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The use of warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology offers significant benefits, notably, lower energy demand during production and construction, reduced emissions at the plant and the paver, and increased allowable haul distances.
The objectives of this research are to (1) identify the material and engineering properties of WMA pavements that are significant determinants of their long-term field performance and (2) recommend best practices for the use of WMA technologies. 1.Develop empirical models for permanent deformation in subgrade soils consistent with, and for use with the NCHRP 1-37A Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and the associated model parameters for the subgrade soils tested in SPR-2(208) and validate them using the performance data collected. 2.Develop fundamentally based mechanistic models for the determination of permanent deformation in subgrade soils under repeated traffic loading, and validate them through finite element modeling and the performance data collected during the experimental phase of SPR-2(208) for advancing the science of pavement design. A A A  The pavements in the State of Washington have witnessed great differences in performance, depending on the climatic zones.
A A A  Due to the increasing cost of asphalt binder and also due to environmental considerations, recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) are now being allowed to be added into hot mix asphalt (HMA). A A A  The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of HMA with and without RAS in terms of rutting, fatigue and thermal cracking resistance based on laboratory performance tests.
A A  The overall goal of this project is to determine the effectiveness of using fibers in HMA to improve cracking and rutting resistance.
A A A  In the second phase of this project, the field performance of Fiber-Reinforced Asphalt Pavements will be analyzed. 2.The effect of different types of fibers on the rutting performance of asphalt pavement concretes. 5.The Investigation of Mixture Properties Needed to Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Software. A A A  Dynamic modulus, indirect tensile (IDT) creep compliance and strength are the three primary mechanistic properties of asphalt mix for the asphalt pavement in the AASHTOWare Pavement ME.
A  Sustainability is a primary focus of 21st century engineering, and therefore, the use of sustainable materials has been investigated for their economic, environmental, and social benefits.
In this research, the phrase a€?long-terma€™ is defined as a minimum of 4 years after construction. Included in the experimental work plans of NCHRP Projects 9-47A, Properties and Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies, and 9-49, Performance of WMA Technologies: Stage Ia€”Moisture Susceptibility, once those projects are completed in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Constructed before 2010 in the United States, but not included in the experimental work plans for NCHRP Projects 9-47A and 9-49, with emphasis on those for which experimental data are available from the FHWA Mobile Laboratory. Constructed in 2010 and 2011, but not included in the experimental work plans for NCHRP Projects 9-47A and 9-49.
Understand the stress gradient and the evolution of the stress profile within CSM specimen during drying, based on different restraint conditions.
Establish shrinkage cracking criterion based on fracture mechanics considering the microstructure and the evolution of the stress profile due to drying within CSM specimen.
Hot mix asphalt (HMA) consists of aggregate particles (coarse and fine) that are bonded together by asphalt binder at elevated temperatures. However, the short- and long-term properties of these materials differ substantially depending on the type and quantity of stabilizing agent, pavement structure, environmental conditions during and after construction, loading, etc. Also, limited material properties have been considered; other properties may have significant influence on the long-term performance and need to be considered. This research will deal with material properties and related test methods that can be used to predict pavement performance. Recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) have been incorporated into hot mix asphalt (HMA) with the intent to achieve the potential benefits of cost-effectiveness and environmental sustainability without compromising the performance of the HMA. These tests were conducted on field cores obtained from experimental pavement sections and on asphalt binders extracted and recovered from the cores. In addition to comparing the laboratory performance of the fiber mixes, the research will investigate the mixture properties needed as inputs to the mechanistic-empirical pavement design software. Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) produced from demolished pavements in three geographically-dispersed locations in Washington state was used to perform tests on aggregate characteristics, fresh concrete properties, and hardened concrete properties.
A report will be prepared and submitted to the University of Idaho to conclude the effects of fiber on the modulus, creep compliance, fatigue, thermal cracking, and studded tire wear of mixes.
Steel slag is a co-product of the steel industry and is, with proper design, a sustainable construction material. Lower WMA production temperatures and the water injection used with some WMA technologies have raised concerns about possible rutting and moisture susceptibility of WMA pavements.
Traditional asphalt binder is residue obtained during the crude petroleum refining process.


Making bioasphalt from these bioproducts can also reduce the need of landfill areas and help mitigate the release of greenhouse gases. Research is needed to identify properties of cementitiously stabilized materials that significantly influence the design, constructibility, and performance of highway pavements and recommend methods for measuring these properties. The climate in east of the Cascades is drier and sunnier with more extreme temperatures which often drop below freezing during winter. This study investigates the performance of HMA with and without RAS based on the evaluation of field cores drilled from four experimental pavement sections that were constructed in 2009 in King County of Washington State.
The results from the laboratory tests on the binders and mixtures were compared between HMA with RAS and without RAS samples to evaluate the effect of the addition of RAS on the performance of HMA. Variables included the source of the RCA, percent replacement of coarse natural aggregate with RCA (0% to 45%), and percent replacement of portland cement with Class F fly ash (0% or 20%).A  RCA from all three sources met the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) requirements for aggregates, and all fresh and hardened concrete properties met WSDOT requirements. Based the NCHRP 01-40, the thermal cracking prediction by the Pavement ME is very sensitive (highest category) to the IDT creep compliance and IDT strength. Thus, facilitating the implementation of WMA technologies in the United States requires the collection and analysis of definitive information on the material and engineering properties and long-term performance of WMA pavements constructed with the wide range of WMA technologies now available. Increased environmental regulations for new drilling, dwindling existing resources, modifications to the refining process that maximize the fuel quantity while minimizing asphalt residue have increased the cost of asphalt in recent years. This information can be incorporated into the MEPDG thus allowing a rational analysis and design procedures of flexible and rigid pavements constructed with stabilized layers. Studded tires are widely used in this area during winter time, creating additional damage (rutting and abrasion) to the asphalt pavements although the lower studded tire use rate in Western Washington is somewhat offset by higher overall traffic levels.
The performance of the asphalt mixtures and the recovered asphalt binders are evaluated with respect to rutting, fatigue and thermal cracking resistance via laboratory experiments. Replacement of RCA for natural coarse aggregate by up to 45% by volume had no significant effects on any of the concrete properties.
Similar to the case of dynamic modulus of asphalt mix, a material library and a calibration of prediction models of IDT creep compliance and strength need to be completed before a meaningful calibration of Pavement ME can be conducted based on local materials.
It is desired that the three mixes of each class have different performance grades of binders.
To address these challenging problems, industries are seeking alternative binders to replace or reduce the petroleum-based asphalt used in HMA. The climate within the Cascade Range is generally mild in summer but much more severe in winter with frequent snow and freezing conditions. The test results show that the rutting resistance of the mixtures as well as the recovered binders is improved by the addition of RAS.
Petroleum-based asphalt is widely used in road and other infrastructure construction, about 30 million tons each year.
These results indicate that high-quality RCA can be used as a replacement for a portion of the coarse natural aggregates in new portland cement concrete pavements.
However, the fatigue and thermal cracking resistance of the mixtures is not significantly affected by the addition of RAS. High oil price and tight asphalt supply have doubled the asphalt price in the past few years in the U.S. These differences in asphalt pavement surface lives is likely due to a combination of factors; weather and studded tire wear being the most prominent. The field performance survey indicates excellent conditions for all test sections after three years of service. To address these challenging problems, industries are seeking an alternative binder to replace or reduce the petroleum-based asphalt used in HMA.
Currently, WSDOT standards (WSDOT Pavement Policy, 2011) specify only two standard PG binders (58-22, 64-28), with the standard one or two grade bump based on traffic speed and loading, to account for different climate zones. Because of concerns over dependence on foreign oil, high energy consumption, and climate change, non-petroleum based bioasphalt would be a plausible solution. A study is needed to improve pavement performance for Eastern Washington and Mountain Passes, at a minimum, by making recommendations related to mix design and construction.



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