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Norwalk virus Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. While some cases of gingivitis never progress to periodontitis, data indicate that periodontitis is always preceded by gingivitis. Additionally, the stippling+ that normally exists on the gum tissue of some individuals will often disappear and the gums may appear shiny when the gum tissue becomes swollen and stretched over the inflamed underlying connective tissue. The ''etiology'', or cause, of plaque-induced gingivitis is bacterial plaque, which acts to initiate the body's host response+.
Gingivitis is a category of periodontal disease where there is no loss of bone but there is presence of inflammation and bleeding. Each tooth is divided into four gingival units (mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual) and given a score from 0-3 based on the gingival index. Current research shows that activity levels of the following enzymes in saliva samples are associated with periodontal destruction: asparatate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP).
A dental hygienist or dentist will check for the symptoms of gingivitis, and may also examine the amount of plaque in the oral cavity. If gingivitis is not responsive to treatment, referral to a periodontist+ (a specialist in diseases of the gingiva and bone around teeth and dental implants) for further treatment may be necessary. Gingivitis can be prevented through regular oral hygiene+ that includes daily brushing+ and flossing+. Rigorous plaque control programs along with periodontal scaling and curettage also have proved to be helpful, although according to the American Dental Association+, periodontal scaling+ and root planing+ are considered as a treatment for periodontal disease, not as a preventive treatment for periodontal disease. The active ingredients approved by the American Dental Association that "reduce plaque and demonstrate effective reduction of gingival inflammation over a period of time" are triclosan, chlorhexidine digluconate, and a combination of thymol, menthol, eucalyptol and methyl salicylate. The bacteria that causes gingivitis can be controlled by using an oral irrigator+ daily with a mouthwash containing an antibiotic. Overall, intensive oral hygiene care has been shown to improve gingival health in individuals with well-controlled type 2 diabetes.
Gingivitis+ Gingivitis ("inflammation of the gum tissue") is a non-destructive periodontal disease. We have the logistics to handle shipping, plenty of warehousing space, and experience in the region. Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria (rickettsiae, chlamydiae), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication.
Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content. The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal disease+ overall, is in response to bacterial biofilms+ (also called plaque+) adherent to tooth surfaces, termed ''plaque-induced gingivitis''.
However, in the absence of treatment, or if not controlled, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis+, where the inflammation results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption+, which can ultimately lead to tooth loss. Therefore, these enzyme biomarkers may be used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis.
A dental hygienist or dentist will also look for signs of periodontitis+ using X-ray+s or periodontal probing+ as well as other methods. Hydrogen peroxide+, saline+, alcohol+ or chlorhexidine+ mouth wash+es may also be employed.


Therapy is aimed at the reduction of oral bacteria, and may take the form of regular periodic visits to a dental professional together with adequate oral hygiene home care. Either amoxicillin+, cephalexin+, or minocycline+ in 16 ounces of a non-alcoholic fluoride mouthwash is an effective mixture.
The most common form of gingivitis, and the most common form of periodontal disease overall, is in response to bacterial biofilms (also called plaque) adherent to tooth surfaces, termed plaque-induced gingivitis. We can offer Personal Protective Equipment which will help protect responders to the Ebola crisis. We understand the urgency of this situation, and in all cases we’ll get back with you immediately.
When the gingiva are swollen, the epithelial+ lining of the gingival crevice becomes ulcer+ated and the gums will bleed more easily with even gentle brushing, and especially when flossing. In a 2004 clinical study, the beneficial effect of hydrogen peroxide on gingivitis has been highlighted. Food and Drug Administration+ (FDA) found clear evidence showing that toothpaste containing triclosan+ was effective in preventing gingivitis. Thus, several of the methods used in the prevention of gingivitis can also be used for the treatment of manifest gingivitis, such as scaling, root planing, curettage+, mouth wash+es containing chlorhexidine+ or hydrogen peroxide+, and flossing.
Hydrogen peroxide was long considered a suitable over-the-counter agent to treat gingivitis. Intensive oral hygiene care (oral health education plus supra-gingival scaling) without any periodontal therapy improves gingival health, and may prevent progression of gingivitis in well-controlled diabetes.
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis+ Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG; colloquially known as trench mouth) is a common, non-contagious infection of the gums with sudden onset. There has been evidence to show the positive effect on controlling gingivitis in short-term use. These are the proteins that form the capsid (protein coat); there may also be a few enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in assembling the capsid around newly synthesized viral nucleic acid, in controlling the biochemical mechanisms of the host cell, and in lysing the host cell when new virions have been assembled. A study indicates the fluoridated hydrogen peroxide-based mouth rinse can remove teeth stain and reduce gingivitis. For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme (transcriptase) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger.
In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell.
Early plaque in health consists of a relatively simple bacterial community dominated by Gram-positive cocci and rods. When these proteins assemble to form the capsid, part of the host cell membrane is pinched off to form the envelope of the virion.Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. As plaque matures, and gingivitis develops, the communities become increasingly complex with higher proportions of Gram-negative rods, fusiforms, filaments, spirilla and spirochetes. Later experimental gingivitis studies, using culture, provided more information regarding the specific bacterial species present in plaque.
Some envelope proteins facilitate viral entry into the cell, and others have directly pathogenic effects.Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches to prevent periodontal disease.


In the lentiviruses, it was formerly mistakenly believed that virus was inactive during this period.
The true situation is that lentiviruses are rapidly replicating and spawning dozens of quasi-species until a particularly effective one overruns the ability of the host's immune system to defeat it.
For many years all forms of latency were thought to be identical, but now it has been discovered that there are different types with basic and important distinctions.In viral latency, most of the host cells may be protected from infection by immune mechanisms involving antibodies to the viral particles or interferon. Cytotoxic lymphocytes may also act as antigen-presenting cells to better coordinate the immune response. Containment of virus in mucosal tissues is far more complex, involving follicular dendritic cells and Langerhans cells.Some enveloped RNA viruses can be produced in infected cells that continue growing and dividing without being killed.
It is also possible for the DNA of some viruses to be incorporated into the host cell DNA, producing a carrier state.
These are almost always retroviruses, which are called proviruses before and after integration of viral DNA into the host genome.Few viruses produce toxins, although viral infections of bacteria can cause previously innocuous bacteria to become much more pathogenic and toxic.
Other viral proteins, such as some of the human immunodeficiency virus, appear to be actively toxic, but those are the exception, not the rule.However, viruses are highly antigenic. In patients with hemolytic anemia or sickle cell disease it causes aplastic crisis; it can also cause acute arthritis. Persistent infection in immunocompromised patients can lead to chronic bone marrow failure. This has the most rapid onset of the hepatitis viruses affecting humans; transmission is easier than for the hepatitis B and C viruses, but infection generally does not persist. Progression of HIV-2 infection to AIDS is generally slower and less extreme than that of HIV-1.
The virus is believed to induce permanent infection and has a propensity toward a subset of T lymphocytes called the CD4 cells.
The infected cells become dysfunctional and eventually the host's immune system is overwhelmed or exhausted; death ensues, usually as a result of infection. HTLV-1 causes chronic infection and is associated with adult T-cell leukemia and a type of myelopathy. Serotype A viruses are subject to major antigenic changes (antigenic shifts) as well as minor gradual antigenic changes (antigenic drift) and cause widespread epidemics and pandemics. RSV can cause a wide variety of respiratory disorders ranging from a mild cold to serious or even fatal disease of the lung in the very young and very old. It regularly produces an outbreak of infection each winter and virtually disappears in the summer months. The most severe infections in children are in the very young, especially those who are preterm, immunologically compromised, or suffering from a congenital heart defect or preexisting lung disorder. Adults at risk for infection include parents and others who are repeatedly exposed to young children, for example, pediatric nurses and day care attendants. The course of infection tends to be milder in adults than in children and about 15 per cent of affected adults have no symptoms. Norwalk virus A small round structured virus (SRSV), 23–35 nm in diameter, responsible for a considerable number of cases of gastroenteritis, some associated with infected shellfish.



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