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admin 02.02.2014

A common flu virus could be used to overcome patients’ resistance to certain cancer drugs — and improve how those drugs kill cancer cells, according to new research from Queen Mary University of London (QMUL). The work, funded by UK charity Pancreatic Cancer Research Fund, contributes to a growing area in cancer treatment in which viruses are harnessed to kill cancer cells. Viruses can be modified to specifically infect cancer cells, and use them as a factory to generate thousands of new viruses, replicating until the cancer cell bursts.
The virus copies will then spread and infect surrounding tumour cells and repeat the process, leaving healthy cells unharmed.
But the body’s immune system will usually kill off the virus before it is able to infect all the cells within a tumour.
In pancreatic cancer, therefore, drugs such as gemcitabine are currently the most common treatment — they work by damaging the DNA in the cancer cells, so they are unable to divide successfully. This damage triggers a process called apoptosis, in which damaged or unhealthy cells are forced to self-destruct. Over time, however, the cancer cell becomes able to delay apoptosis in order to repair the damage to its DNA, which means that the cells survive and continue to divide and spread and the drug becomes less effective. In a study published in the journal Oncotarget, the team at QMUL’s Barts Cancer Institute introduced a genetic modification to the virus, called adenovirus, to give it an extra weapon against cancer cells.
By switching off a particular gene in the virus which counteracts apoptosis, the scientists found cancer cells studied in the laboratory were unable to delay apoptosis and so forced to die without dividing. The modified virus still infects some cancer cells and replicates until the cell bursts, but by also preventing the cancer cells from developing drug resistance, it works with the anti-cancer drug to increase the number of cells that are killed. Developing virus-based cancer therapies has been a key goal in cancer research for several years and some technologies have already moved into the clinic: last year, for example, a melanoma therapy, based on a herpes virus called T-VEC, was approved for use in the US and in Europe.
The QMUL research is at an early stage, but the team believe they have found a promising new route for developing combination treatments for pancreatic cancer. The next step for the researchers will be to test other modified versions of adenovirus to better understand the exact mechanism through which it enhances cell killing. Further modifications will also be made to enable the virus to trigger the body’s immune system, which will attack any cancer cells that have not been infected by the virus. Please note - by subscribing to this newsletter you are confirming that you are a healthcare professional working within oncology or an aligned specialty. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome A Holistic Herbal Treatment ApproachA Holistic Herbal Treatment Approach Chanchal Cabrera MSc, MNIMH, AHG haematological evidence of chronic infection with Epstein Barr Virus, or occasionally with A high quality multi vitamin and mineral supplement s hould be used daily.
Valganciclovir – Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaIt has been proposed that valganciclovir could be used in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.

The Immunological Basis For Treatment Of Multiple SclerosisImportant in therapy or prevention, including the Epstein–Barr virus and vita-min D. Vitamin D3 (natural) Health BenefitsThat may also increase the risk of MS include infection with the Epstein–Barr virus and cigarette smoking.
MS And MJ – YouTubeMarijuana is not a benign treatment and its effects are often insidious. Pictorial Essay Of The TMN Stages Of Nasopharyngeal CarcinomaSusceptibility, Epstein Barr virus exposure and other environmental exposures eg: salted fish, vitamin C deficiency (1, 2). Stage 4 pancreatic cancer, in particular, is the stage of pancreatic cancer where the cancer has already spread to several distantly located places within the body. Patients with stage 4 pancreatic cancer are often classified into two groups, which both indicate how the pancreatic cancer has spread throughout the body. Group A Patients - These patients often have pancreatic cancer that’s spread to localized areas, such as nearby organs and blood vessels. Group B Patients - These patients often have pancreatic cancer that had already spread to several distantly spaced organs within the body, in most cases, the lungs. Stage 4 pancreatic cancer is considered fatal, thanks to the very nature of the cancer spreading to adjacent organs.
The lower life expectancy is due to the fact that the cancer, at this point, spreads to the surrounding organs.
Treatment for stage 4 pancreatic cancer often involves chemotherapy and the administration of pain-relieving drugs for patients. Replication kinetics of rNDVs in 6 different human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines (HPACs). Abstract Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) might be a promising new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The virus alone will kill some tumour cells, but in combination with the drug, the number of cells that are killed is greatly increased. Much like other forms of cancer, pancreatic cancer progresses into several different stages, which often indicate the progression of the severity of the disease. Many of the symptoms start once the pancreatic cancer starts spreading to the organs of the body. As of now, many medical resources pin the median survival rate for stage 4 pancreatic cancer patients to be about three to five months, depending on the condition of the patient.

Recombinant Immunomodulating Lentogenic or Mesogenic Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus for Treatment of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.
The nucleotide length of the NDV genome is noted below the plasmid names and all full-length plasmids and pGEM-T-PM-cassette are drawn to scale. 0.1 and samples were taken at indicated time points and titrated by end-point dilution assay in Vero-118 cells.
Graphs with specific xenograft-treatment combinations depict individual mouse tumor volumes with black lines and dots. Expression of additional proteins did not hamper virus replication or cytotoxic effects on itself.
The 3?-terminal leader, intergenic regions and 5?-terminal trailer are shown as horizontal lines. Last observed tumor volumes were carried forward to calculate median volumes per group in the lowest plots.
However, expression of interferon, but not NS1, resulted in loss of multicycle replication. Gene-end and gene-start sequences in the PM intergenic region are depicted as vertical black and white rectangles, respectively.
Results are presented as fold change gene induction of treated versus mock treated cells calculated using the 2???CT method [31]. Conversely, increasing the virulence (rNDV-F\(_{\rm{3aa}}\)) resulted in enhanced replication of the virus. Means and ranges of triplicate experiments are plotted; (b) Supernatants were tested for functional IFN protein content using an ISRE-luc bioassay [14].
RNA of indicated rNDV stocks was reverse transcribed into cDNA and the PM intergenic region was amplified with RT-PCR using flanking primers; (c) Western blot for expression of NS1 protein.
Whole cell lysates of Vero-118 cells (mock-) inoculated with indicated viruses were assayed for expression of the NS1 protein or tubulin protein. Evaluation in vivo using mice bearing subcutaneous pancreatic cancer xenografts revealed that only intratumoral injection with rNDV-F\(_{\rm{3aa}}\) resulted in regression of tumors. We conclude that although lentogenic rNDVs harboring proteins that modulate the type I interferon pathway proteins do have an oncolytic effect, a more virulent mesogenic rNDV might be needed to improve oncolytic efficacy.

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