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A holistic approach is necessary to successfully plan and construct energy efficient buildings. To tackle climate change,A new buildings are required to consume as little energy as possible. Another important issue is to carefully think about the building's design from the very beginning, according to Gonzalez. Moreover,A it is crucial to integrate the new building into the local district, which also matters in terms of utilising local energy resources, according to Gonzalez.
Indeed, "architects, engineers, project developer, building physicistsa€”all the actors involveda€”have to agree on the desired performance of the building and how to reach the goal," Kaiser concurs. However, Bergin also points out that it is not always possible to involve all stakeholders from the very beginning. In Munich, a newly erected office building, called the NuOffice, has been awarded an internationally recognised green design certification in platinum, called the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certificate. More than one-third of new commercial building space includes energy-saving features, but without training or an operator's manual many occupants are in the dark about how to use them.
With good planning, it is possible to promote the reuse of construction and demolition waste and thereby both conserve the environment and save on material costs.
Policy makers must harness the power of ordinary people if society is to transition to a low-carbon energy future, argues a leading technology historian. A team of MIT researchers has for the first time demonstrated a device based on a method that enables solar cells to break through a theoretically predicted ceiling on how much sunlight they can convert into electricity. A solar-powered plane landed in Dayton, Ohio on the latest leg of a record-breaking trip to circle the globe without consuming a drop of fuel.
At the top of the corporate world, Apple and Google are in a back-and-forth battle to be number one. If Hollywood is to be believed, there are two kinds of robots, the friendly and helpful BB-8s, and the sinister and deadly T-1000s. This past week, I gave a presentation to a group interested in a particular type of renewable energy–solar energy that is deployed in space, so it would provide electricity 24 hours per day.
Of course, we have many other problems associated with a finite world, including rising population, water limits, and climate change.
Slide 4 suggests that the world economy is heading into recession, because recent growth in the use of energy supplies is very low recently.
Slide 5 shows a chart I put together, using data from several different sources, showing how growth in energy consumption has compared with growth in GDP.
Between the years 1900 and 1998, the use of electricity rose (black line) as the cost of electricity fell (purple, red, and green lines). If electricity prices had risen instead of fallen, it seems doubtful that this pattern of rising consumption could have taken place. Debt is important because it makes goods affordable that would not otherwise be affordable. Even when energy products are cheap, debt seems to be needed to get oil or coal out of the ground, or to make a new device such as a wind turbine.
The value to society of a barrel of oil is determined by how many miles it can make a diesel truck go, or how far it can make an airplane fly. In the 2000-14 period, the cost of new oil production was increasing very rapidly–by more than 10% per year, by some estimates. The fact that we need energy for economic growth means that we somehow must obtain this energy, even if doing so costs more.
The higher cost of oil affects many things that we don’t think are related, including the cost of building new homes, the cost of building cars, and the cost of building roads. The problem we encounter is that neither cheap energy nor the continued run-up of debt is sustainable.
I gave this talk on December 15; the first increase in interest rates took place on December 16.
Most of us have heard the Peak Oil story, and assume it represents a reasonable view of where we are headed. Peak oilers certainly did get part of the story right–at some point, the cost of oil extraction would rise. The problem with low commodity prices is that there are many loans that have been taken out to support their production. In order to get oil prices up higher, the wages of factory workers, restaurant workers, and other non-elite workers need to rise, so that they can afford to buy nice cars and nice homes. If space solar (or for that matter, any renewable energy) is to be helpful, it needs to be very cheap, so that products made using renewable energy are affordable.
If the replacement energy source is cheap enough, perhaps there will not be a huge run-up in debt to GDP ratios, to finance the new devices used to provide electricity or other energy. We are encountering problems now, so we need a replacement now, not 20 or 50 years from now. We cannot expect the cost of electricity production to be more than the current wholesale selling price of electricity.
Another consideration is that we need to be able to operate our current vehicles using a liquid fuel, made with electricity, because of the time and materials involved in switching over to electric vehicles.
Resilience is a program of Post Carbon Institute, a nonprofit organization dedicated to helping the world transition away from fossil fuels and build sustainable, resilient communities. A Practical Guide to Free-Energy Devices                                                                             Author: Patrick J.
Note: If you are not at all familiar with basic electronics, you might find it easier to understand this chapter if you read chapter 12 first.
One very interesting feature of free-energy devices is that although various devices which appear to be completely different and have different apparent applications, the background operation is often the same. For this, let us look at pulsing circuits used by a wide range of people in a number of apparently quite different devices. Even in these days of sophisticated solid-state electronic devices, the best method of creating a really sharp voltage pulse is still considered to be a spark gap, especially one which has the spark chopped off suddenly by the use of a strong magnetic field at right angles to the spark gap. Electrical Engineer Frank Wyatt Prentice of the USA invented what he described as an ‘Electrical Power Accumulator’ with an output power six times greater than the input power (COP = 6).
My invention relates to improvements in ELECTRICAL POWER ACCUMULATORS and the like, wherein the earth, acting as rotor and the surrounding air as a stator, collects the energy thus generated by the earth rotating on it’s axis, utilises it for power and other purposes. In the development of my WIRELESS TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM for railways, covered by my United States Letters Patent Number 843,550, I discovered that with an antenna consisting of one wire of suitable diameter supported on insulators, three to six inches above the ground and extending one half mile, more or less in length, the antenna being grounded at one end through a spark gap, and energised at the other end by a high frequency generator of 500 watts input and having a secondary frequency of 500,000 Hz, would produce in the antenna, an oscillatory frequency the same as that of the earth currents and thus electrical power from the surrounding media was accumulated along the length of the transmission antenna and with a closed oscillatory loop antenna 18 feet in length run parallel with the transmission antenna at a distance of approximately 20 feet, it was possible to obtain by tuning the loop antenna, sufficient power to light to full candle power a series bank of 50 sixty-watt carbon lamps.
Likewise, raising the transmission antenna resulted in a proportionate decrease of power picked up on the receiving antennae and at 6 feet above the earth no power whatsoever was obtainable without a change of voltage and frequency.
It is the objective of my generic invention to utilise the power generated by the earth, by the means described here and illustrated in the drawings.
Referring particularly to Fig.1, 1 and 2 are alternating current feed wires supplying 110 volts 60 cycles per second to a high-frequency generator.
The return of current through the earth from transmission antenna 19, is preferable to return through a wire as the ground return current picks up more earth currents than a wire does. This system of Frank’s effectively applies very sharply pulsed DC pulses to a long length of wire supported in a horizontal position not far above the ground.
Stan Meyer used a toroidal ferrite ring when he was winding these choke coils while Dave Lawton uses two straight ferrite bars, bridged top and bottom with thick iron strips.
John Bedini uses this same pulsing of a bi-filar wound coil to produce the same very short, very sharp voltage spikes which unbalance the local energy field, causing major flows of additional energy. John has produced and generously shared, many designs, all of which are basically similar and all using a 1:1 ratio bi-filar wound transformer. The rotor is desirable but not essential as the coils marked 1 and 2 can self-oscillate, and there can be any number of windings shown as 3 in the diagram. It can be tricky to get one of these circuits tuned properly to work at peak performance, but when they are, they can have performances of COP>10. It is recommended that batteries are not loaded much beyond their “C20” rate, that is, one twentieth of their Amp-Hour nominal rating. However, the really important point here is the way that when these short pulses are applied to a lead-acid battery, a link is formed with the environment which causes large amounts of energy to flow into the circuit from outside. Please note that when I shared this circuit diagram several years ago, someone persuaded me that the diodes were shown the wrong way round, and because of that, I have shown these diodes incorrectly. As the switching used by this device was a mechanical device which has six switches where three are ON and three are OFF at any moment, the Electrodyne Corp. It is recommended that this simple-looking circuit has an inductive load, preferably a motor, but consider the results of that very extended period of testing.
These test results show spectacular battery charging and battery performance, quite outside the normal range associated with these ordinary lead-acid batteries.
One other detail reported by the Electrodyne testers, is that if the switching speed exceeded 800 times per second, that it was “dangerous” but unfortunately, they didn’t say why or how it was dangerous. It is generally accepted that for a circuit of this nature to work properly, the switching has to be very sudden and very effective.
The objective is to have a simple construction which produces several switching for each revolution of the motor, easy adjustment of the timing of two separate sets of three switches (one set being OFF when the other set is ON), a construction which can be taken apart and then assembled again without altering the timing, and an electrical connection method which is straightforward. This suggested construction allows adjustment of the timing for both the start of the first set of switches and the start of the second set of switches. The pivots for all of the switching arms can be a length of threaded rod with lock nuts at each end.
The drawing shows three conducting inserts at each of eight evenly-spaced positions around the circumference of the drum. The timing adjustment is achieved by moving the supporting block slightly, by easing the four clamping screws, sliding the block and tightening the screws again. Each set of six switching arms needs to have all of the arms exactly the same length between the sliding contact (shown as a bolt head) and the pivot hole.
However, please don’t imagine that the Tesla Switch described here is a ‘plug-and-play’ device which you can switch on and it will give you the sort of outputs mentioned above, as that is very much not the case.
If you use the Tesla Switch circuit with manual switches and run each phase for many minutes before altering the switching, it can give up to four times better performance than running the load off the four batteries in parallel. The Tesla Switch is one of the more difficult devices to get operational, in spite of the fact that it appeals to a large number of people. The third way was developed and tested over three years by staff of the Electrodyne Corporation in America.
One experimenter who did not believe the diodes could possibly work that way round, tested the arrangement and discovered that in spite of the theory, in practice, the reverse-biased diodes actually pass very sharp voltage spikes to the batteries, so the effect may well be like a slick version of John Bedini's battery pulsing circuits. This circuit allows the Mark-Space ratio to be adjusted without altering the frequency, and the frequency can be adjusted without affecting the Mark-Space setting in any way. However, the problem is to decide the direction of current flow and provide solid state components accordingly, as the Tesla Switch circuit almost certainly does not run with conventional electronic design.
It is interesting to note that in the 1989 patent US 4,829,225 granted to Yury Podrazhansky and Phillip Popp, their evidence is that batteries charge much better and have a longer life if they are pulsed in a specific way. Interestingly, this appears to confirm the charging potential of the Tesla Switch style of operation, especially if there is a short rest period between the two sets of switch operations.
Continuing the Tesla Switch style of operation, it is possible to get the same effect as the Tesla Switch circuit, using only three batteries (or three capacitors). Here is an untested suggestion for how it might be possible to produce a portable, self-powered powerful light. Here, the batteries are switched around sequentially, with two of them in series causing current flow through the load ‘L’ and into the third battery. As before, the switching for a system of this kind can be implemented in various different ways. As each inter-battery connection is different for each of the three stages of operation of this circuit, it is necessary to have four switches for each stage. Obviously, the current flows from the higher series-connected voltage to the lower single battery voltage.
While the above diagram shows each stage with permanently connected base resistors, that is, of course, only to display the conceptual arrangement. The CD4022 Divide-by-Eight chip can be arranged to divide by three rather than eight, by connecting its pin 7 to pin 15. The output transistors are expected to switch 1 amp and so the TIP132 NPN and matching TIP137 transistors have been selected.
With this kind of circuit, it is desirable to have a fairly large current flow (relative to the battery capacity) in order to give a marked difference between the discharging and charging cycles for each battery. This quite remarkable device has a massive 160 lumens output with a lighting angle of 160 degrees and an input power of just 1.2 watts (100 milliamps at 12 volts).
Each base resistor has an output link (O1b through O12b) which is connected through it’s opto-isolator to the destination shown in the “Base” column in the table. The Mexican Civil Engineer Carlos Benitez devised what is essentially the 3-battery switch discussed above. The invention relates to a new process for obtaining electric currents under unusually simple, economic and practical conditions. 2 is a rotating commutator to make and break the circuit connections at the appropriate instants. The capacitor bank 1, is connected through wire 13 to a source of electric current, providing the initial charge to capacitor bank 1. Wire 15 connects the inner leaves of capacitor bank 1 with poles 16 and 17 of the commutator 2, and it’s pole 18 is connected via wire 19 to one of the terminals of transformer primary winding 3, whose other end is connected through wire 20 to the outer leaves of capacitor bank 1. As the construction and use of all of these components (with the exception of the commutator) is perfectly understood, it would be pointless to describe them. The three rotating cylinders mounted on shaft 44, are made of a non-conducting material and have a conducting strip around their centre. The switching strips on the central cylinder are positioned 90 degrees around the circumference when compared to the position of the switching strips on the two outer cylinders which are aligned with each other. This can be seen in the diagram, where in the shaft position shown, 38 and 36 are connected and 31 and 30 are connected, while 18 is not connected to either 16 or 17. When shaft 44 is rotated through 90 degrees, 18 will be connected to 17, while 31 and 38 will both be isolated. When shaft 44 is rotated through an additional 90 degrees, brush 18 will be isolated while brush 38 will be connected to 37 and brush 31 will be connected to 29. When shaft 44 is rotated through an additional 90 degrees, brush 18 will be connected to brush 16, while brushes 31 and 38 will be isolated.
Shaft 44 is elongated and projects through the end wall 42, so that a belt drive 45, or other suitable method, may be used to rotate the shaft, driven by motor 12 or possibly by crank handle 46.
With the commutator in the position shown in the drawing, that is, with brush 36 connected to 38 and brush 30 connected to 31, and supposing capacitor bank 1 is connected through wire 13 to a source of electric power (say, a Wimshurst Machine), switch 14 being closed, electric current passes through wire 13 to charge capacitor bank 1, causing a current to flow through wire 20, primary winding 3, wire 35, brush 36, brush 38 and wire 39 to earth. The current flow to both sets of plates in capacitor bank 5, charges it and creates a spark across the spark gap 6, causing a very sharp current pulse through primary winding 7. Therefore, capacitor bank 1 being charged by an external source, capacitor bank 9 will be charged indirectly and successively re-charged several times, resulting in a quantity of electricity considerably greater than that of capacitor bank 1.
When shaft 44 rotates through 90 degrees, brush 17 connects with brush 18, while brushes 31 and 38 are both disconnected. Brushes 37 and 38 become connected which in turn connects the outer plates of capacitor bank 1 to ground. Part of the high charge on capacitor bank 9 will flow as an electric current, through wire 32 and into capacitor bank 1.
This current flow from the inner plates of capacitor bank 9 causes an immediate matching negative charge to flow from ground through primary winding 70, to offset the charge imbalance.
This induces a current flow in the secondary winding 71, which passes additional electrical power to the outer plates of both capacitor bank 9 and capacitor bank 1, and that further intensifies the current flow through primary winding 70 quite considerably.
Further, as capacitor bank 1 has just been newly charged, it drives additional current through primary winding 3, causing new induced currents which will, as before, produce much increased charge on the inner plates of both capacitor bank 5 and capacitor bank 9, as described earlier.
If shaft 44 is rotated through a further 90 degrees, then a connection between brushes 16 and 18 will be made and all other circuits will be opened, causing capacitor bank 1 to be discharged again, thus repeating the entire process described above provided that shaft 44 is rotated continuously. This system produces a constantly increasing supply of electric current flowing through wire 32, and so, switch 34 can be closed, allowing transformer 10 to provide the electrical power to run motor 12 which maintains shaft 44 in continuous rotation, making the system self-powered with no requirement for any form of outside power supply. Here, primary winding 50 is connected as shown by the dashed lines, with wires 19 and 20 of the former arrangement, and wire 53 connects to both wire 27 and wire 28.
With this arrangement, both ends of the secondary winding 55 are connected through diodes 56 and 57, to wire 53.
It should be clearly understood that the use of mercury-vapour converters or cathodic valve diodes as described, are not in any manner indispensable in the system as those devices can be replaced by a suitable arrangement of capacitors which would receive separately, the direct and inverse currents of the secondaries. When a bell is struck just once, it vibrates many times, passing those vibrations to the air and so, making the sound which we hear.
You will notice here that Carlos uses the resonant ‘ringing’ of an air-core coil to get an energy gain which is then used as positive feedback to further charge a capacitor bank. Carlos also produced another design, this time working with batteries (although he tended to think in terms of 60-volt battery banks rather than 12-volt batteries) and his patent includes what we tend to call “the Tesla Switch” nowadays. The invention which forms the object of this Patent of Addition, relates to new improvements in the system for the generation of electric currents, described in the main patent No.
The system may be still further simplified and improved by the addition of batteries, which, suitably adjusted in conjunction with system previously described, can be charged and discharged alternately, producing an excess of electrical energy which can be used in any desired manner.
In other words, in this arrangement, I use in combination: two batteries connected in series and two batteries connected in parallel, these pairs being used so that the discharge of one pair is used to charge the other pair, and vice versa. Another object of this new arrangement is to allow the use of low voltages, small capacity capacitors and additional facilities for starting the system.
With the connections established as shown in the diagram, that is, with batteries 1 & 2 connected in series through switch 5 (switch 6 being open), batteries 3 & 4 are connected in parallel through switch 7 (switch 8 being open).

In other words, if wire 13 is connected to the positive terminal of the battery 1 & 2 combination, and to the positive poles 10 and 32 of the battery 3 & 4 combination, then an electric current will be established between the two sets of batteries, until their voltages match.
With these objectives in view, and using as an illustration, the arrangement shown in Figure 1 of the Patent of Addition No.
This arrangement being made, the electrical energy stored by batteries 1 & 2, passing through terminal 9, wire 13, primary winding 15, terminal 10 of battery 4, pole 31 of switch 7 and terminal 32 of battery 3, will go back through terminal 12 of battery 3 to the battery 1 & 2 combination. As a consequence of the current passing through primary winding 15, high-voltage current is produced in its secondary winding and collected in capacitor 22, discharging through spark gap 23, generates high-frequency currents in the high-frequency transformer primary and secondary coils 26 and 27. Under these conditions, as the voltage in one of the batteries is decreasing while the other is increasing, after some hours, both voltages match and it is then impossible to produce any current flow unless switches 5, 6, 7 and 8 are operated, reversing the functions of the batteries and allowing the process to continue entirely as before with batteries 1 & 2 being connected in parallel and batteries 3 & 4 being connected in series.
An essential part of this design which is not indicated clearly in the patent, is that what was common practice a hundred years ago, namely, that the input power connection to point 17 of the primary of the (step-up) transformer 15, is fed through an “interrupter” contact.
As I understand it then, the voltage difference between the two pairs of batteries, charge capacitor 14 and apply power to the primary winding 16-17 of step-up transformer 15.
According to Carlos, there is a slight overall drain on the battery system and so, after about an hour, the switches are operated, changing the series-connected batteries to become parallel-connected and the parallel-connected batteries to become series-connected.
As we are not familiar with induction coils and interrupters now that solid-state electronics is available, we can get constructional and operational information from that period in the book “Wireless Telegraph Construction for Amateurs” by Alfred Powell Morgan, published in 1913, which is available as a free download from here. The formulas connected with induction coils depend on conditions which are never met in actual practice and cannot be relied on. For a long time, the induction coil was an expensive, inefficient instrument, until wireless telegraphy demanded of it more rigid and efficient design and construction. No one part of an induction coil may be developed to its maximum efficiency without seriously influencing and lowering the efficiency of the other parts. Core: Some experimenters who are not quite familiar with the principles of magnetism, think that if an induction coil were provided with a closed core like that of a transformer, then the efficiency of the coil would be materially increased. The varnish provides a resistance to the flow of eddy currents in the core and reduces those losses very considerably. Primary Winding: The ratio of the number of primary turns of an induction coil to the number of secondary turns, bears no relation to the ratio of the primary and secondary currents.
In large coils, the inductance of the primary causes a “kick-back” and sparks are liable to pass between the adjacent turns. A good method of reducing the “kick back” as well as the size of the capacitor connected across the interrupter, is to make the primary with a number of turns of smaller diameter wire wound in parallel, the effect being to produce a conductivity equal to a wire of large diameter and at the same time, make a more compact winding of the primary on the core. The primary winding should cover nearly the whole length of the core, since there is no advantage in carrying the core very far beyond the end of the primary as most of the magnetic lines of force bend at the end of the primary winding and return without passing through the extreme ends of the core. Enamelled wire is insulated with a coating of cellulose acetate, which has a dielectric strength of about twice that of cotton and it takes up much less room than silk covered wire, giving a great saving in space and a greater number of turns may be wound in the secondary without increasing its mean distance from the core. When winding enamelled wire, it must be taken into consideration that the insulation of enamelled wire is rigid and has no give. Coils producing sparks up to 2 inches (50 mm) in length, may be wound in two sections or in layer windings, but the layer winding is not recommended for coils giving sparks over one inch in length.
This insertion of paper increases the insulation and reduces the possibility of sparks jumping from layer to layer when the layers are very long. After the secondary is assembled, the coil should be submerged in an airtight tank containing melted paraffin wax.
It should be noted that the very experienced Alfred Morgan flatly contradicts the standard theory of symmetrical transformer operation when he states that “the ratio of the number of primary turns of an induction coil to the number of secondary turns, bears no relation to the ratio of the primary and secondary currents”. Carlos Benitez also produced another very clever design, still using four batteries and a very slow switching rate, although no longer using the series and parallel switching which we think of as the Tesla Switch. This invention relates to a new utilisation of the high frequency currents or electrical oscillations, by means of which, a constant production of electrical energy can be secured, under unusually simple, economic and practical conditions. Such results are attained by means of the procedure disclosed in present applicant’s English Patent specification No. This circuit shows the circuit connections of the arrangement and a perspective view of a commutator.
This apparatus is also provided with terminal 39 which is alternately connected to the negative poles of the batteries through the brushes which can be seen in the figure, in contact with cylinder 5. On the other hand, an alternator 42, is coupled to the motor 27-28, which in this manner can be rotated at the speed needed to attain the desired frequency. The terminals 49,50 of capacitor 48 are connected through an arc lamp of the Poulsen type 51,52, or through an adequate spark-gap with the rectifiers 33, 34, 35 and 36, and with the battery under charge (3 & 4 in this case).
Connected in this manner, the strong magnetic field which exists between the poles of the magnets, acts on the arc, and owing to this action, combined with the influence of the voltage developed by the secondary of the transformer 46,47, it happens that this action and influence being about equal in value, are each of them alternately greater than the other, so that the voltage across the arc automatically rises and falls. On the other hand, owing to the oscillatory nature of the circuit (which is arranged with proper values of capacity, inductance and resistance), the charging and discharging of the capacitor can occur several million times per second if desired, and in this manner, a current of a great number of amperes can be obtained through the oscillating circuit, even with a small amount of electricity stored in the capacitor.
In the same manner, one gallon of water could produce a flow of one thousand gallons per second through a pipe if such a pipe were connected with two different vessels and the gallon of water could be forced through the pipe by a piston which could transfer that gallon of water from one vessel to the other one thousand times per second. In other words, the small amount of electrical power taken by the DC motor 27,28, appears (with a small loss) at the alternator 42, and that power is delivered to the transformer primary 44,45. Contrary to that, if that same power is stored in capacitor 48, and that capacitor is properly connected to an oscillatory circuit in which one of the batteries can be joined, and furthermore, if by means of a rectifier, the high-frequency currents produced in such an oscillatory circuit are forced to pass from the positive to the negative pole through the battery, it is obvious to state that it is always possible to secure by these means, the number of amperes required to charge the battery in the available time. Experimental results are shown for three energies in a coplanar symmetric geometry, and for three energies in an asymmetric geometry. Ionization of atomic and molecular targets is one of the most complex and fundamental collision processes that can be studied in detail. To fully characterize these interactions, it is necessary to perform sophisticated measurements where an incident electron of well controlled momentum scatters and ionizes the target. In these (e,2e) experiments, information about the collision is obtained by measuring the outgoing momenta of the collision products. For molecular targets, it is difficult to know the orientation and alignment of the molecule prior to the interaction occurring, unless this can be defined prior to the collision or can be measured following the collision. The interaction of low to intermediate energy electrons with molecular targets has been much less studied compared with high energy electron collisions.
Experiments on molecular targets often employ effusive beams produced at room temperature, and so the targets may have internal rotational and vibrational energy.
Results are presented here for an H2O target at significantly lower energies than has been studied before. Figure 1.1 Representation of the 1b1 state of H2O, showing an incident electron ionizing the molecule. The experiments described here were carried out in the fully computer controlled and computer optimized (e,2e) spectrometer that operates in Manchester. For the coplanar symmetric experiments described here, the electron detectors were moved so that their angles with respect to the incident beam direction were equal to each other throughout measurement (see figure 1.2). For coplanar asymmetric experiments, analyzer 1 was fixed at a scattering angle thetaa = 22A°, while analyzer 2 was swept around the scattering plane. The fixed scattering angle thetaa = 22A° was chosen as this was the smallest angle that could be used without the incident electron beam from the gun striking the side of the analyzer (and so producing unacceptable levels of noise on the coincidence signal). The energy resolution of the spectrometer is set by the resolution of the electron gun and the pass energy of the analyzers.
Production of a high quality molecular beam of H2O required careful monitoring of the experiment as it progressed. The de-gassed water was then transferred to a 150mm long tubular stainless steel flask which was connected to the main vacuum system using a swagelok fitting. An AD590 sensor was secured to the aluminium block surrounding the flask, so that the temperature of the insulated assembly could be monitored and controlled. To monitor the molecular beam inside the vacuum chamber produced from the water, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was installed onto the spectrometer. Figure 1.3 shows a typical coincidence energy spectrum obtained from the experiment during operation. The experiments were carried out over a period of several months, using electron beam currents ~200nA for all data runs. As the incident energy increases, the ratio of forward to backward scattering cross section increases, as has been seen for most atomic targets in this geometry. The measured coplanar asymmetric data is shown in figure 4, again normalized to unity at thetab = 45A°. As the incident energy is increased to 55eV above threshold, the forward lobe splits into two clear peaks of approximately equal magnitude, as seen in figure 1.5(b). Results from the 1b1 state of water have been presented for coplanar symmetric and asymmetric energies.
These results have been compared to a DWBA theory in the paper J Phys B, however the averaging used in this theory was not a good approximation, and so is not expected to yield accurate results for this state.
Experimental results are presented for electron impact ionization of water in the energy regime from near threshold to intermediate energies. Results of a sophisticated model which approximates the random orientation of the target using a spherical averaging of the wave-function prior to the collision, using sophisticated distorted wave Born calculations that include post-collisional interactions in first order and to all orders of perturbation theory are also shown for comparison (see J.
The calculations predict the data most accurately at the lowest energy studied (4eV above threshold) in a coplanar symmetric geometry, whereas the comparison between theory and experiment is generally poor for higher energies and for non-coplanar geometries. Energy deposition and angular distributions resulting from electron collisions with water are used in charged particle track structure analyses to model radiation damage in biological samples.
These low energy electrons have an effect over a much wider volume than the targeted cancer site.
At incident energies less than ~200eV, the collision dynamics are strongly influenced by effects including post-collision interactions, target polarization, distortions in the wave-functions for the participating electrons and multiple collisions.
Current models now yield reasonable agreement with experimental data for a range of atoms, implying a good understanding of the collision dynamics under the conditions used in the experiments, and these models are now being extended to low energy (e,2e) collisions from molecules. Recent experiments studying simple diatomic targets including H2 and N2 have provided benchmark data. The apparatus at Manchester can also access non-coplanar geometries, and so has provided additional data to further test these models.
In a previous study the groups at Manchester and Missouri investigated the 1b1 (HOMO) state of H2O in coplanar kinematics. By contrast, the 3a1 orbital of interest here is involved in the O-H bonding and has a charge density distribution distorted from that of a symmetric atomic like orbital. The experimental triple differential cross sections (TDCS) presented here were measured in the (e,2e) apparatus at the University of Manchester.
The spectrometer can be operated in a standard coplanar geometry where the momenta of all three electrons (the incident and two outgoing electrons) are within the same detection plane (psi = 0A°, figure 2.1). The power supplies for the electrostatic lenses in the electron gun and the electron analyzers are fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing for automated tuning at regular intervals, with the analyzers being re-optimized each time they move to a new angle.
The energy of the spectrometer was re-calibrated at the start of each new kinematic arrangement, by measuring the coincidence binding energy spectrum. Over the course of this study the binding energy spectra were recorded for various energies and geometries, and it is estimated that contamination from neighbouring orbitals was always less than 10%, and is more typically in the range of 0.5%. The distilled water sample used to provide the molecular target beam was contained within a 50mm diameter 100mm long stainless steel vessel sealed by a CF-70 flange to a 6.35mm swagelok fitting.
The sample vessel and gas handling line were held at a constant temperature of 50A?C throughout data collection, so as to create sufficient driving pressure for the target beam.
The purity of the target beam was verified with a Spectra VacScan mass spectrometer fitted to the scattering chamber.
The background pressure within the scattering chamber was set to 1.1 x 10-5 torr during operation, and was found to remain constant throughout all data runs.
During these experiments we observed an unusual behaviour of the tungsten hairpin filament used as the incident electron source. To facilitate this, the current measured by the Faraday cup located on the opposite side of the interaction region to the electron gun was monitored by the computer control software, and the current through the filament adjusted to maintain a beam current of 300nA throughout data collection. In the present study we also measured the coincidence energy resolution from ionization of helium, and found this did not change, indicating that the temperature of emission remained approximately constant. The data presented in figures 3-5 were then averaged over these angular sweeps, and the uncertainties in the measurements determined from the complete set of data for each scattering angle.
The experimental data are not measured on an absolute scale and so experiment and theory are normalized to a maximum of unity at each energy, as shown in figure 2.2. As the energy of the outgoing electrons is lowered, it would be expected that the Coulomb repulsion between the outgoing electrons should play an increasingly important role, driving the electrons apart. The best agreement between experimental data and theory is at the lowest energy, where the experimental data and MDW model are in excellent agreement for the binary peak. A key advantage of the spectrometer in Manchester is the ability to measure data for kinematics in non-coplanar geometries. Non-coplanar measurements were hence taken here with both outgoing electrons having an energy of 10eV. As shown in figure 1, the geometry adopted in this spectrometer provides a common normalization point (xi1 = xi2 = 90A°) for all gun angles psi, which allows ALL data at a given energy to be referenced to a common point. For the current measurements, the coplanar data have been normalized to a maximum of unity, as before. The data in figure 2.3 show a clear trend indicating the binary and recoil peaks diminish in magnitude as the angle of the electron gun angle increases.
The data contrasts strongly with the theoretical models for the larger gun angles y, where the theories predict significantly more structure than is seen in the data. The final kinematic configuration used symmetric geometries and 20eV excess energy as above, however in this case the data are for unequal energy sharing between the outgoing electrons. The data were only taken for coplanar and perpendicular plane geometries, so as to contrast differences in these two extremes. The key differences that can be seen in these data for the coplanar geometry are that the binary peak moves to a smaller angle as the energy asymmetry increases, as might be expected from post collisional interactions.
Agreement is mixed, and rather surprisingly gives best results at low energies, where it might be expected that the approximations are least accurate.
The experimental results for both equal and non-equal energy sharing in the perpendicular plane show almost no structure, whereas the theoretical calculations predict that three clearly defined lobes should be seen. This work was supported by the University of Manchester and the US National Science Foundation under Grant. 12.A A  Naja A, Staicu-Casagrande E M, Lahmam-Bennani A, Nekkab M, Mezdari F, Joulakian B, Chuluunbaatar O and Madison D H 2007 J. That's because, in Europe, buildings are responsible for about 40% of our energy consumption. This ranges from considering key issues, such as orientation and insulation, to specific ones, such as air conditioning systems and lighting. Experts agree that the feedback from people living in energy efficient buildings could help to optimise their overall usability. Home owners seeking for energy efficiency are faced with confusing and sometimes contradictory information. We will tune our man made environment to local nature for best results, letting the Laws of Nature do our work for us. The only theoretical solution would be to create a huge supply of renewable energy that would work in today’s devices. For this reason, even a huge supply of very cheap renewable energy would not be a permanent solution.
It would be impossible to feed, house, and clothe 7.3 billion people without supplemental energy of some kind. Another sign that we are headed into recession is that fact that CO2 emissions fell in 2015.
There was a big jump in economic growth immediately after World War II, in the 1950-65 period. For example, having a loan for a house or a car makes a huge difference regarding whether such an item is affordable. Part of the problem is the cost of the capital equipment needed to extract the oil or coal, or the cost of the wind turbines themselves. As consumers are forced to buy increasingly expensive homes and cars, and as governments find that the building of roads is increasingly expensive, more debt is used. Cheap energy tends to change to expensive energy, because we use the cheapest sources first.
If we are to have non-debt growth in the future (because we are reaching limits on debt), it needs to again come from cheap energy alone.
King Hubbert talked about a very special situation–a situation where another cheap, abundant fuel took over, before fossil fuels began to decline.
That is why debt is such a problem, and it is why prices of many commodities, including oil, are far too low compared to the cost of production. What they missed was the fact that prices would at some point fall behind the cost of production because of affordability issues. Just as a rubber band can stretch for a while, the price of oil can rise for a while, fueled by more and more debt. This requirement likely reduces the maximum cost of electricity even below four cents per kWh. In 2006, she became interested in the likely financial impacts of oil limits on insurance companies and other financial institutions, and started writing about that issue. Lowering or raising the frequency of 500,000 Hz resulted in a diminishing of the amount of power received through the 18 foot antenna.
I also prefer under certain conditions, to use a single antenna wire in place of the closed loop antenna shown in Fig.2. 14,311, filed on October 9th, 1915, but in order to obtain a better utilisation the high-frequency currents and the automatic operation of the mechanisms employed in such a procedure, I have invented a novel arrangement of parts from which is derived several other advantages that will be here described and set forth. Coplanar symmetric and asymmetric electron impact ionization studies from the 1b1 state of H2O at low to intermediate impact energies.

The experimental data show a wide variation in the cross section over this range of energies.
These ionizing collisions are important in a wide range of different areas, ranging from plasma physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, medical and biological processes involving low energy electrons through to the study of high voltage discharges.
The scattered electron is then detected in time correlated coincidence with either the electron ejected during ionization, or with the resulting ion. This is usually accomplished by determining a cross section that is five fold differential in angle and energy.
In most cases, this means that an averaging over the orientation of the target must be included for theory to compare with experimental results. This energy region (from threshold to ~200eV) is important as it is here that the cross section for ionization is largest. The ionization potential from these ground ro-vibrational states is usually less defined than for atomic targets, due to the associated Franck-Condon overlap between the potential energy curves of the neutral molecules and the resulting ions. This apparatus is described in detail on other web pages on this fileserver, and has been designed to operate in the energy regime from ~10eV to ~300eV.
In this configuration, the energies selected for the scattered and ejected electrons were equal. The inner diameter of this flask was 9mm, and the outside diameter was 12.7mm, so that a standard swaged fitting could be used. This was accomplished using a Newport model 325 temperature controller, which supplied drive current to the TEC.
This proved invaluable, as it was then possible to continuously monitor the background gases in the chamber during operation.
In this example, the analyzers were set to pass electrons of energy 20eV, and a symmetric geometry was chosen with thetaa = thetab = 45A°.
Over this period of time, the filament current driving the cathode had to be steadily decreased, probably since the water vapour within the vacuum chamber slowly reduced the diameter of the filament. The data is normalized to unity at thetaa = thetab = theta = 45A°, since the results have not been placed on an absolute scale. Results were taken in symmetric coplanar and non-coplanar geometries, with both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies. The human body, and other biological material comprise of ~80% water, which makes it an ideal test case to investigate processes occurring in the body. These models are an active area of research since the observation that high energy radiation that is used to treat cancers also liberates many low energy electrons, causing additional damage to cell DNA. Knowledge of the collision dynamics of low energy electrons with biological systems is hence needed, so as to develop robust models of these processes. In such experiments the energy and momenta of the outgoing electrons are measured, giving a five fold differential cross section. In this regime these processes must be considered on an equal basis, and so the complexity of the interactions means that theoretical studies have mainly been limited to atomic targets. This contrasts to atoms which have a single nuclear scattering centre, and which can hence be described using a spherical basis.
A further challenge arises since the experiments cannot, at present, align the molecules prior to the collision, so the models must consider the random orientation of the targets for accurate comparison. The majority of data is recorded in a coplanar geometry, where the incident and two outgoing electrons are in the same plane, and were conducted at a higher incident energy than the studies presented here. The symmetry of the 2py oxygen atomic orbital, representing the lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atoms, prevents it from hybridizing with the H atomic orbital, leaving the molecular 1b1 HOMO orbital essentially atomic like, and therefore symmetric. However, the orientation averaged molecular orbital used in the theoretical calculation is a bad approximation for that state given the cancellations due to the orbital symmetry. The molecular orbital used in the model therefore should not suffer from the same cancellation problem during the orientational averaging procedure.
This apparatus is fully computer controlled and computer optimized, allowing it to operate continuously without user intervention. A coplanar geometry (psi = 0A?) is defined when all three electrons are in the detection plane. The angular resolution of the apparatus is estimated as A±3A°, based on geometric considerations of the electrostatic lenses at those energies. Several freeze-pump-thaw cycles were performed using a salted ice slurry bath, to remove dissolved gas impurities from the water prior to admission into the scattering chamber.
Over time the emission current from the filament dramatically increased, when a constant current was delivered to the filament.
The data were normalized to a collection time of 1000sec for each measurement, and up to 30 sweeps of the detection plane were used to produce statistically significant results. The overall shape of the TDCS measured at corresponding energies in a previous study of the 1b1 state are qualitatively similar, however the 1b1 state shows a second peak in the binary region emerging at higher energies that is not observed in the 3a1 state. PCI would also be expected to shift the recoil peak towards xi = 90A°, although this cannot be confirmed in the data. This agreement diminishes as the energy increases, which is unexpected since the MDW model is usually more accurate at higher energies. The TDCS measured in the perpendicular plane is almost constant over all analyzer angles, which is very different to what is observed for atomic targets.
The progression in both models shows a decrease in cross section from psi = 0A° to 45A°, after which the intensity once again increases. There also appears to be a narrowing in the main binary peak as the asymmetry increases, with a new shoulder appearing around xi = 60A°.
This contrasts markedly with the calculations, which predict triple peaks in the perpendicular plane that change magnitude only marginally with the asymmetry. This discrepancy is seen both for equal energy and for non-equal energy data, which have been taken in coplanar and perpendicular geometries.
This is because "the firstA design decisionsA will have a very high impact on energy efficiency," Gonzalez stresses. In Gonzalez's experience, it is also very important that the building matches the owners' requirements. In his view, it is therefore crucial to bring together all actors at a very early stage of the planning.
In his view, this is particularly true when introducing new technologies and materials, which is often the case in sustainable buildings. Another part of the problem is paying for factories to make devices that use the energy product.
Once prices rose above $20 per barrel, the amount of debt needed to produce a given amount of GDP growth rose dramatically.
The result was a falling difference between the value to society and the cost of production. The continued debt run-up becomes more and more difficult to handle, unless interest rates fall lower and lower. We need to get back to something similar to the low-cost energy that fueled the economy before the debt run-up. The story we frequently hear is about low oil prices, but there is also a problem with low natural gas prices. Also, low commodity prices affect asset prices–for example, prices of coalmines, or prices of agricultural land. Low prices would then bring the economy down, as it did in the Depression in the 1930s, and in quite a few earlier collapses. We can tell we are hitting this limit when high prices reverse to low prices, as they have done since 2011. Theoretical approximations accurate at high impact energies can no longer be applied, and so there are stringent demands on theory which must be satisfied for accurate comparison with data. The (e,2e) coincidence signal for molecules may then have a correspondingly lower yield compared to an atomic target where the ionization potential is well defined. A pictorial representation of the water molecule in the 1b1 state is given in figure 1.1 below.
The spectrometer allows measurements to be conducted from a coplanar geometry through to the perpendicular plane, although in the present measurements only a coplanar geometry was used. The analyzer pass energy was then set to measure electrons so that the overall resolution of the coincidence signal (as measured using a helium atomic target) was 600meV.
The pump removed background gas from the flask, and extracted dissolved gases held in the water. The flask was secured to the cold side of a 50mm x 50mm thermo-electric cooler (TEC) using a large aluminium block, and the assembly (flask + block) was insulated from the air using Styrofoam.
The 1b1, 3a1 and 1b2 states are clearly resolved in this spectrum, which is fitted to three Gaussian peaks to ascertain the widths of the spectral profiles.
These data were measured in a coplanar geometry with outgoing electron energies of 20eV detected at theta1 = theta2 = 55A°. Figure 1.5(a) shows the lowest energy results, with an incident energy 15eV above the ionization threshold.
Molecular wave-functions are generally not spherical, the nuclei within the molecule providing multiple scattering centres. This becomes a computationally intensive problem, and so approximations are usually made to allow these calculations to become tractable. In this study the analyzers were always kept in a symmetric configuration with xi1 = xi2 = xi. A needle valve at the entrance to the scattering chamber controlled the flow of target H2O vapour into the interaction region. This indicates that an H2O target molecular beam of high purity was created, as confirmed from binding energy spectral studies.
This increase in emission current was often more than a factor of 2 within a 24 hour period.
The solid line shows results from the Molecular Distorted Wave Born Approximation (MDW) while the dashed line was generated from the Molecular 3-body Distorted Wave Approximation (M3DW).
This trend is much clearer in the present data compared to that from the 1b1 state measured at higher energies.
For the theoretical model, the coplanar TDCS has also been normalized to unity for both MDW and M3DW models. These measurements were taken in a series of symmetric non-coplanar geometries with outgoing electron energies of 10eV.
The M3DW model follows a trend that is closer to the experimental data, although neither model accurately predicts the results that have been obtained. The theoretical calculations are also shown, where once again the data and theory have been normalized to unity at the peak in the coplanar geometry. The minimum around 90A° in this geometry does not change substantially as the energy sharing changes. This is due to the different climatic conditions and the availability of different natural resources for supplying renewable energy. This so-called integral planning includes concepts that help establishing useful communication networks.
Electricity would need to be produced for no more than four cents per kWh, and liquid fuels would need to be produced for less than $20 per barrel of oil equivalent. Emissions fell when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, and they fell during the economic crisis in 2008.
A third problem is making it possible for users to afford the end products, such as houses and cars.
At some point, interest rates can’t fall enough, and the whole pile of debt tends to collapse, like a Ponzi scheme. As the prices of commodities fall, the price of the land used to produce those commodities falls. The angles that could be accessed in this configuration ranged from thetaa = thetab = 25A° through to thetaa = thetab = 135A°. The acceptance angle of the analyzer lenses was A±3A°, as set by input apertures at the entrance to the electrostatic lenses. This de-gassing procedure was carried out for ~2 hours before the water sample was used in the experiment, to ensure that the proportion of dissolved gases in the water was minimized. The hot side of the TEC was attached using thermal conducting paste to an aluminium heatsink to which a 12VDC boxer fan was secured, so that heat from the TEC could be dissipated efficiently. If this ratio reduced, the experiment was halted and the water changed to a newly de-gassed sample.
In this case, the 1b1 state was found to have a width of 620meV, which is comparable to that for an atomic target. The contrast between the maximum and minimum in the cross section increases as the energy increases. As the energy increases further to 95eV above threshold (figure 1.5(c)), the double peak in the forward direction is still visible but the magnitudes of the peaks are now different. The purity of this beam was monitored regularly using the mass spectrometer throughout this study. To ensure constant incident electron beam current throughout the measurements as required, the filament current was hence also placed under computer control. The experimental and theoretical data has been independently normalised to unity at each energy.
Dr Kate Nixon thanks the British Council for funding under the research exchange programme, and the Royal Society for a Newton International Fellowship. In this context, the EU-funded projectA DIRECTION, due to be competed in 2016, aims to implement suitable technologies to demonstrate the feasibility of creating very low energy buildings. Most importantly,A the project developer has to have a deep understanding for a building's performance, according to Kaiser.
This is because theA different experts involved in the planning and construction of the building, including insurance companies,A are often sceptical about new materials and technologies.
He also sees a need to develop metrics that characterise and present the quality of a sustainable building. Many commodities besides oil are affected; these include natural gas, coal, iron ore, many metals, and many types of food.
The low cost would need to be the result of very sparing use of resources, rather than the result of government subsidies. Perhaps the world economy is hitting headwinds that are not being picked up well in conventional calculations of GDP growth.
With higher wages, workers could afford more products that used electricity, such as electric lights for their homes and radios. If cheap energy is not really available, then adding more debt can somewhat make up for the high cost of energy production. It is much easier to borrow the money for a new tractor, and pay the loan off as the tractor is put to use, than it is to save money in advance, using only the funds earned when farming with simple hand-held tools.
When oil prices are low, oil-exporting nations find it hard to collect enough taxes to support their many programs. Prices of iron ore, steel, copper, and many other metals are very low, as are prices of many kinds of staple foods traded internationally. For asymmetric geometries, thetaa is fixed at 22A° while analyzer 2 is swept around the scattering plane. A glass flask was used for this procedure as this allowed the process to be visually monitored.
This indicates that the energetic effects of ro-vibrational transitions from the ground state to the ion state are negligible for this state.
Further checks were made regularly on the energy of the incident electron beam by monitoring the coincidence energy spectrum (figure 1.3), and regular monitoring of the partial pressures of the gases in the vacuum chamber. A second peak occurs in the backscatter region, however the maximum of this peak appears to occur at thetab < 225A°.
For non-coplanar geometries the electron gun is lifted out of the plane, and is defined by the angle psi.
Moreover, national regulations may set the limits for the way in which energy efficient technologies are applied. Our concern should be that low prices will bring down production, quite possibly for many commodities simultaneously.
There is an offset of 1eV in the position of the peaks which is due to contact potentials in the spectrometer.
The full line represents a three-Gaussian fit, whereas the dotted lines show the individual Gaussians from this fit, illustrating the degree of separation measured with the current energy resolution.
The results in the backward direction also have structure, with a minimum occurring when thetab ~ 250A°. The only way to deal with that problem is to look at the real world [implementation]," he tells Directions. Very little contamination is expected from neighbouring orbitals in the measured TDCS for the 3a1 state.
If left undisturbed, with the circuit running, then each battery would charge up to nearly 36 volts with no apparent ill effects.

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