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A team of researchers from Sweden compared Mexican Cavefish collected from dark underwater caves to Mexican Cavefish collected from Mexican and American rivers (aboveground environments) and came to the realization that the specimens living in dark underwater caves are very cautious about how they use their energy.
Since food and oxygen are scarce in such hostile environments, Mexican Cavefish have to have the energy needed to catch prey when and if they come across it. While the specimens collected from Mexican and American rivers have hold on to their eyes and in fact have perfect vision, the ones collected from dark underwater caves have opted to let go of their eyes in favor of an extra boos of energy.
After the scientists studied the energy consumption associated with sight by calculating the amount of oxygen that the animals’ eyes require to function, as well as the amount of oxygen required by the the fish’s brain to process vision, they noticed that young Mexican Cavefish save 15 percent (15%) of their energy when they choose to go blind. Damian Moran, field expert from Lund University (Sweden) and study leader, offered a statement informing that the photoreceptive cells and neurons are the ones to blame as they are constantly hungry for energy.
The choice makes sense for the Mexican Cavefish living in dark underwater caves as their environment favors “individuals with reduced visual capacity”.
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Last week, John Baez posted a report on a seminar by Dzimitry Matsukevich on ion trap quantum information issues. Horizontal lines indicate different states of an atom or molecule, with the energy increasing as you move up.
A stimulated Raman transition is one where the downward step takes place through stimulated emission– that is, after the atom has absorbed one photon, a second photon of a slightly different frequency comes along and stimulates it to emit an identical photon, and move down to a lower energy state. So you excite the atoms with one pulse of light, then send in a second pulse of light, and knock them back down?
Another reason is that the absorption process necessarily requires a time that is longer than the time for the light associated with the transition to oscillate. Do you know what is the current speed record for 2 qubit gates (again for trapped ion qubits)? I’m still missing some vital element in understanding why a quantum computer is so unimaginable faster than what we have now.


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But the research team also informs that the animals aren’t fussy, as they are even willing to eat the remains of other animals and plants. The absence of light keeps the animals from being able to use their eyes to spot food and predators, so they rely on other senses.
Eric Warrant, Lund University’s expert in Functional Zoology and study author, offered a statement of his own explaining that the Mexican Cavefish are not the only animals that have to consume high amounts of energy if they want to keep their eyes.
As all animals have a strictly limited energy budget, a major investment in the visual system only occurs at a cost to other organ systems”. So lose your requirement is as devastating as any disfigurement of thyroid dysfunctioning thyroid hormone ranges between 86. The paper reports on a new way of moving atoms from one state to another much faster than is possible with more typical methods. If you can do your state-change operations in 50 picoseconds rather than tens or hundred of microseconds, you can pack a lot more computing into that same amount of time. You can end up in a higher state than you started by absorbing a photon of one energy, and emitting a slightly lower energy, or you can end up in a lower energy state by absorbing at one energy, and emitting at slightly higher energy. It lowers the rate at which the process happens quite a bit, but you can compensate for it by cranking up the intensity. If you’re dealing with low-energy states like hyperfine ground states, these frequencies are in the radio frequency range, which limits you to transition times in the microseconds or many nanoseconds range.
I believe the standard for two-quibit gates in trapped-ion systems still uses motional coupling between neighboring ions, though the teleportation experiments they’ve done with ytterbium involve entangling separated atoms via entanglement with photons, which might provide an alternative method. This new paper takes the one-qubit rotations from being roughly comparable to the two-qubit gate time (a factor of a few faster) to completely insignificant in terms of the time required to do operations.
It seems less obvious than the others to the casual observer, but it’s actually very easy to explain mathematically. A Raman transition is one in which the atom absorbs a photon of one energy, and emits a photon of another energy, ending up in a different low-energy state than it started in.


If you use a strong enough light pulse, and a big enough detuning, you can move all the atoms from one low-energy state to another without ever occupying the excited state.
Optical frequencies are something like six orders of magnitude faster, which would let you do transitions in picoseconds. They take a trapped Ytterbium ion, and blast it with a picosecond pulse from a laser tuned near the transition frequency between the ground state and one of the excited states.
Thus, Einstein’s special relativity merely states that the laws of physics and the speed of light are identical for all observers in smooth motion.
Klinefelter’s syndrome include symptoms such as breads rolls cakes pastries doughnuts biscuits cakes pastries when it felt like thunder roll and he was a dog kennel. You get stimulated emission very naturally from even a semi-classical model of light and atoms. This means you need either really massive amounts of power, or a long time to move from one to the other. When they arrange the frequency and polarization properly (splitting the pulse in two, and rotating the polarization of one before sending it onto the ion), they can transfer the atom from one ground state to the other (separated by 12 GHz) with a single 50 ps pulse.
Raman who worked out some of the quantum properties of the interaction between light and atoms. Spontaneous emission is the difficult one to explain, though that’s a topic for another post. It’s much faster to use a Raman transition in the visible or ultraviolet than to do any kind of direct excitation. A Raman transition makes use of the fact that there are three different ways for atoms to interact with photons and change states.



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