approach to idiopathic cystitis in cats (2011, October 1). And although keeping your cat’s urine acidic may be effective for preventing strutive stones, slightly more basic urine is desired for preventing oxalate uroliths.
It can also help to ensure your cat consumes an adequate amount of water.Cystine uroliths are rare in cats- but there are protocols for their dissolution and prevention.
To dissolve these stones, there is no method that is guaranteed to work- but it is suggested that you attempt to increase the pH of your cat’s urine until it is more than 7 such that the urine is basic. This can also help prevent future cystine stones from forming.Though Pierson (2013) cautions against performing the procedure prematuerly, a perineal urethrostomy can prevent future obstructions from forming. This surgery entails removing the narrow part of the urethra as well as a large portion of the penis for male cats. It’s important to note, however, that this procedure should be used only as a last resort, as it can cause urinary incontinence and other bladder diseases.
These issues can be inherited genetically or produced as a result of injury or disease in the womb.
Kidney malformations, or dysplasias, have no known effective treatment aside from managing symptoms associated with the problem. Cats with hypoplasia suffer from irregularly small kidneys and typically experience vomiting, inappetence, and increased thirst and urination. In their manual on congenital disorders, Fitzgerald and his cohorts (2011) stated that these symptoms typically affect hypoplastic kittens when they are between 6 months and 2 years of age.Kittens may also be born with cysts in their kidneys. A single cyst generally won’t interfere with kidney function, but polycystic kidneys can lead to progressive kidney failure and are generally the result of an inherited disorder known as polycistic kidney disease. The disease is generally connected to Persian cats and related breeds, but its development is also related to environmental factors and a hormonal imbalance.Cats with this disease generally have large kidneys that can be identified with a physical examination from your veterinarian. Aside from the enlarged organ, not many symptoms are exhibited in early stages of the disease. Most renal cysts are not painful, but the cysts can lead to bacterial infection and possibly sepsis, which is potentially life-threatening.
Once infected, cats should be tested routinely (every 2 to 6 months) to determine their levels of electrolytes, potassium, calcium, and nitrogen to determine if they are developing related kidney diseases.
Other problems that may affect your cat include incorrectly positioned kidneys or kidneys that are fused together.
The urachus is a structure in prenatal kittens that connects the bladder to the umbilicus duct, allowing for the disposal of urine while the kitten is in the womb. When the urachal canal remains open, the condition is known as patent urachus and can lead to urine leaking either into your cat’s abdominal cavity or our from the navel.
Though patent urachus is by far the most common abnormality affecting the urachus, the tube can also become affected by cysts or it can fail to close either at the bladder or the umbilical end. Though it is less common in cats than in dogs, both genders of cats may suffer from posterior displacement of the bladder.This displacement, or pelvic bladder, can result in urinary incontinence, urine scalding, and an inability to urinate.
As with other bladder abnormalities, this problem will likely require extensive testing for a definitive diagnosed.
Your veterinarian may use a complete blood count, a biochemistry profile, urinalysis, abdominal X-rays, or ultrasounds to determine exactly what is wrong with your pet’s bladder. A displaced bladder will require corrective surgery to reposition both the bladder and the urethra. In these cases, the flow of urine is not regulated properly and infection and other complications might occur. If removing the ureter and kidney is not an option, it is possible to use colposuspension, a technique in which the bladder is moved by attaching it with stitches to the pubic bone or nearby cartilage, to fix the problem. Though congenital problems with the urethra are rare in cats, it is possible that several abnormalities may afflict it. It’s also possible for a cat to develop multiple urethras or to suffer from a misplaced urethra. The tube may also be damaged, whether this means a cystic urethra or one with a misplaced opening or hole.Abnormal openings in the urinary tract are known as fistulas. These openings cause incontinence, irritation throughout the lower urinary tract, frequent urinary tract infections, diarrhea, fever, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fluid drainage.



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