Ways to increase body energy domyos,alternative cures for adhd,herbal medicine regulation uk - PDF Review

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The (e,2e) spectrometer vacuum chamber (figure 1) is manufactured from 304 grade stainless steel, the construction being carried out by Vacuum Generators using a design of Jones, Read and Cvejanovic, full details of which may be found in T. 3mm thick mu-metal magnetic shielding is placed both internally and externally to decrease extraneous external magnetic fields to less than 5mG at the interaction region. All inputs and outputs to the spectrometer pass through the vacuum chamber via feedthroughs on the top flange. The top flange of the vacuum system is a 25mm stainless steel flange with 11 conflat CF70 flanges arranged around a central 200mm flange designed for locating a hydrogen source.
Two flanges are used for the high voltage channeltron and photomultiplier tube inputs and pulse outputs.
Three rotary motion feedthroughs allow the analysers and electron gun angles to be changed externally via stepper motors for both analysers and for the electron gun. The ionisation gauge is placed at right angles to the main flange to prevent light from the thoriated iridium filament entering the vacuum system, which would increase noise on the photomultiplier tube. The ionisation gauge feedthrough is sooted, and a loose cover is placed over the entrance in the chamber flange to prevent stray light from the ion gauge entering the vacuum system. The target gas enters the system via a CF70 flange which has two 6mm stainless steel tubes welded into the flange. The other gas feed is connected to a hypodermic needle set at 90A° to the incident beam for measurements in other geometries. The gas jet which is not currently used in the interaction region can be used to non-locally fill the chamber with gas for background counting measurements. The final CF70 flange is used when the photomultiplier tube is cooled, usually during baking of the system following exposure to atmosphere.
The tube is cooled by passing vapour from a liquid nitrogen source through expansion coils wrapped around the photomultiplier tube housing. The electron gun is a two stage non-selected gun designed by Woolf (Ph.D thesis, University of Manchester) (see figure 3). The gun consists of a filament, grid and anode source which is focussed using a triple aperture lens through two 1mm defining apertures in the centre of the gun. The apertures define the electron beam pencil and beam angles, and are focussed onto the interaction region using a second triple aperture lens located between the apertures and interaction region.
The electron gun is shielded using advance (constantin) sheet which is grounded to the body of the gun mounting. The gun is mounted onto an x-y translation table to allow placement of the electron beam as accurately as possible to the centre of rotation of the analysers and electron gun rotation axis. The gas jet is mounted from the electron gun using a narrow support of 310 stainless steel, and the Faraday cup can be attached to this support. The original unselected electron gun built by Woolf was completely rewired and a custom built PTFE 25 way inline wire-wrap plug and socket was placed between the 52 way vacuum electrical feedthrough and the electron gun. The wiring from the 52 way feedthrough to the inline plug is shielded colour coded 30 awg PTFE coated advance wire, and the inline plug and socket connectors are non-magnetic gold plated wire wrap pins.
The electron analysers are constructed from molybdenum and are mounted from two rotating gear plates controlled externally via the rotation feedthroughs on the top flange (see figure 2). The input electrostatic lenses for each analyser are three element cylindrical lenses as shown in figure 4. The interaction region is focussed onto the entrance aperture of the hemispherical energy analysers with a beam angle of around zero degrees, the image of the analyser entrance aperture being larger than the size of the interaction region. Field gradients around the input and exit apertures are corrected using standard Jost correctors.
The energy selected electrons passing through the exit apertures are finally collected by Mullard X919BL channel electron multipliers which amplify the single electron to produce a current pulse at their output. A principle source of noise on the signal pulses arises from the turbo-molecular pump motor. The noise from the turbo pump is reduced to ~ 5mV using these techniques, and as the average pulse height from the saturated multiplier is around 20-40 mV, this allows adequate discrimination following amplification. The pre-amplifiers located external to the vacuum system are commercial 100X preamplifiers with 400pS rise-times, manufactured by Phillips Scientific. The NIM signals produced by the discriminators drive two ORTEC 437 Time to Amplitude Converter's via appropriate delay cables and an ORTEC pulse delay unit. The main TAC output feeds an ORTEC Multichannel Analyser card located in the PC controlling the experiment, whereas the second monitor TAC drives an external MCA, allowing convenient monitoring of the coincidence signal as the experiment progresses.
The high voltage supplies to the electron multipliers are two Brandenberg 5kV supplies controlled by the main PC via serial DAC's. Principally the filter is used to reduce pickup noise from entering via the HT cable onto the multiplier output.
Secondly, the filter has a slow response time for high voltage spikes, and reduces the probability of damage to the pulse electronics should the EHT supply suddenly turn on or off.
Capacitor C2 decouples the 1kW load resistor to earth for high frequency pulses from the CEM's, and the voltage appearing across this load is connected via the capacitor C3 to the input of the 6954 preamplifier. Since the input impedance of the preamplifier is 50W and the CEM is effectively an ideal constant current supply, most of the current passes through to the preamplifier. Finally, the 10M resistor prevents the output to the preamp from rising above ground when the preamp is disconnected from the circuit and is therefore a safety device for the preamplifier when initially connected.
The original design placed the atomic beam nozzle and Faraday cup on the same support structure fixed to the body of the electron gun, with the atomic beam direction being in the detection plane when the perpendicular plane geometry is chosen (see figure 2).
A second configuration is adopted for exclusively perpendicular plane coincidence experiments, the atomic beam nozzle being oriented at an angle of 45A° to the detection plane so that the gas effusing from the nozzle does not fill the analysers when they oppose the nozzle (see figure 6). In this configuration the support strut for the atomic beam nozzle is terminated lower than the detection plane, as is the nozzle itself. For non-perpendicular plane measurements the Faraday cup is once mounted from the support strut and the gas effuses perpendicular to the electron beam direction. One difficulty when aligning an (e,2e) coincidence experiment lies in the focussing the incident electron beam and analysers onto the interaction region. The throughput of electron current as detected by the Faraday cup is insensitive to both position and focusing of the electron beam, since the cup opening is usually made quite large (in this case 6 - 10mm) and the bias voltage applied to the cup to prevent electrons returning to the interaction region allows all electron trajectories within this opening to be detected. Conventionally, following maximisation of the Faraday cup current, the beam is steered and focussed onto the gas jet as detected by counts in the analysers. This has the disadvantage that the overlap volume is maximised for both atomic and electron beam density, which tends to place the interaction volume as close as possible to the output of the atomic beam nozzle, which is almost certainly not in the centre of the detection plane. To eliminate the need for time consuming iterative techniques and the associated errors due to detection geometry, a separate method for tuning the electron gun is adopted that does not depend upon the analysers. The interaction between the target and the electron beam not only produces ionisation, but the valence states of the target also are excited with various probabilities depending upon the incident energy of the electron beam. These photons are detected by the photomultiplier tube, by placing a 450nm A± 50nm optical filter in front of the photocathode. The interaction region is therefore defined where an aperture in front of the photocathode is focused by the lens.
The plano-convex focussing glass lens is covered by a grounded fine tungsten mesh to eliminate surface charging.
The photomultiplier tube may be cooled by circulating nitrogen gas boiled off LN2 through copper coils encircling the photomultiplier tube housing.
The photomultiplier tube used in the experiment is a 9789QB EMI photomultiplier tube with a bi-alkali photocathode peaking in the blue region of the optical spectrum. As with the electron multiplier circuitry, it is important to optimise the load of the photomultiplier tube so that reflections along the feeder line to the counting electronics are minimised. The 1nF 6kV capacitors across the dynodes close to the output stage are used as charge storage pumps that quickly refurbish the surface charge on the dynodes, allowing increased counting rates.
The dynode resistors are 1% tolerance metal film resistors as these are more stable with temperature. The EHT supply to the photomultiplier tube is a Brandenberg 2kV supply operating at 1500V for this tube. The negative going output pulses from the tube measure typically 200-500mV in height, and therefore are able to directly drive an ORTEC 473A constant fraction discriminator located in one of the NIM crates. All resistors and capacitors for the dynode chain are soldered to the photomultiplier tube base internal to the vacuum system, using standard 5-core solder. Typical pulse heights from the electron multipliers in saturation mode are 25-40mV, whereas the typical height of the photomultiplier tube pulses is of the order of 250mV. The electron multiplier pulses are obtained from the multiplier supply circuitry as explained above.
The amplified pulses from the 6954 amplifiers pass along doubly shielded RG-58 cable to the input of the ORTEC 473A discriminators. The two analyser discriminators are located in separate NIM crates to increase isolation and reduce common mode pickup. The slow rise-time positive outputs from the 473A discriminators pass to three ORTEC 441 rate-meters which allow counting and monitoring of the pulses. The fast NIM pulses from the analyser 473A CFD's pass through appropriate delay lines to two 437 TAC's. This second multichannel analyser allows the operator to monitor the total accumulated coincidence signal during operation. The lens supplies that control the voltages impressed onto the lens elements and deflectors in the experiment were developed over a number of years, and therefore take different forms.
Three of these supplies feed the deflectors in the electron gun, the other two supply the input deflectors in the analysers.
In a second 19" crate is located the gun lens high voltage supplies together with the high voltage supplies for the Faraday cup. In a third 19" crate is located the analyser voltage supplies together with a set of serial loading supplies that control the electron multiplier EHT supplies. A further supply controls the current boost circuitry located in the filament constant current supply unit (see below).
The outputs of each computer controlled supply that drives an individual lens element or deflector are connected to a 70 relay switching board. The Digital voltmeter is in turn accessed via an IEEE-488 interface which is addressed by an 8086 slave PC which converses with the central PC which controls the experiment.
The outputs from the relay board connect to the spectrometer via shielded multicore cables which take the gun voltages to the 52 way feedthrough and the analyser voltages to the two 19 way feedthroughs located on the vacuum flange.
The gun supply multicore also carries the filament supply current to the 52 way feedthrough. The Faraday cup current is measured by the Keithley Digital voltmeter when under computer control but this can also be measured by an external pico-ammeter. In addition to the analyser electrostatic lens and deflector voltage connections, the 19 way CF70 feedthroughs are used to control signals from internal sensing opto-isolators which control the stepper motor interlocks.
The stepper motors that drive the analysers and electron gun around the detection plane are five phase motors with integral 10X reduction gearboxes driving the rotary motion feedthroughs. The intelligent stepper motor drivers are addressed via a serial port located on the controlling PC bus.
An additional interference problem was traced to the RS232 serial line from the controlling PC.
The PC bus was found to be poorly earthed due to very little copper being used for the bus earth. This was cured by decoupling the 0V RS232 line from the main 0V line for the stepper motors, as is shown in figure 10. The analyser stepper motor supplies have a facility for halting the motors using limit switches which are optically coupled to the internal 68000 logic circuits driving the supplies.
The SD5443-3 phototransistor normally illuminated by the TEMT88PD photodiode during operation ensured a fail-safe mechanism should any of these components fail (this automatically prevent the motors from running). Should the analysers move into a position as defined by the four criteria (a) - (d) above, a shutter located on the analyser turntables moves between the appropriate photodiode and phototransistor, shutting off the light and thereby shutting down the stepper motor current. Only motion in the opposite direction is allowed by controlling logic, allowing the analyser to move away from the point of imminent collision but no closer. The six pairs of optocouplers that prevent the analysers moving into the Faraday cup, electron gun and gas jet support are located on the mounting struts supporting the main body of the spectrometer.
Two optocouplers are located on the side of analyser 2, and two shutters are located on the sides of analyser 1 to prevent the analysers colliding with each other. Finally a ninth optocoupler is located over the electron gun counterweight which monitors when the gun is at an angle less than 65A°, where the sweep angle around the detection plane is reduced. The current boost circuit operates from a serial driven supply card as detailed previously. The main filament drive is through six power diodes that feed the current from the constant current supply to the filament. The Darlington transistor T1 feeds additional current to the filament via three parallel 10 turn 100W trim resistors through a 1N4007 diode.
As the constant current supply acts as an infinite resistance source, the boost circuit supplies additional current only when the voltage at the anode of the feed 1N4007 exceeds the output voltage of the constant current supply. Finally, the filament bias voltage (and hence energy of the electrons) is set to the midpoint of the filament by two 100W balancing resistors located across the terminals. In addition to the ADC buffer card, three independent isolated regulated supplies drive REF01 voltage reference sources for measurement of the positions of 10 turn potentiometers located on the analyser and electron gun rotary drive shafts. The angular position of the electron gun and analysers is calibrated when the system is opened using visible laser diodes that define these angles to an accuracy of A±0.2A°. Figure 13 shows an overall block diagram detailing the computer control and high speed pulse interfacing to the spectrometer. Connect with God (Divine Intelligence) - You may have heard the statement a€?Let go and let Goda€? but that ita€™s not easy unless you know God and have faith that it is safe to let go and allow the energy of the Universe to guide you.
If the substation is immediately next to your home there is little in a practical sense you can do to reduce the magnetic fields. As if cell phone radiation werena€™t enough of a threat to children, it has now become apparent that we have to consider the danger of how radio-frequency-emitting-baby monitors are affecting infants while they sleep in their cribs.A  As a conscientious parent, you may be using a seemingly harmless baby monitor as a safeguard for your infanta€“to let you know how they are doing while you arena€™t in the room. Baby monitors use a€?Decta€? or digitally enhanced cordless telecommunication technology to transmit signals. Powerwatch, a watchdog organization for radiation danger, says: A a€?A Dect monitor placed in your babya€™s bedroom will expose them to more pulsing microwave radiation than living near to a mobile phone mast would do. Predictably, marketers of the baby monitors have stated that they do not think there is any danger from their product, saying that they meet international safety standards. Some laboratory specialists in this kind of radiation have recommended placing the monitors at least 10 feet from an infanta€™s crib. Unfortunately for both my kids, who have now been out of nappies for a good many years, we used Dect type baby monitors, just out of ignorance. If it has to be wireless, prefer a low-band 35 to 50 MHz analogue model which does not pulse and remember to keep any baby monitor as far from your baby as possible, I recommend at least 1 metre away. The safest baby monitor is a fully wired version, linking through the electrical wiring but these are not widely available.
Best to change your old cathode-ray monitors (the ones with the deep backs) to any type of flat screen monitor as these give of far less Electromagnetic fields than the old type which thankfully you cana€™t buy any more. Geobiology explores the relationship between life and the Eartha€™s physical and chemical environment. The history of geobiology in this respect dates back to 1929 when a German aristocrat Baron Gustov Von Pohl, an eminent dowser, made the extraordinary claim that cancer was caused by a€?energy linesa€™ that ran under the beds of the people that had died from the disease.
Underground Streams: a€?Water will flow through any underground passage, fracture of fissure. The dark square with flashing white lines is a photographic print of microwaves radiating in the space above an underground watercourse taken in total darkness.
Diagram depicts the flow of underground water and consequential chemical reactions within certain geological features that could be the origin of geopathic stress issues. The dipolar nature of water molecules can also be part of the origin of electromagnetic fields originating from ground contained water. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.a€?These are usually sorted by the frequency. For visual explanation, NASA have a simple but useful diagram, and there is a far more detailed diagram available from thinkgeek (purchase required). We believe that one of the main reasons that EMFs (particularly microwave frequencies) are potentially bioactive is due to the nature of the signal itself.
We have evolved with the natural levels of EMFs produced by both the sun and world around us. Power frequency (50Hz in the UK) is given off by any appliance or transmission of AC (alternating current) electrity.
Childhood leukaemia has been internationally accepted as linked to powerfrequency exposure magnetic fields, with a wealth of literature finding increases in risk to this and other illnesses. It is well documented and generally accepted that over-exposure to ultraviolet rays can cause burning and skin cancer.
There are internationally accepted guidelines by the International Commission for Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) that have been designed to limit both residential and occupational exposure to levels that are safely below those that can heat up tissue.
However, recently there has been a number of studies showing very specific biological effects far lower than these levels (see our Studies list), and as yet there is no international guidance that has taken any of these studies into effect.
Powerfrequency electromagnetic fields are generated by any appliance running off AC (alternating current) power - anything plugged into a main power socket will generate them to some degree. At the moment, health effects primarily associated with powerfrequency EMFs are due to the magnetic component - these include, but are not limited to, Childhood Leukaemia, Adult Leukaemia, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Miscarriage, and Clinical Depression. There is a fairly brief overview of health risks and evidence in the health concerns section of the electric power transmission article on Wikipedia. The last type of geopathic disturbance that I want to talk about before we have a look at man-made electromagnetic energies concerns the earth's natural geomagnetic field (the one that makes a compass needles pointA  north).
The first geomagnetogram (G1) typically represents the values of the Earths normal geomagnetic field taken by me in a farmer's field near Poynings village not far from where I live. The second geomagnetogram (G2) was taken above a sprung mattress from a lady suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome and severe depression, and has a magnetic anomaly of 22,435.4 nT.
The Cliff of Tears a€?It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live.
Unnatural Alterations in the Earth's Geomagnetic Field a€?A second and equally important influence on the sequence of mitosis is the role in which the normal earth's geomagnetic field (DC field) influences the formation and production of a healthy pregnancy. Health risks due to exposure to electromagnetic fields EMFa€™s in the home were first suggested in America by Wertheimer and Leeper, when they estimated the levels people were exposed to, using a€?wire codesa€™, and the local incidence of childhood leukaemia. Stress sensitive hormones such as prolactin and thyroxide have been found to be elevated in people at work in high electromagnetic environments.A  Prolactin plays a key role in moderating parts of the neuro-immune system and may also be an important precipitator of auto immune diseases. It has been scientifically proven for the first time, with a double blind study by means of an electrocardiogram, that the detrimental effects of a€?water veinsa€? and other geopathically disturbing phenomena can cause serious health problems to persons exposed to them. This presentation took place in March 2003 in the large auditorium of the Saint Johanns-hospital Landesklinjken SalzburgA  Germany. At locations where Geopathic stress zones are present, subsurface water plays a predominantrole, either as lakes, slowly moving underground water, or as water streams. Technical electromagnetic fields can also drastically affect the human body, as soon as certain field strengths are reached.
The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.These are usually sorted by the frequency. The Cliff of Tears It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live. Unnatural Alterations in the Earth's Geomagnetic Field A second and equally important influence on the sequence of mitosis is the role in which the normal earth's geomagnetic field (DC field) influences the formation and production of a healthy pregnancy. Danny Cahill, portrayed in the article as a failure, started at 430 pounds, and his current weight of 295 is still 130 pounds below starting.
Amanda Arlauskas had a starting weight of 250, and she’s keeping off 74 pounds with her current weight of 176. Reducing fat in your diet? Benefit of replacing saturated fat with vegetable oils was overestimated! To learn more about putting your diabetes in remission, call 952 835 2132 and talk to a Registered Dietitian about your specific situation. Knowledge of appropriate foods and beverages needed for weight loss and diet of patients in an obesity clinic Kaufer-Horwitz, M., et al. If someone you love is trying to lose weight, you want to support their efforts to get healthy. Oh Halloween – what a fun time: Parties and costumes and trick-or-treaters and brightly colored sweets everywhere! A recent study reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that weight loss results from low carb and low fat diets were similar after one year. National physical activity experts report that workers today are burning an average of 120 to 140 fewer calories a day than workers in the 1960s. Your body can absorb the nutrients in the food more readily, since it is broken down better. A British study shows taking a short, brisk walk can reduce the amount of snacking you do at work.


February is Heart Health Month, which makes it a great time for individuals to evaluate their lifestyle and how it may be contributing to or harming their heart’s wellbeing. We Minnesotans are used to the snow and cold of winter, but this season has seemed especially brutal, hasn't it? The below-zero windchills and heavy snow make it feel easier to stay indoors and eat at our desk than to go out or go home for lunch. Dieting can be frustrating when the scale is not showing a decrease in pounds or the weight is not staying off. Here's another great OPTIFAST success story!In her late twenties, Elizabeth began taking a new medication which caused her to rapidly gain weight. Researchers have found that people who are overweight have an increased risk of loss in brain volume, which could translate to decreased mental function later in life. If you need a little extra help keeping track of your daily food intake and planning meals, we have some technology suggestions that can help!
The habit of snacking appears to be more common now than several decades ago, and it could be affecting people's waistlines. A study found that if you are over the age of 35, drinking two cups of water before every meal is an effective weight management tool. You may have heard in the news recently that the American Medical Association designated obesity as a disease. Patients and friends have been telling me about using these "milks" for their morning shakes. One of these is internally connected to a gas jet which can be set at 45A° to the incident electron beam and is used in the perpendicular plane experiments.
These stainless steel feeder tubes are connected to the nozzle using grounded shielded PTFE hose. One follows the anode, another corrects the beam direction between the apertures and a third steers the beam onto the interaction region. This shield is coated with aerodag colloidal graphite to reduce patch fields on the surface of the metal, and is made as small as possible to allow the analysers to approach the gun as close as is feasible when non-perpendicular plane geometries are selected (see figure 2). The XY translation table is mounted from the rotating yoke, to which is attached the photomultiplier tube.
This allows the gun to be dismounted from the system without the need for rewiring of the feedthrough when the need arises (filament changes, cleaning etc). The wiring between the gun and inline socket is also shielded colour coded PTFE coated advance wire facilitating spot welding to the electrostatic lens elements of the gun.
The analysers are mounted onto x-z translation tables that allow them to view the interaction region accurately over the full range of angles accessible. These lenses have a capability for energy zooming of around 10 : 1, and have a maximum entrance acceptance angle of A±3A° as defined by the entrance apertures. This ensures that the overlap volume accepted by each analyser encompasses the interaction volume for all detection angles as the analysers move in the detection plane. These devices use an activated lead glass internal surface which has a high coefficient of secondary electron emission when a high voltage (around 3000V) is applied across the multiplier. This noise may be picked up by the channel electron multiplier and the high voltage feed to the multiplier, and is generated internally in the vacuum system. The CFD's are operated in NaI mode as this has a 2ms dead time following the initial pulse, thus reducing the possibility of false triggering due to any mismatching impedance reflections along the delay cable.
These EHT supplies are connected via VERO 200 high voltage couplings to high voltage cable connecting to the pickoff circuitry located on the high voltage feedthroughs.
This allowed the analysers to roam the detection plane over a complete 360A° angular range.
The configuration of the target source hypodermic when perpendicular plane measurements are conducted. The common procedure is to initially maximise the current from the gun onto the Faraday cup, then onto analyser counts as the electron beam is moved through the gas jet. Maximising the Faraday cup current is therefore only a crude preliminary alignment of the incident electron gun beam. This therefore assumes that the analysers are initially focused onto the interaction region, and a slow iterative technique must be adopted where the analysers and electron gun are tuned so as to maximise the signal from both analysers.
In this case a true differential cross section is not obtained, since the scattered and ejected electron trajectories lie in a different plane than defined in the initial experimental alignment. An EMI 9789QB reduced photocathode photomultiplier tube is installed in the vacuum system together with optical focussing and defining elements (figure 2).
A group of these excited states decay back to lower valence states with the emission of visible photons at wavelengths around 450nm for both helium and argon targets.
Tuning of the electron gun to PMT counts therefore guarantees that the electron gun is steered and focussed to the point at the centre of the detection plane independent of the analysers or gas beam density.
This is mainly used when the vacuum system is baked at temperatures above 55A°C, since the photocathode is rapidly damaged by temperatures exceeding this.
The tube is a venetian blind dynode construction, and has a reduced photocathode to decrease the noise on the output of the tube to less than 20Hz. The photomultiplier tube base was thoroughly cleaned in an ultrasound following location of these components, to displace any flux residue from the solder joints. It is therefore necessary to amplify the channeltron pulses prior to transmission to the discriminators, whereas the photomultiplier tube pulses are sufficiently large to not require further amplification.
These pulses are amplified by Phillips Scientific 6954 100X amplifiers located external to the EHT feedthroughs connected by 10cm lengths of RG-58 cable. These crates are further decoupled from the AC mains supply using filter circuitry on each supply line.
Internal to these rate-meters buffer 7400 TTL chips have been added to send to 32 bit counters located in the main PC via RG-58 cable.
These supplies are fully floating, their mid-point voltage being equal to the lens element voltage in which the deflectors are housed. All these supplies are fully computer controlled isolated units with low output impedance to reduce noise and eliminate current loops. This relay switching unit allows either the voltage or the current on each lens element to be measured by a Keithley Digital voltmeter.
This drive is further reduced internally by 10X reduction gears, resulting in a reduction ratio of 100:1. This led to the ground line of the RS232 serial line moving around with respect to the 0V stepper motor reference as drive current to the motors returned along the ground line.
The optocoupler logic circuit circuit that controls the stepper motors and avoids collisions between the analysers, the electron gun, the Faraday cup and the hypodermic support. Added to this filament supply is a computer controlled current boost circuit that can be used to increase the filament current during electron gun tuning.
The additional current then returns to the 12V DC regulated supply via a second 1N4007 diode. This therefore depends upon both the current driving the filament, as well as the resistance of the filament when hot (typically 4W - 6W). This supply feeds current to the filament without changing the characteristics of the main constant current supply used while operating the spectrometer.
These high stability reference sources ensure that the analyser and electron gun positions are accurately measured with time. A datalogger internal to the controlling PC establishes a cubic spline relationship between the measured angles and the corresponding ADC conversion from the potentiometers.
This PC also controls the selection of the relay motherboard for measurement of the required lens element either in voltage or current mode when a request is sent from the controlling computer via an RS232 serial line.
Laser therapy can be used any time a patient needs a non-invasive procedure for the control of pain, when conventional therapies have been ineffective, or when the acceleration of healing from injuries is desired.Is Laser Therapy Safe?A Laser therapy has been successfully used around the world for over 30+ years, with no reported long-term or irreversible side effects.
Here are some tools you can use to shift your energy and bring about the changes you desire. Picture This - Get a picture of yourself as a young child and place it where you see it every day.
Love Yourself and Leave the Past Behind a€“ Take a moment to make a list of the things that you regret from the past. Create Your Dreams While You Sleep - Did you know that every night when you are falling to sleep you are programming your life? The baby monitor next to their slumbering form is emitting radiation similar to the kind that is given off by a cordless phone and bombarding their not-yet-fully-formed skull with electromagnetic frequency radiation.A  These emissions are a known cause of childhood brain cancer. This kind of pulsing radiation is also used by cordless telephones and has been shown to be more harmful than the kind given off by cell phones.
We have had a number of reports from parents that their babies did not sleep well and cried a lot when they used DECT monitors.a€? The organization pointed out that a wired monitor does not cause the same kind of problems.
Naturally your body voltage should be in harmony and in equilibrium with the eartha€™s natural Schumann based electrical field, which is under 350 mV and normally stable at about 2 mV. The term was adopted many years ago by some German dowsers, a€?geobiologistsa€™ who specialised in surveying houses for both geopathic and electromagnetic stress using both dowsing and scientific instruments. To test his theory he persuaded the Mayor of the Bavarian town of Vilsbiburg to allow him to survey the town for such energies with his dowsing rod. As it does so it produces its own electromagnetic field often high into microwave frequency. It has been known for a long time that when there is flowing water under a dwelling the inhabitants always feel more tired, are prone to premature aging and have a loss of vitality than those who sleep above neutral ground.
As an extremely dialectic medium, water favours the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly. Background levels of EMFs vary hugely depending on which part of the spectrum being looked for - natural light is an obvious example. Electrical wiring creates electric and magnetic powerfrequency fields throughout houses and other wired buildings, but these levels are usually very low unless there is a wiring fault. Most areas of science can only deal in probabilities, and that becomes clearer as more scientific studies investigating health effects are produced. There is more disagreement about ill health effects from radiofrequency radiation, which is newer for most of the population, though a well-established 'microwave sickness' has been described. As a result fortunes are spent on protective sun cream and information services as to prudent avoidance of such exposures. Molecules in the food are vibrated by high levels of microwave frequency Electromagnetic energy, causing it to heat up and subsequently cook. This, coupled with misleading statements designed to imply that there is currently no published evidence showing a link from organisations such as WHO, are the primary reasons why this topic remains in such hotly-disputed contention.
ICNIRP have set guidelines for residential and occupational exposure to powerfrequency magnetic fields, based primarily on electric shock responses and induced currents, currently set at 100 microtesla (AµT) - equivalent to 1 Gauss. The evidence on these is mixed, but the link with Childhood Leukaemia is now considered to be pretty solid, with a doubling in risk at magnetic fields above 0.4 AµT (again far below the guidelines set by ICNIRP).
The bottom line is that nature neverA  intended us to sleep on such a disturbed site as shown in figure G2 which has been artificially produced by the bed being placed near to a radiator ( causing the high spike to the right of the graph)A  and the springs causing the rest of the disturbed site. As you can see the magnetic contours of this bed size area (6a€™x4a€™) are very gentle and slightly undulating showing an overall geomagnetic anomaly of 582 nT (nano Tesla).
The sprung mattresses I have measured so far over the past two years have had magnetic anomalies between 4,000 and 61,000 nT. However there are instances in nature where abnormal magnetic anomalies exist usually due to a sudden change in mineralogy or geological structure over a short distance. It appears that the exposure of a dividing cell to an inhomogeneous DC magnetic field causes a physical force to be exerted on the chromosomes or on one of the other microscopic structures associated with mitosis, resulting in structural abnormalities in the chromosomes. Since that time, international research has increased year by year, and the potential health risks have been identified as cancer (especially childhood leukaemia, probably the most studied illness because of the original findings), depression, suicide, miscarriage, some forms of dementia, respiratory and immune system problems.
Research by scientists such as Ross Adey in the USA and Dr Cyril Smith here in Britain is moving the frontier of our understanding. Hubank of Vienna: a€?Speaking at a conference in England paid tribute to a group of Austrian researches composed of medical doctors, physicists and biochemists.
There is clear indication that a combination of technical fields and Geopathic stress zones can multiply the effect and therefore become extremely harmful to all living beings. The holiday season is no exception and is actually a great opportunity to show them how much you care.
It is easy to make poor food choices when faced with all those sugar-covered treats — especially at Halloween parties.
Also, the food is exposed for a longer period of time to enzymes in your mouth that help break down fat, improving digestion.
The Framingham Cohort Study looked at the health of 5,036 people living in the United States.
If you are planning a vacation, do you map out the route or program it into your GPS before you get in the car? Croix Orthopaedics, every 15 pounds of excess weight puts 100 pounds more pressure on the body's joints. Be mindful, though, that eating your lunch at your desk can have negative consequences for your diet.When we eat at our desks, we are often distracted by email, phone calls and other interruptions. They claim this forces the body to use its fat reserves for fuel instead of the carbohydrates quickly available from a pre-workout meal or snack. Focus instead on getting a much more manageable 30 minutes of exercise, five times per week.
The problem is that we consume most of our protein at dinner time when we should be eating the most protein during breakfast to start off our day. The study included a control group, a group of subjects who ate three high-protein meals each day, and a third group who ate high-protein meals six times a day.
The spectrometer is shown configured in the perpendicular plane, the electron gun being placed in the vertical position with respect to the analysers which span the horizontal detection plane.
The electron source is a heated tungsten hairpin filament heated by passing around 2A of DC current through the filament. The saturated gain of these devices yields around 1E8 electrons in the output current pulse for a single electron which enters the input cone.
This allows the analyser to roam over a complete 360 degrees of the detection plane when in this geometry (apart from the position where the analysers would clash wth each other). The analysers are then adjusted for maximum signal count and the procedure is iterated until a maximum is found. The dark noise count is also reduced when cooled, however since the reduced cathode PMT only produces dark counts of less than 20Hz at room temperature, this is not necessary during routine operations. The 1.82M resistor was chosen to optimise the single photon counting efficiency of the tube. It is not found that these solder connections significantly affect the ultimate vacuum pressure in the system. Isolated DC supplies to these amplifiers is obtained from a standard +15V supply, the circuit diagram being given in figure 8. The power supply to these TTL buffers is derived from the rate-meter supplies via 7805 5V regulators located internally.
This supply boosts the current without changing the main supply, thus ensuring supply stability before and after the electron gun is tuned.
Our Laser has been cleared by the FDA for the treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and other joint and muscle problems. This could be by the bathroom mirror, by your bedside, on your desk or computer or even on the dashboard of your car. When we listen to music we often feel emotion and activate our bodies by dancing or moving to the beat.
The question is, is your mind telling you the stories that you want creating your life or ones that depress, scare or otherwise cause you to feel badly about yourself or your life? Include the ways you have treated others and the ways you have been treated by others as well as past relationships, choices and actions that you still hold energy around and criticize yourself for. Digital baby monitors use high frequency pulsed signals, just like mobile phones and wi-fi, and though the power levels are low they are kept close to the child all night so may represent a significant risk. The Mayor agreed and in January that year Baron Von Pohl accompanied by the Mayor and other officials measured numerous energy lines that ran through the streets and houses of the town.
This field will fluctuate depending on what is dissolved in it, how fast it is flowing or whether it is interacting with any other type of earth energy. While water running beneath a domestic dwelling should be avoided, a stream situated nearby and open to the sky will favourably discharge its negative energies harmlessly into the atmosphere.
Taking its electric charge distribution in to account, turning a water molecule will result in a changed field composition. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents). The earth's magnetic fields are static fields, unlike man-made alternating current (AC), which has no natural counterpart. Unfortunately the studies are not always well done, and the flaws in any given study (showing an effect or otherwise) are often not reported.
Precautionary levels which will protect us from illness have not been agreed on, as some countries wish the levels to be lower than others. If you stood in front of an operational microwave with no door your insides would slowly be cooked.
The reason for these abnormally high magnetic abnormalities is a result of the bed springs intensifying the magnetic flux of these fields, made worse by the interaction of high magnetic fields around the bed and house from numerous electrical appliances, extension cables running under the bed and transformers placed near to the bed. One instance of this is in the USA, at a place called Gyngywamp, near Croton, Connecticut knownA  as 'The Cliff of Tears' where visitors to this site very frequently become depressed, gums start to bleed and nose bleeds occur. Messages pass between the brain, nerves and organs and even from cell to cell by electro- magnetic signalling. In the course of several years research using classical medical methods they investigated about 1000 people for the effects of these geopathic interference zones.
There were about 400 people present including numerous renowned specialists; physicians, physicists and geologists, in the all-German audience.
Also, metal ions moved by water can induce small intensity broadband electromagnetic fields (EMF).
But it’s still completely possible to enjoy yourself at the party, without going overboard on empty calories. Often we consume our meals quickly without thinking about them, enjoying them or even really tasting them. After years of being confined to a wheelchair due to her weight, she was able to reclaim her life. The review found that consuming dairy products was related to increased insulin production, a healthier body weight and decreased body fat. The carbohydrate is partly from lactose (milk sugar), which is digested differently than sucrose. The electron gun is a two stage non-energy selected gun that produces an incident electron beam current of up to 4 microamps at an incident energy from around 30eV to 300eV. The 470k resistors bias the dynodes to achieve saturation of the current pulse at the output of the tube, hence biasing the tube for single photon counting applications. This was found to be necessary to eliminate problems associated with current loops from the 20A peak motor current feeding the common point of the logic circuitry.
It has successfully treated chronic and acute pain, wounds, sports injuries, and more.How does laser light heal?Low-level lasers supply energy to the body in the form of non-thermal photons of light. Notice how your body feels when it is in that happy state - filled with energy, then think of someone or something that drains your energy and notice how that feels. These things add power to the words which we may find ourselves repeating and singing out loud or in our minds over and over again. Did you know that you can change your life simply by changing the stories you tell yourself every day? Imagine how wonderful it is to have your subconscious mind working for you all night while you enjoy deep, rejuvenating sleep. As you take a deep breath in, imagine the love and light of God filling you and as you take a deep breath out, imagine releasing all your fears and doubts.
Many stores are discontinuing analogue baby monitors as the new high frequency DECT models are more versatile and can carry more information.
Baron Von Pohla€™s energy lines were then compared with the towna€™s record of houses where people had died from cancer during the last ten years, which showed a remarkable coincidence. Dr WA?rst conducted experiments in several German towns, in the rooms of cancer patients and found unusual amounts of gamma radiation in the houses he surveyed using a Geiger a€“counter. Interference with the earths natural energy field is particularly marked by the flow of these underground streams especially where two watercourses or other types of energy line cross.
If thus in a pipe a hydronamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and magnetic vortex and eddy current, are the result. Microwave frequency exposure is a relatively new phenomenon: 100 years ago the background radiation was millions of times lower than it is now, and it is as recent as the mobile phone boom (~1990's) that the modern, digitally pulsed signals have become ubiquitous in the Western world. Because of this, microwave ovens are stringently designed against leaks, and opening the door operates a safety mechanism which disables the oven, thus removing the risk to the operator.
Within our evolutionary history our bodies own magnetic field has integrated with this magnetic field which is responsible for controlling amongst other things, circadian rhythms, mood changes and certain hormone production such as melatonin and serotonin.


Our forefathers sleeping on straw or feathered mattresses in houses devoid of any electrical fields or microwave energy would not have experienced such geomagnetic disturbances. Much of the research in the past 35 years into EMF health effects has concentrated on magnetic fields because they are easier to measure and it was thought they were more likely to interact with our bodiesa€™ cells.
When this is interfered with by outside EMFa€™s problems begin to emerge, as the systems that control and regulate our bodies are impaired. They found that the altered electrical and magnetic field above a geographical distressed zone changed the electrical impulses passing along the nerves of the body.
Here are some of the best (and worst) gift ideas for your loved ones working towards a healthier lifestyle. These include irregular sleep patterns and unhealthful diets in addition to extended periods of inactivity. The analysers are identical, and consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens focussing the interaction region onto the entrance of a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser. The Anode deflector pair corrects for any misalignment of the filament emission point with respect to the axis of the electron gun.
Light is transmitted through the skin's layers (the dermis, epidermis and the subcutaneous tissue or tissue fat under the skin) at all wavelengths in the visible range; however, light waves in the near infrared ranges penetrate the deepest of all light waves in the visible spectrum.
Know that whenever you choose to be around people who fill you with energy you expand and vibrate at a higher frequency and when you choose to be around people and things that drain your energy, your vibrational energy decreases. Listen to the words of your favorite music, if they are not giving you messages that you desire in your life ita€™s time to get new music. In this moment of focusing on your breath and stilling your mind you can feel the inner peace that allows the mind to still and know God. The below link will take you to analogue baby monitors that I have found is still available.
Well this surprised the establishment at the time, and knowing Vilsbiburg to have a high degree on cancer victims anywayA  he was asked to repeat the exercise in the City of Stetten which had a far lower incidence of cancer thus ironing out any chance factors.
StA¤ngle, who had a very good reputation of locating water bearing fissures in crystalline rock with his dowsing rod developed a stintilisation counter more sensitive and accurate than a Geiger counter and carried out a scientific survey in the French town of Moulins where a local physician, Dr, J Prichard claimed that cancer victims in the town dwelt above geological faults.
In a league table of radiation associated with biological damage, the outside line of a subterranean water course would be at the very top since it is found in association with many terminal and debilitating diseases. You can't see, feel or hear electromagnetic fields, apart from visible light, which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Each static magnetic field bump or sink on geomagnetogram (G2) may speed up or slow down body fluids (blood and lymphatic) in exposed areas such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, legs etc.
Most scientists believe that, although EMFa€™s do not directly cause the illness in most cases, at least, living in fields above 200 nT (nano Tesla) may make a person develop the cancer or other illness, when if they didn't live in this field level, their bodies would be able to repair themselves, or cope with the daily damage from other causes in a healthier way. This wrong or confused information resulted in the dysfunction of individual organs and also explained the high number of diseases. A study in an obesity clinic examined the relationship between knowledge of appropriate foods and beverages needed for weight loss and the actual diet of patients seeking obesity treatment.
The Chamber is lined internally with 3mm thick mu-metal, and a mu-metal cylinder encloses the chamber externally as shown.
The electrons selected in angle and energy are amplified using Mullard 919BL channel electron multipliers.
The defining apertures limit the pencil and beam angles of the electron beam following focussing by lens 2 onto the interaction region. The load is set by the 50W resistor across the anode to the HT feed, the pulse being decoupled to ground via the 1nF capacitor. When low level laser light waves penetrate deeply into the skin, they optimize the immune responses of our blood. Remember that EVERY thought you think is what you are saying to that little child and that child believes everything you tell him or her. However you want to feel, spend more time with people and doing the things that help you feel that way and less with those that dona€™t. Choose music with a beat and lyrics that trigger happy, empowered, peaceful, grateful, or other good feelings within you.
Doing this simple exercise a few times each day will help you to ground and center yourself, to release stress and allow the Higher Intelligence that some call God to speak to you. Whilst WA?rst and StA¤ngle thought that gamma radiation from fissures could be a significant cause of cancer, more recent studies suggest that this is unlikely as gamma radiation tends to whiz straight through the body rather than causing direct hits on DNA. Sleep time exposure to the same sharp variations of magnetic fields for years may induce some chronic health effect. Indeed, in the town nearby, doctors and nurses are familiar with this sudden onset of illness in visitors to this old Indian sacred site.
They proved a weakening in the immune system, which interacts with the wrongly programmed nervous system in persons who had been exposed.
Using a randomized double blinded trial*, it has been scientifically shown that Geopathic stress zones do cause chronic stress and therefore can weaken the body's defence systems. Finally, this stress, in combination with a possible suppression of certain functions of the immune system. The study found that although the patients recognized what an appropriate diet plan included, they did not consume an appropriate diet for weight loss.
This reduces the magnetic field at the interaction region to less than 5mG, an acceptable level for the electron energies used in this experiment. The interaction region defined by the interaction of the gas target beam and the electron beam is focussed onto the photocathode of an EMI 9789QB photomultiplier tube via a lens, 450nmA±50nm optical filter and defining aperture. Placement of the apertures ensures that the beam angle is close to zero degrees at the interaction region over a wide range of energies, whereas the aperture opening reduces the pencil angle to around A±2 degrees over this energy range. Harger, chairman of the city's medical scientific association, declared that all such a€?deadly earth currentsa€™ ran beneath the beds of all the 5,348 people who had died from cancer during the last 21 years. The culprit is thought to be the more pernicious alpha radiation from Radon which is found with high levels of gamma radiation. The World Health Organization in a health criteria report recognizes interactions between variations in static magnetic fields in cellular tissues to include an induction of electrical potentials and magneto hydrodynamic effects in the circulatory systems and by direct stimulation of nerve and muscle cells even under extremely weak thresholds. The causation seems to be that within a few meters the geomagnetic DC field varies from 330 milligauss at an 80 degree dip to 700 milligauss at a 59 degree dip. Confirmation of these experiments continue to appear and links have been, formed with the onset of cancer, Alzheimer's Disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Miscarriages, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and other diseases of the central nervous system.
Treatment approaches should include tools that help patients implement their nutrition knowledge. The target gas effuses from a 0.6mm ID hypodermic needle constructed from platinum iridium alloy. The 10MW safety resistor prevents the output charging up to a high voltage if the feed is disconnected. The deflectors between the apertures correct for space and surface charge beam variations inside the field free region, whereas the final deflectors allow the beam to be steered onto the interaction region defined by focussing a 1mm aperture in front of the photomultiplier tube onto the gas target beam. It is a scientific fact that light transmitted to the blood in this way has a positive effect through-out the whole body, supplying vital oxygen and energy to every cell.A What to Expect During a Laser Therapy Treatment Sessiona€?For most people, laser therapy is quite passive. The less you judge and criticize and the more you accept, support and encourage, the better your life will become! Research in this field continues with an increasing number of sophisticated environmental measuring instruments coming on the market to aid the geobiologist in identifying causative factors to illness and disease. The very high electric fields associated with high voltage overhead power lines also cause air ionization, charging toxic aerosols so that they become even more dangerous. The electrons passing through the interaction region which are not scattered are collected in a Faraday cup opposite the electron gun. Some patients have reported a slight tingling or tapping in a nerve or along a nerve pathway. To varying degrees the health consequences of staying above one of these geopathically stressed locations can be replicatedA  in our own homes by the choice of mattresses we use.A  The bottom line is, if you suspect your sleeping site is being disturbed by an unusually high magnetic anomaly then buy a bed that has a wooden base and place there upon a mattress that has no springs and make sure it is not placed near a radiator or other heavy metal object. In the 1930a€™s a French engineer Pierie Cody who lived in the sea-port of Le HavreA knew of local a€?cancer housesa€™ in the port where many people had died from cancer over the years.
The gun, photomultiplier tube, gas hypodermic and Faraday cup all rotate on a common yoke with an axis through the centre of the horizontal detection plane, allowing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to the coplanar geometry to be accessed. This equipment known as the Genitron Felix - 3 detects ultra short and radio microwave frequencies with the ability to print them out on a [UKW- Spektrometer und Linienschreiber] This equipment is used in German universities and research institutes that confirms dowsable energy above subterranean water lines. Effects central nervous system and the brain in the ways which effect powerful hormonal mechanisms. But for the most part, the treatment, which may last from 15 to 30 minutes, is not noticed at all. After checking large numbers of these dwellings, Cody concluded that the air in these a€?Cancer Housesa€™ were ionized to an unusual degree.
Important areas to be aware of are bedrooms, especially where pillows are on beds, because EMFa€™s affect an area of the brain, called the pineal gland, which works to protect the body against illness overnight.
Following (and even during) a laser therapy session, approximately 75-80% of patients being treated can notice an immediate improvement in their condition. From various other tests Cody concluded that the ionization radiation consisted of positively charged Alpha Particles. It is also a good idea to look at places like a favourite armchair, or in front of a computer or TV. This will depend primarily on the type of condition and the length of time the condition has been present. The only known source of alpha particle emission in dwellings was from a radioactive gas called Radon. It is important that places like these where you are sitting or lying still for a longish period of time should have low EMFa€™s; cells tend to cope better with external fields if the person is moving around.
When you are sitting still and particular cells keep being interfered with by EMFa€™s, there is an increased risk that the damage may become unrepairable. Once again, the number of treatments depends upon the severity of the condition and its duration.
There are some conditions that will never completely resolve but can be helped and maintained with laser therapy. It is worthwhile taking particular precautionary action with regard to childrena€™s living environments. Cells and tissues that are compromised have been shown to have a significantly higher response to LLLT irradiation than normal healthy structures. Cell membranes, mitochondria and damaged neurological structures exhibit less than optimal metabolism and stasis conditions. Multiple studies have demonstrated that under these compromised conditions, the introduction of energy transfers response and the resultant enhancement of metabolic activity pronounced in biologically challenged cells, thus selectively targeting compromised cells, in reality, these cells exhibit a lowered reaction threshold to the effects of laser light and are more easily triggered to energy transfer responses. The result is that LLLT has a significant effect on damaged cells and tissues while normative biological constituents are appreciably less affected.1The cellular cascade effect a€” precipitated by the actions of enzymes and having a significant response in the presence of LLLT a€” has a significant impact on cellular and tissue function. Since a considerable number of the reactive proteins that respond to laser stimulation are enzymes, laser light effects are amplified in the stimulation of beneficial enzymes and depression of deleterious enzymes.A At the cellular level, cytochromes can be defined as electron or proton-transfer proteins that act as energy producers for human biological functions. Both of the cytochrome enzymes, Cytochrome c Oxydase and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) have been found to be particularly reactive to laser photon stimulation. The particular affinity of these and other photo-reactive enzymes to accelerate their functions in the presence of LLLT provides critical increases in the molecule ATP and Nitric Oxide (NO) which enhances cellular activity & repairAlthough the various actions of LLLT in regards to inflammation, pain and healing have been separated categorically here for the purpose of process identification, their interactions are not so easily distinguished. In response to LLLT, the reduction in inflammation, pain and healing time all compliment each other and many of the processes are either simultaneous or overlapping.Acute Inflammation ReductionImmediately after an acute injury event, the body, in response to the disruption of the integrity of vascular, soft tissue, begins a series of biological responses. Injury responsive components such as Mast cells, Bradykinins and Prostaglandins are activated along with the vascular responses and cellular membrane reactions.
All of these combined processes and events are represented by the symptoms of edema, inflammation, pain and functional debility. LLLT can be effective in mediating both the symptoms and the underlying inflammatory process by the following actions:1. Stabilization of cellular membrane a€” Ca+ +, Na+ and K+ concentrations as well as the proton gradient over the mitochondria membrane are positively in This is accomplished in part by the production of beneficial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) wherein triplet oxygen molecules absorb laser light pro ducing singlet oxygen molecules. These ROS modulate intracellular Ca+ + concentrations and laser therapy improves Ca+ + uptake in the mitochondria.2,3,4A 2. ATP production and synthesis are significantly enhanced, contributing to cel lular repair, reproduction and functional ability.
Laser stimulation of Cytochrome c Oxidase, a chromophore found on the mitochondria of cells, plays a major role in this rapid increase in production and synthesis of ATP.3A 3. Vasodilatation is stimulated via Histamine, Nitric Oxide (NO) and Serotonin increases, resulting in reduction of ischemia and improved perfusion.
Laser-mediated vasodilatation enhances the transport of nutrients and oxygen to the damaged cells and facilitates repair and removal of cellular debris.5,6A 4. Beneficial acceleration of leukocytic activity results in enhanced removal of non-viable cellular and tissue components, allowing for a more rapid repair and regeneration process.A 5.
Increased Prostaglandin synthesis, particularly in conversion of the prostaglandins PGG2 and PGH2 periossides into prostaglandin PGI2. PGI2 (Prostacyclin), has a vasodilating and anti-inflammatory action with some attributes similar to Cox-I and Cox-II inhibitors.7A  6.
In addition to increasing the number of lymphocytes, laser irradiation mediates the action of both lymphatic helper T-cells and suppressor T-cells in the inflammatory response. Along with laser modification of beta cell activity, the entire lymphatic response is beneficially affected by LLLT.98. Both blood capillaries and lymphatic capillaries have been clinically documented to undergo significant increase and regeneration in the presence of laser irradiation. The resulting improvement in circulation and perfusion enhances all repair and healing processes.
Laser induced increases in NO and the growth factors a€” in particular cytokine INF-g a€” are contributory to this process.10,11A 9. Areas of inflammation typically demonstrate temperature variations with the inflamed portion having an elevated temperature. Laser stimulated increases in cytokine SOD levels interact with other anti-inflammatory processes to accelerate the termination of the inflammatory process. This rapid initiation of therapy in acute inflammation will assist in limiting the scope and duration of the inflammatory event and minimize the pain and severity associated with it.While the treatment regimen and course of therapy may be modified in chronic situations, the physiological responses and interactions remain consistent.
Chronic conditions may require longer treatment times.Pain ReductionThe unique pain reduction abilities of LLLT have been exten documented in numerous clinical studies and medical papers. While there remains much to learn in re pain reduction characteristics, there is a wealth of knowledge currently available to demonstrate the effectiveness of laser therapy in this regard.Because the pain amelioration capabilities of LLLT are ac combination of local and systemic actions a€” utilizing enzymatic, chemical and physical interventions a€” the process is very complex. However, there is a preponderance of medical evidence that justifies a conclusion that effective pain reductions can be achieved via LLLT.
The localized and systemic in-crease of this endogenous peptide after LLLT irradiation has been clinically reported in multiple studies with subsequent pain reductions.A  2.
The pain blocking effect of LLLT can be pronounced, particularly in low velocity neural pathways, such as non-mylenated afferent axons from nociceptors. Laser irradiation suppresses the exci tation of these fibers in the afferent sensory pathway.13,14A  3. As a neurotransmitter it is essential for normal nerve cell action potential in impulse transmission activity and, indirectly, the vasodilatation effect of NO can enhance nerve cell perfusion and oxygenation.A 4.
Both compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values and nerve latency values have shown improvement with laser therapy.15A 5. Several studies have documented the ability of LLLT to induce axonal sprouting and some nerve regeneration in damaged nerve tis sues.
Where pain sensation is being magnified due to nerve structure damage, cell regeneration and sprouting may assist in pain decrease.16,176. Since Bradykinins elicit pain by stimulating nociceptive afferents in the skin and viscera, mitigation of elevated levels through LLLT can result in pain re Kininase II, and increase in NO are considered the contributors to this Bradykinin decrease.A 7.
By increasing the avail-able acetylcholine, LLLT help s in normalizing nerve signal trans-mission in the autonomic, somatic and sensory neural pathways.A 8. LLLT promotes normalization in Ca+ +, NA+ and K+ concentrations resulting in beneficial pain reduction results from these ion concentration shifts. Figure 2 presents a simplified representation of the effects of LLLT on pain improvement at the cellular level.Tissue HealingOne of the truly unique characteristics of LLLT is that it has the ability to actually promote and enhance healing, not just treat symptoms. The irradiation by low-level laser light accelerates and enhances healing activities carried out by the body. LLLT can provide the following beneficial impacts in both open surface wounds and closed connective or soft tissue injuries as follows:1. LLLT accelerates macrophage activity in phagocytosis, growth factor secretion and stimulation of collagen synthesis.A 3. The significant angiogenesis that occurs with laser therapy promotes revascularization with subsequent improvement in perfusion and oxygenation.
The beneficial synthesis active factor ability of keratinocytes are enhanced by proliferation secondary to LLLT.20A 6.
Laser-stimulated acceleration of epithelial cell regeneration speeds up wound healing, minimizes scarring, and reduces infection opportunities.A 7.
Two to five fold increases in growth-phase-specific DNA synthesis in normal fibroblasts, mus cells irradiated with IR light are reported. Increases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) secondary to IR light irradiation have also been reported.8. Laser-in duced increases in NO, ATP and other compounds that stimulate differentiation into mature cells.
Increased numbers of myofibroblasts, myofibrils, myotubes etc., as well as bone cell proliferation, have been clinically demonstrated with LLLT. Satellite cells, the precursor cells in the process of muscle regeneration, show significant increase in proliferation when irradiated with LLLT.21,22,239.
Governmental agencies such as NASA are currently using tech medical conditions in space applications.
Olympic training facilities have just released state validate the growing acceptance in mainstream medicine for the medical efficacy of laser therapy as a viable, often superior therapeutic treatment modality.With over 200 clinical studies a€” many of which are double-blind, placebo-controlled a€” and in excess of 2000 published articles on LLLT, this innovative new technology has a well-documented research and application history. Having grown far beyond its distant Institutional Review Board (IRB) and experimental treatment status, LLLT is now being considered a therapy of choice for many difficult pain management challenges such as fibromyalgia and myofascial pain. He has served as manager for several biomedical design and service facilities and participated as lead researcher for biomedical devices involved in emergency cardiac care, warmed intravenous fluid therapy and laser therapy.
Richard has participated in medical clinical trials for 15 years as a clinical trial analyst and contributing clinician.References1.
Analysis in vitro of the cellular proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts with low level laser. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low-intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation. What is optimal dose, power density and timing for low level laser therapy in tendon injuries? Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.A 9. In vitro effects of low level laser irra diation at 660 nm on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Wound healing process: influence of LLLT on the proliferation of fi broblasts and on the lymphatic regeneration. Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.12. Diode laser irradiation selectively diminishes slow component of axonal volleys to dor sal roots from the saphenous nerve. Laser therapy as a new modali ty in the treatment of incomplete peripheral nerve in-juries: Prospective Clinical Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study. Department of Neuro surgery, Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Abstract from the 7th International Congress of European Medical Laser Association, Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 2000.16. Comparison of the low level laser therapy effects on cultured human gingival fibroblasts proliferation using different irradiance and same fluence. Enhancement of the blood growth promoting activity after exposure of volun teers to visible and infrared polarized light. Low energy laser irradiation pro-motes the survival and cell cycle entry of skeletal muscle satellite cells.
The biological ef fects of laser therapy and other modalities on con nective tissue repair processes. Low level laser therapy of soft tissue injuries upon sport activities and traffic acci dents: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controled clinical study on 132 patients.



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